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A castrato is a type of classical male singing voice equivalent to that of a soprano, mezzo-soprano, or contralto. The voice is produced by castration of the singer before puberty, or it occurs in one who, due to an endocrinological condition, never reaches sexual maturity. Castration before puberty prevents a boy's larynx from being transformed by the normal physiological events of puberty; as a result, the vocal range of prepubescence is retained, the voice develops into adulthood in a unique way. Prepubescent castration for this purpose diminished in the late 18th century and was made illegal in the Papal states, the last to prohibit them, in 1870; as the castrato's body grew, his lack of testosterone meant that his epiphyses did not harden in the normal manner. Thus the limbs of the castrati grew unusually long, as did the bones of their ribs. This, combined with intensive training, gave them unrivalled breath capacity. Operating through small, child-sized vocal cords, their voices were extraordinarily flexible, quite different from the equivalent adult female voice.

Their vocal range was higher than that of the uncastrated adult male. Listening to the only surviving recordings of a castrato, one can hear that the lower part of the voice sounds like a "super-high" tenor, with a more falsetto-like upper register above that. Castrati were referred to as such: in the 18th century, the euphemism musico was much more used, although it carried derogatory implications. Eunuch is a more general term since many eunuchs were castrated after puberty and thus the castration had no impact on their voices. Castration as a means of subjugation, enslavement or other punishment has a long history, dating back to ancient Sumer. In a Western context, eunuch singers are known to have existed from the early Byzantine Empire. In Constantinople around 400 AD, the empress Aelia Eudoxia had a eunuch choir-master, who may have established the use of castrati in Byzantine choirs, though whether Brison himself was a singer and whether he had colleagues who were eunuch singers is not certain.

By the 9th century, eunuch singers were well-known and remained so until the sack of Constantinople by the Western forces of the Fourth Crusade in 1204. Their fate from until their reappearance in Italy more than three hundred years is not clear, it seems that the Spanish tradition of soprano falsettists may have hidden castrati. Much of Spain was under Muslim rulers during the Middle Ages, castration had a history going back to the ancient Near East. Stereotypically, eunuchs served as harem guards, but they were valued as high-level political appointees since they could not start a dynasty which would threaten the ruler. Castrati first appeared in Italy in the mid-16th century, though at first the terms describing them were not always clear; the phrase soprano maschio, which could mean falsettist, occurs in the Due Dialoghi della Musica of Luigi Dentice, an Oratorian priest, published in Rome in 1553. On 9 November 1555 Cardinal Ippolito II d'Este, wrote to Guglielmo Gonzaga, Duke of Mantua, that he has heard that the Duke was interested in his cantoretti and offered to send him two, so that he could choose one for his own service.

This is a rare term but does equate to castrato. The Cardinal's nephew, Alfonso II d'Este, Duke of Ferrara, was another early enthusiast, enquiring about castrati in 1556. There were castrati in the Sistine Chapel choir in 1558, although not described as such: on 27 April of that year, Hernando Bustamante, a Spaniard from Palencia, was admitted. Considering the French distaste for castrati they existed in France at this time being known of in Paris, Orléans and Normandy, though they were not abundant: the King of France himself had difficulty in obtaining them. By 1574, there were castrati in the Ducal court chapel at Munich, where the Kapellmeister was the famous Orlando di Lasso. In 1589, by the bull Cum pro nostro pastorali munere, Pope Sixtus V re-organised the choir of St Peter's, Rome to include castrati, thus the castrati came to supplant both falsettists from the top line in such choirs. Women were banned by the Pauline dictum mulieres in ecclesiis taceant. Although the castrato predates opera, there is some evidence that castrati had parts in the earliest operas.

In the first performance of Monteverdi's Orfeo, for example, they played subsidiary roles, including Speranza and that of Euridice. Although female roles were performed by castrati in some of the papal states, this was rare; because of the popularity of Italian opera throughout 18th-century Europe, singers such as Ferri, Farinelli and Pacchierotti became the first operatic superstars, earning enormous fees and hysterical public adulation. The hierarchical organisati


The eye-ring of a bird is a ring of tiny feathers that surrounds the orbital ring, a ring of bare skin surrounding a bird's eye. The eye-ring is decorative, its colour may contrast with adjoining plumage; the ring of feathers is sometimes incomplete. In the absence of a conspicuous eye-ring, the orbital ring of a bird is referred to as the eye-ring; the bare orbital ring may form an eye-wattle. These are useful field marks in many bird species, the eye-ringed flatbill, eye-ringed tody-tyrant and eye-ringed thistletail are examples of species named for either of these. Eye-rings are believed to convey various types of signals between individual birds; some eye-rings appear only at sexual maturity, while others suggest the individual's age or health status. Individual birds may be included or excluded from reproductive capability due to signals conveyed by the eye-ring. Red carotenoid-based colors of the orbital rings of pheasants are known to be related to health; the function of the white eye-rings in white-eyes is unknown.

