William Blake was an English poet and printmaker. Unrecognised during his lifetime, Blake is now considered a seminal figure in the history of the poetry and visual arts of the Romantic Age. What he called his prophetic works were said by 20th-century critic Northrop Frye to form "what is in proportion to its merits the least read body of poetry in the English language", his visual artistry led 21st-century critic Jonathan Jones to proclaim him "far and away the greatest artist Britain has produced". In 2002, Blake was placed at number 38 in the BBC's poll of the 100 Greatest Britons. While he lived in London his entire life, except for three years spent in Felpham, he produced a diverse and symbolically rich œuvre, which embraced the imagination as "the body of God" or "human existence itself". Although Blake was considered mad by contemporaries for his idiosyncratic views, he is held in high regard by critics for his expressiveness and creativity, for the philosophical and mystical undercurrents within his work.
His paintings and poetry have been characterised as part of the Romantic movement and as "Pre-Romantic". A committed Christian, hostile to the Church of England, Blake was influenced by the ideals and ambitions of the French and American Revolutions. Though he rejected many of these political beliefs, he maintained an amiable relationship with the political activist Thomas Paine. Despite these known influences, the singularity of Blake's work makes him difficult to classify; the 19th-century scholar William Rossetti characterised him as a "glorious luminary", "a man not forestalled by predecessors, nor to be classed with contemporaries, nor to be replaced by known or surmisable successors". William Blake was born on 28 November 1757 at 28 Broad Street in London, he was the third of seven children. Blake's father, was a hosier, he attended school only long enough to learn reading and writing, leaving at the age of ten, was otherwise educated at home by his mother Catherine Blake. Though the Blakes were English Dissenters, William was baptised on 11 December at St James's Church, London.
The Bible was an early and profound influence on Blake, remained a source of inspiration throughout his life. Blake started engraving copies of drawings of Greek antiquities purchased for him by his father, a practice, preferred to actual drawing. Within these drawings Blake found his first exposure to classical forms through the work of Raphael, Maarten van Heemskerck and Albrecht Dürer; the number of prints and bound books that James and Catherine were able to purchase for young William suggests that the Blakes enjoyed, at least for a time, a comfortable wealth. When William was ten years old, his parents knew enough of his headstrong temperament that he was not sent to school but instead enrolled in drawing classes at Pars's drawing school in the Strand, he read avidly on subjects of his own choosing. During this period, Blake made explorations into poetry. On 4 August 1772, Blake was apprenticed to engraver James Basire of Great Queen Street, at the sum of £52.10, for a term of seven years.
At the end of the term, aged 21, he became a professional engraver. No record survives of any serious disagreement or conflict between the two during the period of Blake's apprenticeship, but Peter Ackroyd's biography notes that Blake added Basire's name to a list of artistic adversaries – and crossed it out; this aside, Basire's style of line-engraving was of a kind held at the time to be old-fashioned compared to the flashier stipple or mezzotint styles. It has been speculated that Blake's instruction in this outmoded form may have been detrimental to his acquiring of work or recognition in life. After two years, Basire sent his apprentice to copy images from the Gothic churches in London, his experiences in Westminster Abbey helped form his artistic style and ideas. The Abbey of his day was decorated with suits of armour, painted funeral effigies and varicoloured waxworks. Ackroyd notes that "...the most immediate would have been of faded brightness and colour". This close study of the Gothic left clear traces in his style.
In the long afternoons Blake spent sketching in the Abbey, he was interrupted by boys from Westminster School, who were allowed in the Abbey. They teased him and one tormented him so much that Basire knocked the boy off a scaffold to the ground, "upon which he fell with terrific Violence". After Basire complained to the Dean, the schoolboys' privilege was withdrawn. Blake experienced visions in the Abbey, he saw Christ and his Apostles and a great procession of monks and priests and heard their chant. On 8 October 1779, Blake became a student at the Royal Academy in Old Somerset House, near the Strand. While the terms of his study required no payment, he was expected to supply his own materials throughout the six-year period. There, he rebelled against what he regarded as the unfinished style of fashionable painters such as Rubens, championed by the school's first president, Joshua Reynolds. Over time, Blake came to detest Reynolds' attitude towards art his pursuit of "general truth" and "general beauty".
Reynolds wrote in his Discourses that the "disposition to abstractions, to generalising and classification, is the great glory of the human mind".
