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Casuistry

Casuistry is a process of reasoning that seeks to resolve moral problems by extracting or extending theoretical rules from a particular case, reapplying those rules to new instances. This method occurs in applied ethics and jurisprudence; the term is commonly used as a pejorative to criticize the use of clever but unsound reasoning in relation to moral questions. The word casuistry derives from the Latin noun casus; the Oxford English Dictionary says, quoting Viscount Bolingbroke, that the word "ften applied to a quibbling or evasive way of dealing with difficult cases of duty." Its textual references, except for certain technical usages, are pejorative. Casuistry is the "tudy of cases of conscience and a method of solving conflicts of obligations by applying general principles of ethics and moral theology to particular and concrete cases of human conduct; this demands an extensive knowledge of natural law and equity, civil law, ecclesiastical precepts, an exceptional skill in interpreting these various norms of conduct."

It remains a common tool for applied ethics. Casuistry dates from Aristotle, yet the zenith of casuistry was from 1550 to 1650, when the Society of Jesus used case-based reasoning in administering the Sacrament of Penance; the term casuistry or Jesuitism became pejorative with Blaise Pascal's attack on the misuse of casuistry. Some Jesuit theologians, in view of promoting personal responsibility and the respect of freedom of conscience, stressed the importance of the'case by case' approach to personal moral decisions and developed and accepted a casuistry where at the time of decision, individual inclinations were more important than the moral law itself. In Provincial Letters the French mathematician, religious philosopher and Jansenist sympathiser, Blaise Pascal vigorously attacked the moral laxism of such Jesuits scolded the Jesuits for using casuistic reasoning in confession to placate wealthy Church donors, while punishing poor penitents. Pascal charged that aristocratic penitents could confess their sins one day, re-commit the sin the next day, generously donate the following day return to re-confess their sins and only receive the lightest punishment.

A British encyclopedia of 1900 claimed that it was "popularly regarded as an attempt to achieve holy ends by unholy means."It was not until publication of The Abuse of Casuistry: A History of Moral Reasoning, by Albert Jonsen and Stephen Toulmin, that a revival of casuistry occurred. They argue. Properly used, casuistry is powerful reasoning. Jonsen and Toulmin offer casuistry in dissolving the contradictory tenets of moral absolutism and the common secular moral relativism: "the form of reasoning constitutive of classical casuistry is rhetorical reasoning". Moreover, the ethical philosophies of Utilitarianism and Pragmatism are identified as employing casuistic reasoning; the casuistic method was popular among Catholic thinkers in the early modern period, not only among the Jesuits, as it is thought. Famous casuistic authors include Antonio Escobar y Mendoza, whose Summula casuum conscientiae enjoyed a great success, Thomas Sanchez, Vincenzo Filliucci, Antonino Diana, Paul Laymann, John Azor, Etienne Bauny, Louis Cellot, Valerius Reginaldus, Hermann Busembaum, etc.

One of the main theses of casuists was the necessity to adapt the rigorous morals of the Early Fathers of Christianity to modern morals, which led in some extreme cases to justify what Innocent XI called "laxist moral". The progress of casuistry was interrupted toward the middle of the 17th century by the controversy which arose concerning the doctrine of probabilism, which stipulated that one could choose to follow a "probable opinion", that is, supported by a theologian or another if it contradicted a more probable opinion or a quotation from one of the Fathers of the Church; the controversy divided Catholic theologians into two camps and Laxists. Certain kinds of casuistry were criticized by early Protestant theologians, because it was used in order to justify many of the abuses that they sought to reform, it was famously attacked by the Catholic and Jansenist philosopher Pascal, during the formulary controversy against the Jesuits, in his Provincial Letters as the use of rhetorics to justify moral laxity, which became identified by the public with Jesuitism.

By the mid-18th century, "casuistry" had become a synonym for specious moral reasoning. However, Puritans were known for their own development of casuistry. In 1679 Pope Innocent XI publicly condemned sixty-five of the more radical propositions, taken chiefly from the writings of Escobar and other casuists as propositiones laxorum moralistarum and forbade anyone to teach them under penalty of excommunication. Despite this papal condemnation, both Catholicism and Protestantism permit the use of ambiguous and equ

Santa Maria River (California)

Santa Maria River on the Central Coast of California, is formed at the confluence of the Sisquoc River and Cuyama River, just east of the city of Santa Maria, flows 24.4 miles to its delta at the Pacific Ocean. The entire river defines the border between northern Santa Barbara County and southern San Luis Obispo County, up to the Sisquoc River, with a major bridge on Highway 101 passing over it; the Santa Maria River Fault is a tectonic fault that corresponds with the course of the river. There are no dams or lakes on the Santa Maria River itself, although Twitchell Reservoir is formed by a dam on the tributary Cuyama River. Twitchell Dam was built by the United States Bureau of Reclamation and provides flood control and groundwater recharge of the aquifer; the Sisquoc River is free-flowing, a National Wild and Scenic Rivers System. During much of the year, the Santa Maria River has little water, but it can swell during winter storms. List of rivers of California TPL. "California Rivers Report: Central Coast Basin - Santa Maria River".