It is suspected that they may serve to highlight infestations of small ectoparasites around the eyes. Untainted white eye-rings may express vigorous health. In addition they may signal membership of a particular group or population, as different species and populations may have rings of differing colour, shape or completeness; these recognition signals could play a role in reproductive isolation and speciation. Glossary of bird terms Iris List of terms used in bird topography Sclerotic eye-ring

Sunkist Growers, Incorporated

Sunkist Growers, Incorporated is an American citrus growers' non-stock membership cooperative composed of 6,000 members from California and Arizona. It is headquartered in the Valencia neighborhood of Santa Clarita, California. Through 31 offices in the United States and Canada and four offices outside North America, its sales in 1991 totaled $956 million, it is the largest fresh produce shipper in the United States, the most diversified citrus processing and marketing operation in the world, one of California's largest landowners. In the late 1880s, California citrus growers began organizing themselves into cooperatives, with the goal of increasing profits by pooling their risk and increasing their collective power with jobbers and packers; the economic depression that began in 1893 worsened farmers' situations, intensified their desire to self-organize to their own benefit. In 1893, P. J. Dreher and his son, the "father of the California citrus industry" Edward L. Dreher, formed the Southern California Fruit Exchange in Claremont, a small college town near Los Angeles.

It represented only growers of oranges: in 1896 lemon growers joined as well. The exchange soon included growers and groves in Riverside in Riverside County and San Dimas in Los Angeles County, Santa Paula, Fillmore, Rancho Sespe and Piru in Ventura County. In 1952, it changed its name to Inc.. Sunkist has three levels of organizational hierarchy: local and central associations. Individual growers belong to a local organization; the main purpose of the cooperative is to create systems enabling fruit from multiple growers to be efficiently harvested, sorted into various sizes and grades, packed and shipped across the United States, in response to shifting demand. Since inception, the organization has expanded its activities. In 1906, the CFGE launched the a lobbying arm. In 1907, it formed the Fruit Growers Supply Company to supply growers with materials such as radios, shooks for fruit crates and fertilizers at wholesale prices, it formed the Sunkist's Exchange By-Products Company, which developed markets for products such as citric acid, sodium citrate, lemon oil, orange oil and orange pulp.

In its early years, the primary problem facing the California citrus industry was an oversupply of fruit. By 1907, California was producing five times the quantity of oranges it had been fifteen years earlier, orange production was continuing to grow as newly planted orange groves began to bear fruit. In response, in 1907 the CFGE approved the first-ever large-scale advertising campaign aimed at advertising a perishable commodity; the March 1907 campaign, which marketed oranges to Iowans as "healthy" and "summery," resulted in a 50% increase of orange sales in that state. It launched the Sunkist brand: the ad agency Lord & Thomas proposed using the adjective "sun-kissed" to describe the CFGE oranges. In an effort to distinguish Sunkist oranges from others, the CFGE wrapped its oranges in paper stamped with the Sunkist brand, but in 1909, after Sunkist learned that merchants were selling non-Sunkist oranges as Sunkist, it began to offer consumers a free Sunkist-branded spoon in exchange for mailing in twelve Sunkist wrappers.

One million spoons were claimed in the first year of the promotion, further establishing the brand in consumers' minds and giving merchants a reason to want to display Sunkist oranges in their original wrappers. By 1910, the promotion had resulted in Sunkist becoming the world's largest purchaser of cutlery; the success of early campaigns prompted Sunkist to invest in advertising, in coming decades the brand was advertised in magazines and on radio, on billboards and railroad cars, on the sides of speedboats, in school curricula and essay contests, in pamphlets distributed in doctors' offices. Its messaging aimed to reposition oranges in the minds of consumers. Rather than being seen as a luxury to be enjoyed only at Christmas, Sunkist wanted people to see oranges as essential for good health, to eat one every day. Sunkist invested in marketing fresh-squeezed orange juice and lemonade as superior alternatives to "artificial" beverages such as Coca-Cola. By the mid-1930s, one Sunkist orange in five was being consumed in juice form at soda fountains, Sunkist juice was the second-most-popular soda fountain drink, after Coca-Cola.

