Cato the Elder

Marcus Porcius Cato known as Cato the Elder, Cato the Censor, Cato the Wise, Cato the Ancient, was a Roman soldier and historian known for his conservatism and opposition to Hellenization. He was the first to write history in Latin, his epithet "Elder" distinguishes him from his famous great-grandson Cato the Younger, who opposed Julius Caesar. He came from an ancient Plebeian family. Like his forefathers, Cato was devoted to agriculture. Having attracted the attention of Lucius Valerius Flaccus, he was brought to Rome and began to follow the cursus honorum: he was successively military tribune, aedile, junior consul together with Flaccus, censor; as praetor, he expelled usurers from Sardinia. As censor, he tried to combat "degenerate" Hellenistic influences. Cato the Elder was born like some generations of his ancestors, his father had earned a reputation as a brave soldier, his great-grandfather had received a reward from the state for having had five horses killed under him in battle. However, the Tusculan Porcii had never obtained the privileges of the Roman magistracy.

Cato the Elder, their famous descendant, at the beginning of his career in Rome, was regarded as a novus homo, the feeling of his unsatisfactory position, working along with the belief of his inherent superiority and drove his ambition. Early in life, he so far exceeded the previous deeds of his predecessors that he is spoken of not only as the leader, but as the founder of the Porcia Gens, his ancestors for three generations had been named Marcus Porcius, it was said by Plutarch that at first he was known by the additional cognomen Priscus, but was afterwards called Cato—a word indicating that special practical wisdom, the result of natural sagacity, combined with the experience of civil and political affairs. Priscus, like Major, may have been an epithet used to distinguish him from the Cato of Utica. There is no precise information as to when he first received the title of Cato, which may have been given in childhood as a symbol of distinction; the qualities implied in the word Cato were acknowledged by the plainer and less outdated title of Sapiens, by which he was so well known in his old age, that Cicero says, it became his virtual cognomen.

From the number and eloquence of his speeches, he was a styled orator, but Cato the Censor, Cato the Elder are now his most common, as well as his most characteristic names, since he carried out the office of Censor with extraordinary standing and was the only Cato who held it. The date of Cato's birth has to be deduced from conflicting reports of his age at the time of his death, known to have happened in 149 BC. According to the chronology of Cicero, Cato was born in 234 BC, in the year before the first Consulship of Quintus Fabius Maximus Verrucosus, died at the age of 85, in the consulship of Lucius Marcius Censorinus and Manius Manilius. Pliny agrees with Cicero. Other authors exaggerate the age of Cato. According to Valerius Maximus he survived his 86th year; these exaggerated ages, are inconsistent with a statement of Cato himself, recorded by Plutarch. When Cato was young, after his father's death, he inherited a small property in the Sabine territory, at a distance from his native town.

There, he spent most of his childhood hardening his body by exercise and sharing the operations of the farm, learning business and the rural economy. Near this land was a small hut abandoned after the triumphs of its owner Manius Curius Dentatus, whose military feats and rigidly simple character were remembered and admired in the neighborhood. Cato was inspired hoping to match the glory of Dentatus. Soon, an opportunity came for a military campaign in 217 BC, during the Second Punic War against Hannibal Barca. Experts express some disagreement about Cato's early military life. In 214 BC, he served at Capua, the historian Wilhelm Drumann imagines that at the age of 20, he was a military tribune. Quintus Fabius Maximus Verrucosus had the command in Campania, during the year of his fourth consulship, admitted the young soldier to the honour of intimate friendship. While Fabius communicated the valued results of military experience, he chose not to inculcate Cato with his personal and political values and preferences.

At the siege of Tarentum, 209 BC, Cato was again at the side of Fabius. Two years Cato was one of the select group who went with the consul Claudius Nero on his northern march from Lucania to check the progress of Hasdrubal Barca, it is recorded that the services of Cato contributed to the decisive and important victory of Sena at the Battle of the Metaurus, where Hasdrubal was slain. He gave several vehement speeches which he ended by saying "Carthago delenda est", or "Carthage must be destroyed." In the pauses between campaigns Cato returned to his Sabine farm, where he dressed working and behaving like his laborers. Young as he was, the neighboring farmers liked his tough mode of living, enjoyed his old-fashioned and concise proverbs, had a high regard for his abilities, his own active personality made him willing and eager to employ his powers in the service of his neighbors. He was selected to act, sometimes as an arbitrator of disputes, sometimes as a supporter in local causes, which were tried in front of recuperatores (the judges for causes of great public inter

Canton of Ticino

The canton of Ticino, formally the Republic and Canton of Ticino, is the southernmost canton of Switzerland. Ticino borders the canton of Uri to the north, the canton of Valais to the west, the canton of Graubünden to the northeast, Italy's regions of Piedmont and Lombardy to the south and it surrounds the small Italian enclave of Campione d'Italia. Named after the river Ticino, it is the only canton where Italian is the sole official language and represents the bulk of the Italian-speaking area of Switzerland along with the southern parts of Graubünden; the land now occupied by the canton was annexed from Italian cities in the 15th century by various Swiss forces in the last transalpine campaigns of the Old Swiss Confederacy. In the Helvetic Republic, established 1798, it was divided between the two new cantons of Bellinzona and Lugano; the creation of the Swiss Confederation in 1803 saw these two cantons combine to form the modern canton of Ticino. The name Ticino was chosen for the newly established canton in 1803, after the Ticino river which flows through it from the Novena Pass to Lake Maggiore.