The Trust for Public Land. Archived from the original on 2007-10-31. Retrieved 2009-03-22. U. S. Geological Survey Geographic Names Information System: Santa Maria River

Henry Heaton

Henry Heaton was a North-American amateur mathematician. Heaton was a son of a millwright. In 1852 the family moved to Greenfields, where Heaton attended the school four months every winter until he was fourteen years old. At the age of eighteen he began his two careers, as a teacher, he studied for his BS in the Mount Union College in Ohio in the course 1866-1867. In 1869 he moved to Iowa. After, he moved to Des Moines, Iowa where he met Joel E. Hendricks, the founder and editor of The Analyst who encouraged him to publish mathematical problems and solutions in the journal. In 1877 he and his family were living in Iowa, his most important and remembered contribution was the publication for the first time in 1896 of the familiar form of the solution of the quadratic equation. At the end of the brief article, he himself wondered if, new. Heaton, Henry. "A Method of Solving Quadratic Equations". The American Mathematical Monthly. 3: 236–237. Doi:10.1080/00029890.1896.11998825. ISSN 0002-9890. JSTOR 2971099.

Krantz, Steven G.. A Mathematical Odyssey. Springer. ISBN 978-1-4614-8938-2. O'Connor, John J..

White-necked rockfowl

The white-necked rockfowl is a medium-sized bird in the family Picathartidae, with a long neck and tail. Known as the white-necked picathartes, this passerine is found in rocky forested areas at higher altitudes in West Africa from Guinea to Ghana, its distribution is patchy, with populations being isolated from each other. The rockfowl chooses to live near streams and inselbergs, it has no recognized subspecies, though some believe that it forms a superspecies with the grey-necked rockfowl. The white-necked rockfowl has white underparts, its unusually long, dark brown tail is used for balance, its thighs are muscular. The head is nearly featherless, with the exposed skin being bright yellow except for two large, circular black patches located just behind the eyes. Though the bird is silent, some calls are known; these rockfowl feed on insects, though parents feed small frogs to their young. One feeding strategy involves following Dorylus army ant swarms, feeding on insects flushed by the ants. Rockfowl move through the forest through a series of hops and bounds or short flights in low vegetation.

This species flies for long distances. The white-necked rockfowl is monogamous and pairs nest either alone or in the vicinity of other pairs, sometimes in colonies with as many as eight nests; these nests are constructed out of mud formed into a deep cup and are built on rock surfaces in caves. Two eggs are laid twice a year. Though the birds breed in colonies, infanticide is common in this species, with rockfowl attempting to kill the young of other pairs. Nestlings mature in about a month; this bird is long-lived. This species is classified as Vulnerable as its dwindling and fragmented populations are threatened by habitat destruction. Conservation efforts are underway in parts of its range in the form of habitat protection, education efforts, new laws; some of the indigenous peoples of Sierra Leone considered the species to be a protector of the home of their ancestral spirits. This rockfowl is considered one of Africa's most desirable birds by birders and is a symbol of ecotourism across its range.

This species was first described by Coenraad Jacob Temminck in 1825 from a specimen collected on the Guinean coast. He published his description in the 2nd volume of Nouveau recueil de planches coloriées d'oiseaux and described it as Corvus gymnocephalus, placing it in the crow genus Corvus; the species name is derived from the Ancient Greek words gymnos "naked", kephalē "head". However, only three years the bird was removed from the genus Corvus by René Primevère Lesson and placed in its own genus, Picathartes, as it did not share characteristics common to members of Corvus such as a feathered head; this generic name comes from a combination of the Latin genera pica for "magpie" and cathartes for "vulture". Since its initial description, the picathartes have been placed in more than five different families, including those of crows, Old World flycatchers and Old World warblers. Today the white-necked rockfowl and its close relative the grey-necked rockfowl are believed to comprise a unique family, Picathartidae.

It has been suggested though not accepted that the two rockfowl represent the remnants of an ancient bird order. Recent DNA analysis has shown that Picathartidae and its closest relatives, southern Africa's rockjumpers and southeast Asia's rail-babbler, form a clade; the analysis suggests that the rockfowl split from the common ancestor of their clade 44 million years ago. It is spread to Africa. Though the white-necked rockfowl has no subspecies, it is believed to form a superspecies with the grey-necked rockfowl, with plumage and facial pattern being the primary differences between the two species. Common names used for this species include white-necked rockfowl, white-necked picathartes, yellow-headed picathartes, bare-headed rockfowl, the less used white-necked bald crow. Rockfowl is a reference to the species' habit of building mud nests on rock caves. Picathartes refers to the species' scientific name. Bald crow is a reference to its featherless head and somewhat crow-like appearance its beak.