By 1914, Americans were consuming about forty oranges per person every year, up 80% from 1885. In 1915, in response to competition from imported Italian lemons, which at that time had nearly half the American market, Sunkist started aggressively marketing the benefits of Sunkist lemons, promoting their use as a hair rinse, in tea, in pie and as a food garnish. By 1924, California lemons had 90% of the American lemon market; as of 2007, Sunkist markets fresh oranges, limes, grapefruits and strawberries to 12 states and three Canadian provinces, from 6,000 growers in California and Arizona. From 1971 to 2014, Sunkist was based in the Sherman Oaks district of Los Angeles. Through licensing agreements, Sunkist has rented its trademark to other firms such as General Mills and Snapple, for marketing more than 600 citrus-flavoured products including soft dr


Mimallonidae Burmeister, sometimes known as "sack-bearer" moths for the larval case-building behavior, are a family of Lepidoptera containing over 300 named species in 43 genera. These moths are found only with most taxa occurring in the Neotropics. Adult moths are externally similar to those belonging to the some of the other Macroheterocera families Bombycoidea and Drepanoidea, thus have been variously treated as belonging to either one of these or other superfamilies. Mimallonids are restricted to the New World, are distributed in North America, Central America, South America, the Caribbean; the vast majority of genera and species are found in the tropical regions of the New World, with only four described species from the United States. Not much has been published on the natural history of adult Mimallonidae, though most species are thought to be nocturnal. At least three species have diurnal males. Young caterpillars live inside of folded leaves or beneath silken networks, build portable or semi-portable cases out of silk and plant material as they grow.

The cases vary from irregular in structure to spindle-shaped. The openings of the cases can be blocked by the head and/or the flattened anal plate of the last segment of the body; the sack-like case-making behavior of the caterpillars have earned them the common name "sack-bearers". Mimallonidae larvae feed on several families of plants, including: Anacardiaceae, Combretaceae, Melastomataceae and Rubiaceae. Research at the Area de Conservación, Costa Rica has resulted in the rearing of many species of Mimallonidae, including some from several additional families of plants; the current consensus in works based on phylogenetic results, consider Mimallonidae to be the sole family of Mimallonoidea. Other phylogenetic studies of all major Lepidoptera lineages support the placement of Mimallonidae as sister to all Macroheterocera, but within the broader clade Obtectomera; this phylogenetic placement means that mimallonid moths are not more related to any one family of Lepidoptera, but are related all members of the diverse clade Macroheterocera.

Morphological features of the larvae, support the uniqueness of this family and distinctness from Macroheterocera. The systematic relationships with Mimallonidae have been subject to two revisions, resulting in two different classification schemes. William Schaus revised the family and named most of the genera, he separated the genera into two subfamilies: Lacosominae and Mimalloninae; these subfamilies were based on the absence of the frenulum. It was realized that this character varies within genera, thus was deemed a sympleisiomorphy. Using molecular phylogenetics with the technique of anchored hybrid enrichment, the family was reorganized based on the recognition and naming of robustly supported clades, which were further strengthened with morphological apomorphies; the clades which were robustly supported across all analyses were assigned subfamily status, resulting in recognition of seven subfamilies in Mimallonidae. Using both molecular and morphological phylogenetics, all 42 genera were assigned to the named clades.

The 300+ species of the family, have been formally classified according to their phylogenetic arrangement. Many of the species formally placed in the genus Cicinnus have been transferred to Gonogramma, making Gonogramma one of the most diverse mimallonid genera. Below are the named clades of Mimallonidae, with their constituent genera assigned to their subfamily and tribe. Zaphantinae Zaphanta Dyar, 1910Roelofinae Roelofa Schaus, 1928 Meneviinae Cunicumara St Laurent, 2016 Menevia Schaus, 1928 Tolypida Schaus, 1928 Aurorianinae Auroriana St Laurent and C. Mielke, 2016Mimalloninae Eadmuna Schaus, 1928 Macessoga Schaus, 1928 Mimallo Hübner, 1820 Mimallodes St Laurent and Becker, 2020 Tostallo St Laurent and C. Mielke, 2016LacosominaeAlheitini Adalgisa Schaus, 1928 Alheita Schaus, 1928 Arianula Herbin, 2012, Fatellalla St Laurent and Kawahara, 2019 Herbinalla St Laurent and Kawahara, 2018 Tarema Schaus, 1896 Thaelia Herbin, 2016Lacosomini Citralla St Laurent and Kawahara, 2019 Lacosoma Grote, 1864 Vanenga Schaus, 1928Trogopterini Reinmara Schaus, 1928 Trogoptera Herrich-Schäffer, DruenticinaeDruenticini: Druentica Strand, 1932 Lepismalla St Laurent and Kawahara, 2019 Micrallo St Laurent and C.