Known as Ticinus in Roman times, the river appears on the Tabula Peutingeriana as Ticenum. Johann Kaspar Zeuss attributed Celtic origins to the name, tracing it to the Celtic tek, itself from an Indo-European root tak, meaning "melting, flowing". In ancient times, the area of what is today Ticino was settled by a Celtic tribe. Around the rule of Augustus, it became part of the Roman Empire. After the fall of the Western Empire, it was ruled by the Lombards and the Franks. Around 1100 it was the centre of struggle between the free communes of Milan and Como: in the 14th century it was acquired by the Visconti, Dukes of Milan. In the fifteenth century the Swiss Confederates conquered the valleys south of the Alps in three separate conquests. Between 1403 and 1422 some of these lands were annexed by forces from the canton of Uri, but subsequently lost. Uri conquered the Leventina Valley in 1440. In a second conquest Uri and Nidwalden gained the town of Bellinzona and the Riviera in 1500; some of the land and Bellinzona itself were annexed by Uri in 1419 but lost again in 1422.

The third conquest was fought by troops from the entire Confederation. In 1512 Locarno, the Maggia Valley and Mendrisio were annexed. Subsequently, the upper valley of the river Ticino, from the St. Gotthard to the town of Biasca was part of Uri; the remaining territory was administered by the Twelve Cantons. These districts were governed by bailiffs holding office for two years and purchasing it from the members of the League; the lands of the canton of Ticino are the last lands to be conquered by the Swiss Confederation. The Confederation gave up any further conquests after their defeat at the battle of Marignano in 1515 by Francis I of France; the Val Leventina revolted unsuccessfully against Uri in 1755. In February 1798 an attempt of annexation by the Cisalpine Republic was repelled by a volunteer militia in Lugano. Between 1798 and 1803, during the Helvetic Republic, two cantons were created but in 1803 the two were unified to form the canton of Ticino that joined the Swiss Confederation as a full member in the same year under the Act of Mediation.

During the Napoleonic Wars, many Ticinesi served in Swiss military units allied with the French. The canton minted its own currency, the Ticinese franco, between 1813 and 1850, when it began use of the Swiss franc. In the early 19th century, the contemporary Franco-Danish scholar Conrad Malte-Brun stated that: "The canton of Tesino is the poorest, the people the most ignorant of any in Switzerland; until 1878 the three largest cities, Bellinzona and Locarno, alternated as capital of the canton. In 1878, Bellinzona became the only and permanent capital; the 1870–1891 period saw a surge of political turbulence in Ticino, the authorities needed the assistance of the federal government to restore order in several instances, in 1870, 1876, 1889 and 1890–1891. The current cantonal constitution dates from 1997; the previous constitution modified, was codified in 1830, nearly 20 years before the constitution of the Swiss Confederation. The canton of Ticino is in the south of Switzerland entirely surrounded by Italy.

To the north are the cantons of Valais and Uri, to the northeast the canton of Graubünden. Its area is 2,812 square kilometres, of which about three-quarters are considered productive to trees or crops. Forests cover about a third of the area, but the lakes Maggiore and Lugano make up a considerable minority. Lying in the south of the Alps, the canton can be split into two at the Monte Ceneri pass; the northern, highest part, the Sopraceneri, is formed by the two major Swiss valleys around Lake Maggiore: Ticino valley and Maggia valley. The southern part, the Sottoceneri, is the region around Lake Lugano; the Ticino river is the largest river in the canton. It drains most of the canton, flowing from the northwest through the Bedretto valley and the Leventina valley to enter Lake Maggiore near Locarno, its main tributaries are the Brenno in the Blenio valley and the Moesa in the Mesolcina valley in Graubünden. The lands of most of the canton are shaped by the river, which in its mid portion forms a wide valley known as the Riviera.

The western lands of the canton, are drained by the Maggia River. The Valle Verzasca is between the Maggia. There is a smaller area that drains direct

Cordelia (moon)

Cordelia is the innermost known moon of Uranus. It was discovered from the images taken by Voyager 2 on January 20, 1986, was given the temporary designation S/1986 U 7, it was not detected again until the Hubble Space Telescope observed it in 1997. Cordelia takes its name from the youngest daughter of Lear in William Shakespeare's King Lear, it is designated Uranus VI. Other than its orbit, radius of 20 km and geometric albedo of 0.08 nothing is known about it. In the Voyager 2 images Cordelia appears as an elongated object with its major axis pointing towards Uranus; the ratio of axes of Cordelia's prolate spheroid is 0.7 ± 0.2. Cordelia acts as the inner shepherd satellite for Uranus' ε ring. Cordelia's orbit is within Uranus' synchronous orbit radius, is therefore decaying due to tidal deceleration. Cordelia is close to a 5:3 orbital resonance with Rosalind. Moons of Uranus Explanatory notes Citations Cordelia Profile by NASA's Solar System Exploration Uranus' Known Satellites