The Gundestrup cauldron is a richly decorated silver vessel, thought to date from between 200 BC and 300 AD, or more narrowly between 150 BC and 1 BC. This places it within early Roman Iron Age; the cauldron is the largest known example of European Iron Age silver work. It was found dismantled, with the other pieces stacked inside the base, in 1891 in a peat bog near the hamlet of Gundestrup in the Aars parish of Himmerland, Denmark, it is now on display in the National Museum of Denmark in Copenhagen, with replicas at other museums. The cauldron is not complete, now consists of a rounded cup-shaped bottom making up the lower part of the cauldron called the base plate, above which are five interior plates and seven exterior ones; the base plate is smooth and undecorated inside and out, apart from a decorated round medallion in the centre of the interior. All the other plates are decorated with repoussé work, hammered from beneath to push out the silver. Other techniques were used to add detail, there is extensive gilding and some use of inlaid pieces of glass for the eyes of figures.
Other pieces of fittings were found. Altogether the weight is just under 9 kilograms. Despite the fact that the vessel was found in Denmark, it was not made there or nearby; the techniques and elements of the style of the panels relate to other Thracian silver, while much of the depiction, in particular of the human figures, relates to the Celts, though attempts to relate the scenes to Celtic mythology remain controversial. Other aspects of the iconography derive from the Near East. Hospitality on a large scale was an obligation for Celtic elites, although cauldrons were therefore an important item of prestige metalwork, they are much plainer and smaller than this; this is an exceptionally large and elaborate object with no close parallel, except a large fragment from a bronze cauldron found in Denmark, at Rynkeby. It has been much discussed by scholars, represents a fascinatingly complex demonstration of the many cross-currents in European art, as well as an unusual degree of narrative for Celtic art, though we are unlikely to understand its original meanings.
The Gundestrup cauldron was discovered by peat cutters in a small peat bog called Rævemose on 28 May 1891. The Danish government paid a large reward to the finders, who subsequently quarreled bitterly amongst themselves over its division. Palaeobotanical investigations of the peat bog at the time of the discovery showed that the land had been dry when the cauldron was deposited, the peat grew over it; the manner of stacking suggested an attempt to make the cauldron well-hidden. Another investigation of Rævemose was undertaken in 2002, concluding that the peat bog may have existed when the cauldron was buried; the cauldron was found in a dismantled state with five long rectangular plates, seven short plates, one round plate, two fragments of tubing stacked inside the curved base. In addition, there is a piece of iron from a ring placed inside the silver tubes along the rim of the cauldron, it is assumed that there is a missing eighth plate because the circumference of the seven outer plates is smaller than the circumference of the five inner plates.
A set of careful full-size replicas have been made. One is in the National Museum of Ireland in Dublin, several are in France, including the Musée gallo-romain de Fourvière at Lyon and the Musée d'archéologie nationale at Saint-Germain-en-Laye. Since the cauldron was found in pieces, it had to be reconstructed; the traditional order of the plates was determined by Sophus Müller, the first of many to analyze the cauldron. His logic uses the positions of the trace solder located at the rim of the bowl. In two cases, a puncture mark penetrating the inner and outer plates helps to establish the order. In its final form, the plates are arranged in an alternation of female-male depictions, assuming the missing eighth plate is of a female. Not all analysts agree with Müller's ordering, however. Taylor has pointed out that aside from the two cases of puncturing, the order cannot be determined from the solder alignments, his argument is that the plates are not directly adjacent to each other, but are separated by a 2 cm gap.
The Gundestrup cauldron is composed entirely of silver, but there is a substantial amount of gold for the gilding, tin for the solder and glass for the figures' eyes. According to experimental evidence, the materials for the vessel were not added at the same time, so the cauldron can be considered as the work of artisans over a span of several hundred years; the quality of the repairs to the cauldron, of which there are many, is inferior to the original craftsmanship. Silver was not a common material in Celtic art, not on this scale. Except sometimes for small pieces of jewellery, gold or bronze were more usual for prestige metalwork. At the time that the Gundestrup cauldron was created, silver was obtained through cupellation of lead/silver ores. By comparing
A kettle, sometimes called a tea kettle or teakettle, is a type of pot, specialized for boiling water, with a lid and handle, or a small kitchen appliance of similar shape that functions in a self-contained manner. Kettles can be heated either by placing on a stove, or by their own internal electric heating element in the appliance versions; the word kettle originates from Old Norse ketill "cauldron". The Old English spelling was cetel with initial che- like'cherry', Middle English was chetel, both come from Germanic *katilaz, borrowed from Latin catillus, diminutive form of catinus "deep vessel for serving or cooking food", which in various contexts is translated as "bowl", "deep dish", or "funnel". A modern stovetop kettle is a metal vessel, with a flat bottom, used to heat water on a stovetop or hob, they have a handle on top, a spout, a lid. Some have a steam whistle that indicates when the water has reached boiling point. Kettles are made with stainless steel, but can be made from copper or other metals.