Mielke, 2016 Pamea Walker, 1855 Procinnus Herbin, 2016 Ulaluma St Laurent and Kawahara, 2018Luramini Lurama Schaus, 1928 Ulmara Schaus, 1928Cicinninae Bedosiini Bedosia Schaus, 1928 Bedosiallo St Laurent and Kawahara, 2018Cicinnini Aceclostria Vuillot, 1893 Aleyda Schaus, 1928 Arcinnus Herbin, 2016 Cicinnus Blanchard, 1852 Cerradocinnus St Laurent, MIelke, Kawahara, 2020 Gonogramma Boisduval, 1872 Euphaneta Schaus, 1928 Isoscella St Laurent and Carvalho, 2017 Roelmana Schaus, 1928Psychocampini Biterolfa Schaus, 1928 Psychocampa Grote and Robinson, 1867 Mimallonidae have been reported as pests of some economically significant crops. In Surinam, Mimallo amilia has been noted as a pest of guava. In Brazil, M. amilia is a known pest of eucalyptus and Psychocampa callipius a pest of cashew. In addition to some Mimallonidae species being regarded as pests, others have been considered as potential biological controls of invasive plants. Species belonging to the genus Druentica have been considered as potential control agents of Miconia calvescens (where it is invasive throughout the Pacific Islands, including Hawaii an

Mana Nishiura

Mana "China" Nishiura was a drummer for Japanese alternative rock bands Shonen Knife and DMBQ. She died in a car accident in 2005. Nishiura was born in Japan, she was a well-known session drummer, played with other bands during her career including Rashinban, Jesus Fever, ya to i, Teem, Music Start Against Young Assault and Cel. She joined Japanese alternative rock band Shonen Knife in 2001 and played with them until 2004. On November 4, 2005, Nishiura was touring the United States with her band DMBQ, their van was involved in a highway accident near the Delaware Memorial Bridge of Carneys Point Township, Salem County, New Jersey. At the junction between US 40 and I-295, another vehicle crossed lanes and struck the van from behind, which went down an embankment and rolled over. Nishiura was pronounced dead at the scene; the other members of DMBQ were hospitalised and the accident severely injured the band's manager, although they all survived. China-Mana official site DMBQ official site Shonen Knife 2003 tour photos Punknews

Jane Moore

Jane Moore is an English journalist and television presenter, best known as a columnist for The Sun newspaper and as a panellist on the ITV lunchtime chat show Loose Women between 1999 and 2002, returning as a regular panellist on 15 October 2013. Since 2018, Moore guest anchors the show. Moore was born in Oxford, her father was a professor of mathematics at the University of Oxford, her mother was a teacher. She went to primary school in Oxford went to the Worcester Grammar School for Girls on Spetchley Road in Worcester, when her parents divorced. Since the divorce, she has not heard from her father. At school, Moore always wanted to be a journalist, but was told by her teachers that'it was no job for a lady', she studied journalism at the South Glamorgan Institute of Higher Education in Cardiff trained at the Solihull News in 1981, moving to work full-time at the Birmingham Mail and Birmingham Post. Moore writes regular articles for The Sunday Times, she has written for Hello. In 2006, she was nominated for a British Press Award in the category of'Columnist of the Year', but lost out to Lucy Kellaway.

On 19 April 2002, Moore guest presented This Morning. Moore moved to the BBC and contributed on Question Time, The Andrew Marr Show, This Week and BBC Breakfast. Moore guest presented The Wright Stuff in 2003 and 2004, was a panellist in 2008. On 4 February 2011, she guest hosted The Wright Stuff. From 2006 to 2007, Moore was a team captain on the BBC Three programme Rob Brydon's Annually Retentive, a comedy take on celebrity panel shows. On 25 July 2011, she presented the six-part BBC Two series Wonderstuff. Moore has done some work with the Channel 4 programme Dispatches and has presented a number of online videos for the broadcaster. Moore was a panellist on the ITV chat show Loose Women between 1999 and 2002, she returned to the programme on 15 October 2013. Fourplay The Ex Files dot.homme The Second Wives Club Love @ First Site She started the consumer website, in 2006, however the website is no longer running. Moore married Gary Farrow, the former vice-president of communications at Sony Music Entertainment, in 2002.

Elton John was the best man at their wedding. Her husband owns, they live in Richmond with their three daughters who are named, Ellie and Lauren and their Tibetan terrier dog named Jasper. Guest appearancesHave I Got News for You The Weakest Link: Presenters Special Never Mind the Buzzcocks The Apprentice: You're Fired! The Sharon Osbourne Show News 24 Sunday Countdown Genius Pointless Celebrities After the News The Chase: Celebrity Special Jane Moore on IMDb