This rockfowl measures around 38 to 41 cm in length, with its notably long tail contributing about 18 cm. Adult rockfowl show little sexual dimorphism in plumage and the sexes cannot be told apart by appearance. On the adult, the head, excluding the chin and throat, is bare of feathers except for a thin layer of fuzz on the forehead; the head's skin is bright yellow except for two large, circular patches of black skin located just behind the eye and containing the ear. The black patch appears to be a distinct part of the face; the eyelid and eyering are a thin line of black surrounding the bird's dark brown eyes. The beak is robust, disproportionately large, black; this beak can be considered crow-like, is noticeably decurved in the upper mandible, is about 30 mm long. The bird's chin and throat are covered in a thin layer of white feathers, the neck is long and slender; the nape is covered in white feathers, while the hindneck is nearly bare, revealing the orange-yellow skin. The upper mantle is a solid black.

The rockfowl's thighs are muscular and aid its terrestrial lifestyle. The back and undertail are a bluish grey, while the tail is a dark brown and tented in shape

Candidatus Accumulibacter phosphatis

Candidatus Accumulibacter phosphatis is an unclassified type of Betaproteobacteria, a common bacterial community member of sewage treatment and wastewater treatment plants performing enhanced biological phosphorus removal and is a polyphosphate-accumulating organism. The role of CAP in EBPR was elucidated using culture-independent approaches such as 16S rRNA clone banks that showed the Betaproteobacteria dominated lab-scale EBPR reactors. Further work using clone banks and fluorescence in situ hybridization identified a group of bacteria related to Rhodocyclus as the dominant member of lab-scale communities. No cultured isolates of CAP exist, so the phylogeny of CAP strains is based purely of molecular biology techniques. To date, the polyphosphate kinase and the PHA synthase genes have been used to characterise CAP populations at a higher resolution that 16S rRNA; the ppk1 phylogeny is more used and groups CAP into two major divisions: type I and type II. Each of these types has a number of clades that are given a letter designation, e.g. IA, IIA, IIB, IIC.

An environmental survey of wastewater treatment plants and natural waterways in California and Wisconsin in the USA revealed at least five CAP I clades and seven CAP II clades. CAP has yet to be cultured, but the ability to enrich lab-scale EBPR communities with up to 80% CAP has enabled research into its metabolism using meta-omic approaches. EBPR is associated with three stages: anaerobic and settling. For CAP to dominate in EBPR reactors, they must be able to thrive under these conditions. During the anaerobic phase, CAP can take up volatile fatty acids and store these simple carbon sources intracellularly as polyhydroxyalkanoates. At the same time, intracellular polyphosphate is degraded to form ATP, releasing phosphate into the medium. During the subsequent aerobic phase, PHAs are used for energy production and phosphate is taken up from the medium to form polyphosphate. Genomic reconstruction from an EBPR reactor enriched with CAP IIA revealed it to contain two different types of phosphate transporters, the high-affinity Pst and low-affinity Pit transporters, as well as using the Embden-Meyerhof glycogen degradation pathway.

Furthermore, the CAP IIA genome contains nitrogen and CO2 fixation genes, which indicate CAP has adapted to environments limited in carbon and nitrogen. A discrepancy between the genomic data and reactor performance data was the lack of a functional respiratory nitrate reductase gene. Previous work had shown CAP could use nitrate as the terminal electron acceptor, but the genomic data indicate the periplasmic nitrate reductase gene could not function in the electron transport chain, as it lacked the necessary quinol reductase subunit. To resolve these issues, lab-scale EBPR reactors enriched with CAP IA and CAP IIA were tested for their nitrate-reduction capabilities. CAP IA was able to couple nitrate reduction to phosphate uptake, while the genomically characterised CAP IIA could not

KCMN-LD

KCMN-LD is a digital low-powered television station, licensed to Topeka, Kansas. The station is an affiliate of Decades, is owned by DTV America Corporation of Sunrise, which owns Country Network affiliate KAJF-LD. KCMN's digital signal is broadcast on UHF Channel 28, but is displayed as virtual channel 42 via PSIP. Although the city of license is Topeka, the station's signal does not reach that city, for its transmitter, shared with KAJF-LD, is located on the southeastern side of Kansas City just off 58th Street near the exit 65 interchange of Interstate 435, it now identifies itself as a Kansas City-based station rather than in its licensed city. The Federal Communications Commission issued the construction permit for the station, under the calls of K38MN-D, on February 22, 2011; the current callsign was adopted on December 4, 2015. Upon signing on in summer 2016, the station became DTV America's second low-power station in the Kansas City area as they signed on KAJF-LD sometime before. KCMN became DTV America's third Kansas-licensed station after locally based KAJF and Pittsburg, Kansas-licensed KPJO-LP in the Joplin, Missouri area.

In April 2017, Cheddar news TV channel started broadcasting over the air with DTV America affiliating five stations including KCMN with the network. Dunkin' Donuts, a Cheddar advertiser, was handing out free digital antennas at events in the stations' markets to publicize the over the air launch. DTV America Query the FCC's TV station database for KCMN BIAfn's Media Web Database -- Information on KCMN-TV