In countries with 240 V mains electricity, electric kettles are used to boil water without the necessity of a stove top. The heating element is fully enclosed, with a power rating of 2–3 kW; this means that the current draw for an electric kettle is upwards 10 A, a sizeable proportion of the current available for a typical home: the main fuse of most homes varies between 20 and 100 A. For this reason electric kettles, while available, are much less popular in countries with 110 V mains electricity, where electric sockets are current limited to providing around 1.5 kWs. In modern designs, once the water has reached boiling point, the kettle automatically deactivates, preventing the water from boiling away and damaging the heating element. A more upright design, the "jug"-style electrical kettle, can be more economical to use, since one cup of water will keep the element covered. In the United States, an electric kettle may sometimes be referred to as a hot pot. Electric kettles were introduced as an alternative to stove top kettles in the latter part of the 19th century.
In 1893 the Crompton and Co. firm in the United Kingdom started featuring electric kettles in their catalogue. However, these first electric kettles were quite primitive as the heating element couldn't be immersed in the water. Instead, a separate compartment underneath the water storage area in the kettle was used to house the electric heating element; the design was inefficient relative to the conventional stove-top kettles of the time. In 1922, the problem was solved by Leslie Large, an engineer working at Bulpitt & Sons of Birmingham who designed an element of wire wound around a core and sheathed in a metal tube; as this element could be immersed directly into the water it made the new electric kettle much more efficient than stovetop kettles. In 1955, the newly founded British company Russell Hobbs brought out its stainless steel K1 model as the first automatic kettle. A thermostat, triggered by the rising steam as the water would come to boil, would flex, thereby cutting off the current.
A cauldron is a large kettle hung over an open fire on an arc-shaped hanger called a bail. A fish kettle is a long slim metal cooking vessel with a tight fitting lid to enable cooking of whole large fish such as salmon. A kettle grill is a dome shaped resembling a cauldron. A kettle drum is a kettle shaped drum. Boiling vessel, water heating system in British tanks Kelly Kettle, specialized types of kettles for outdoor use, intended to use fuel more efficiently Samovar, a type of urn used for boiling water and making tea in Russia and other parts of eastern Europe Tea culture Teapot, a vessel with spout and handle, for brewing and serving tea Teasmade, an English appliance that combined a kettle and a teapot to make tea automatically by a clock Tetsubin, a cast iron Japanese pot with a spout Windermere kettle Stevenson, Seth. "A Watched Pot". Slate. Copeland, Paul L.. Engineering Studies: The Definitive Guide. Allawah, New South Wales: Anno Domini. ISBN 9780646394596
A party is a gathering of people who have been invited by a host for the purposes of socializing, recreation, or as part of a festival or other commemoration of a special occasion. A party will feature food and beverages, music and dancing or other forms of entertainment. In many Western countries, parties for teens and adults are associated with drinking alcohol such as beer, wine, or distilled spirits; some parties are held in honor of a specific person, day, or event, such as a birthday party, a Super Bowl party, or a St. Patrick’s Day party. Parties of this kind are called celebrations. A party is not a private occasion. Public parties are sometimes held in restaurants, beer gardens, nightclubs or bars, people attending such parties may be charged an admission fee by the host. Large parties in public streets may celebrate events such as Mardi Gras or the signing of a peace treaty ending a long war. A birthday party is a celebration of the anniversary of the birth of the person, being honored.
The tradition started in the mid-nineteenth century but did not become popular until the mid-twentieth century. Birthday parties are now a feature of many cultures. In Western cultures, birthday parties include a number of common rituals; the guests may be asked to bring a gift for the honored person. Party locations are decorated with colorful decorations, such as balloons and streamers. A birthday cake is served with lit candles that are to be blown out after a "birthday wish" has been made; the person being honored will be given the first piece of cake. While the birthday cake is being brought to the table, the song "Happy Birthday to You" or some other birthday song is sung by the guests. At parties for children, time is taken for the "gift opening" wherein the individual whose birthday is celebrated opens each of the gifts brought, it is common at children's parties for the host to give parting gifts to the attendees in the form of "goodie bags". Children and adults sometimes wear colorful cone-shaped party hats.
Birthday parties are larger and more extravagant if they celebrate someone who has reached what is regarded in the culture as a milestone age, such as transition from childhood to adulthood. Examples of traditional coming of age celebrations include the North American sweet sixteen party and the Latin American quinceañera. A surprise party is a party, not made known beforehand to the person in whose honor it is being held. Birthday surprise parties are the most common kind of surprise party. At most such parties, the guests will arrive an hour or so before the honored person arrives. A friend in on the surprise will lead the honored person to the location of the party without letting on anything; the guests might conceal themselves from view, when the honored person enters the room, they leap from hiding and all shout, "Surprise!" For some surprise birthday parties, it is considered to be a good tactic to shock the honored person. Streamers, silly string, balloons may be used for this purpose.
Evidence of a party, such as decorations and balloons, are not made visible from the exterior of the home, so that the person honored will suspect nothing. A dinner party is a social gathering at which people eat dinner together in the host's home. At the most formal dinner parties, the dinner is served on a dining table with place settings. Dinner parties are preceded by a cocktail hour in a living room or bar, where guests drink cocktails while mingling and conversing. Wine is served throughout the meal with a different wine accompanying each course. At less formal dinner parties, a buffet is provided. Guests eat while standing up and conversing. Women guests may wear cocktail dresses. At some informal dinner parties, the host may ask guests to bring food or beverages. A party of this type is called a potluck dinner. In the United States, potlucks are often held in churches and community centers. A garden party is a party in a garden. An event described as a garden party is more formal than other outdoor gatherings, which may be called parties, barbecues, etc.
A garden party can be a prestigious event. For example, invitations by the British Sovereign to garden parties at Buckingham Palace are considered an honor; the President of France holds a garden party at the Palais de l'Elysée in Paris on Bastille Day. A cocktail party is a party, it is sometimes called a "cocktail reception". Women who attend a cocktail party may wear a cocktail dress. A cocktail hat is sometimes worn as a fashion statement. In Anglo-American culture, a tea party is a formal gathering for afternoon tea; these parties were traditionally attended only by women, but men may be invited. Tea parties are characterized by the use of prestigious tableware, such as bone china and silver; the table, whatever its size or cost, is made to look its prettiest, with cloth napkins and matching cups and plates. In addition to tea, larger parties may serve punch or, in cold weather, hot chocolate; the tea is accompanied by a variety of managed foods. Thin sandwiches such as cucumber or tomato, cake slices and cookies are all common choices.
Formal receptions are parties that are designed to receive a large number of guests at prestigious venues such as Buckingham Palace, the White House or Government Houses of the British Empire and Commonwealth. The hosts and any guests of honor form a receiving line in order of precedence near the entrance; each guest is announced to the host who greets each one in turn as she arrives. Each guest properly speak
Goulash is a stew of meat and vegetables seasoned with paprika and other spices. Originating from medieval Hungary, goulash is a popular meal predominantly eaten in Central Europe but in other parts of Europe, it is one of a symbol of the country. Its origin traces back to the 9th century to stews eaten by Hungarian shepherds. Back the cooked and flavored meat was dried with the help of the sun and packed into bags produced from sheep's stomachs, needing only water to make it into a meal. Earlier versions of goulash did not include paprika, as it was not introduced to the Old World until the 16th century; the name originates from the Hungarian "gulyás". The word "gulya" means "herd of cattle" in Hungarian, "gulyás" means "herdsman" or "cowboy"; the word gulyás meant only "herdsman", but over time the dish became gulyáshús –, to say, a meat dish, prepared by herdsmen. In medieval times the Hungarian herdsman of Central Europe made use of every possible part of the animal, as was common practice.
As meat was scarce, nearly all of the animal was used to make the soup. Today, gulyás refers both to the herdsmen, to the soup. From the Middle Ages until well into the 19th century, the Puszta was the home of massive herds of cattle, they were driven, in their tens of thousands, to Europe’s biggest cattle markets in Moravia, Vienna and Venice. The herdsmen made sure that there were always some cattle that had to be slaughtered along the way, the flesh of which provided them with gulyáshús. In Hungarian cuisine, traditional "Gulyásleves", "bográcsgulyás", pörkölt, paprikás were thick stews made by cattle herders and stockmen. Garlic, caraway seed, wine are optional; these dishes can be made as soups rather than stews. Excepting paprikás, the Hungarian stews do not rely on a roux for thickening. Tomato is a modern addition unknown in the original recipe and in the whole Central European food culture until the first half of the twentieth century. Goulash is as well a fundamental part of Slovak cuisine, where is prepared in several different tastes too the same ones of Hungarian cuisine.
Slovakia was an important part of the Kingdom of Hungary for several centuries, the two cuisines have many common recipes. Goulash can be prepared from beef, pork, or lamb. Typical cuts include shin, or shoulder. Meat is cut into chunks, seasoned with salt, browned with sliced onion in a pot with oil or lard. Paprika is added, along with water or stock, the goulash is left to simmer. After cooking a while, whole or ground caraway seed, or soup vegetables like carrot, parsley root and celery may be added. Other herbs and spices could be added chili pepper, bay leaf and thyme. Diced potatoes may be added, since they provide starch as they cook, which makes the goulash thicker and smoother. However, chili peppers and potatoes are post-16th century additions. A small amount of white wine or wine vinegar may be added near the end of cooking to round the taste. Goulash may be served with small egg noodles called csipetke; the name Csipetke comes from pinching small, fingernail-sized bits out of the dough before adding them to the boiling soup.
The Hungarian cook Karoly Gundel claims that in a goulash recipe, meat should not be mixed with any grains or with potatoes, so if potatoes or noodles are used, the meat should be omitted. Given the large number of goulash variants, this dictum is dubious. Hungarian goulash variations include: Székely Gulyás. Omit the potatoes and add sauerkraut and sour cream. Gulyás Hungarian Plain Style. Omit the homemade soup pasta and add vegetables. Mock Gulyás. Substitute beef bones for the meat and add vegetables. Called Hamisgulyás, Bean Gulyás. Omit the potatoes and the caraway seeds. Use kidney beans instead. Csángó Gulyás. Add sauerkraut instead of pasta and potatoes. Betyár Gulyás. Use smoked smoked pork for meat. Likócsi Pork Gulyás. Use pork and thin vermicelli in the goulash instead of potato and soup pasta. Flavour with lemon juice. Mutton Birkagulyás. Made with mutton. Add red wine for flavour. A thicker and richer goulash, similar to a stew made with three kinds of meat, is called Székely gulyás, named after the Hungarian writer and archivist József Székely.
"Paprikás krumpli" is a traditional paprika-based potato stew with diced potatoes, bell peppers, ground paprika and some bacon or sliced spicy sausage, like the smoked Debrecener, in lieu of beef. In German-speaking countries this inexpensive peasant stew is made with sausage and known as Kartoffelgulasch. Thick stews similar to pörkölt and the original cattlemen stew are popular throughout all the former Austrian-Hungarian Empire, from Northeast Italy to the Carpathians. Like pörkölt, these stews are served with boiled or mashed potato, dumplings, spätzle or, alternatively, as a stand-alone dish with bread. In Vienna, the former center of the Austro-Hungarian Empire, a special kind of goulash had been developed; the Wiener Saftgulasch or the Fiakergulasch on the menu in traditional restaurants is a rich pörkölt-like stew. A variation of the Wiene
King Arthur was a legendary British leader who, according to medieval histories and romances, led the defence of Britain against Saxon invaders in the late 5th and early 6th centuries. The details of Arthur's story are composed of folklore and literary invention, his historical existence is debated and disputed by modern historians; the sparse historical background of Arthur is gleaned from various sources, including the Annales Cambriae, the Historia Brittonum, the writings of Gildas. Arthur's name occurs in early poetic sources such as Y Gododdin. Arthur is a central figure in the legends making up the Matter of Britain; the legendary Arthur developed as a figure of international interest through the popularity of Geoffrey of Monmouth's fanciful and imaginative 12th-century Historia Regum Britanniae. In some Welsh and Breton tales and poems that date from before this work, Arthur appears either as a great warrior defending Britain from human and supernatural enemies or as a magical figure of folklore, sometimes associated with the Welsh otherworld Annwn.
How much of Geoffrey's Historia was adapted from such earlier sources, rather than invented by Geoffrey himself, is unknown. Although the themes and characters of the Arthurian legend varied from text to text, there is no one canonical version, Geoffrey's version of events served as the starting point for stories. Geoffrey depicted Arthur as a king of Britain who established a vast empire. Many elements and incidents that are now an integral part of the Arthurian story appear in Geoffrey's Historia, including Arthur's father Uther Pendragon, the magician Merlin, Arthur's wife Guinevere, the sword Excalibur, Arthur's conception at Tintagel, his final battle against Mordred at Camlann, final rest in Avalon; the 12th-century French writer Chrétien de Troyes, who added Lancelot and the Holy Grail to the story, began the genre of Arthurian romance that became a significant strand of medieval literature. In these French stories, the narrative focus shifts from King Arthur himself to other characters, such as various Knights of the Round Table.
Arthurian literature thrived during the Middle Ages but waned in the centuries that followed until it experienced a major resurgence in the 19th century. In the 21st century, the legend lives on, not only in literature but in adaptations for theatre, television and other media; the historical basis for King Arthur has long been debated by scholars. One school of thought, citing entries in the Historia Brittonum and Annales Cambriae, sees Arthur as a genuine historical figure, a Romano-British leader who fought against the invading Anglo-Saxons some time in the late 5th to early 6th century; the Historia Brittonum, a 9th-century Latin historical compilation attributed in some late manuscripts to a Welsh cleric called Nennius, contains the first datable mention of King Arthur, listing twelve battles that Arthur fought. These culminate in the Battle of Badon. Recent studies, question the reliability of the Historia Brittonum; the other text that seems to support the case for Arthur's historical existence is the 10th-century Annales Cambriae, which link Arthur with the Battle of Badon.
The Annales date this battle to 516–518, mention the Battle of Camlann, in which Arthur and Medraut were both killed, dated to 537–539. These details have been used to bolster confidence in the Historia's account and to confirm that Arthur did fight at Badon. Problems have been identified, with using this source to support the Historia Brittonum's account; the latest research shows that the Annales Cambriae was based on a chronicle begun in the late 8th century in Wales. Additionally, the complex textual history of the Annales Cambriae precludes any certainty that the Arthurian annals were added to it that early, they were more added at some point in the 10th century and may never have existed in any earlier set of annals. The Badon entry derived from the Historia Brittonum; this lack of convincing early evidence is the reason many recent historians exclude Arthur from their accounts of sub-Roman Britain. In the view of historian Thomas Charles-Edwards, "at this stage of the enquiry, one can only say that there may well have been an historical Arthur the historian can as yet say nothing of value about him".
These modern admissions of ignorance are a recent trend. The historian John Morris made the putative reign of Arthur the organising principle of his history of sub-Roman Britain and Ireland, The Age of Arthur. So, he found little to say about a historical Arthur. In reaction to such theories, another school of thought emerged which argued that Arthur had no historical existence at all. Morris's Age of Arthur prompted the archaeologist Nowell Myres to observe that "no figure on the borderline of history and mythology has wasted more of the historian's time". Gildas' 6th-century polemic De Excidio et Conquestu Britanniae, written within living memory of Badon, mentions the battle but does not mention Arthur. Arthur is not mentioned in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle or named in any surviving manuscript written between 400 and 820, he is absent from Bede's early-8th-century Ecclesiastical History of the English People, another major early source for post-Roman history that mentions Badon. The historian David Dumville wrote: "I think.
He owes his place in our history books to a'no smoke without fire' school of thought... The f
Gamasot, or sot, is a big, heavy pot or cauldron used for Korean cooking. The origins of the ‘sot’ originate in the "Chung", made of bronze. Researchers have speculated that copper would be easier to handle because it has a lower melting point than steel. Bronze ‘sot’ are unearthed as remains of the Three Kingdoms period, because the meaning of'Chung' was symbolic of the nation, the throne, the industry. However, the history of iron ‘sot’ goes up to the Bronze Age much earlier than the Three Kingdoms period; the copper ‘sot’ on the Korean Peninsula were first discovered in the remains of Gojoson, which belongs to the late Bronze Age Korean copper sword culture period. A large amount of ‘sot’ is excavated from the ruins of the'Hansa-gun', installed as the Gojoseon was destroyed by Han in 108 BC. In particular, the remains of ‘Nakrang-gun’ are famous for the largest number of pots among the four groups, it was large and recessed to fit the large family of Korea. In general, gama mean utensils when light a fire, sot means pot and bowl that cook rice.
The gamasot has no legs and the bottom of the pot is round and has a small recess at the edge of the entrance. There are four projections on the body, convenient to put across the stove; the lid is made of iron, it has a convenient tap in the middle. From ancient times, the pot was not a device for cooking food, but a symbol of kingship, power and industry, it was used as a tool to record the achievements of public figures or to punish corrupt officials, religious ceremonies, or food for the dead. In ancient China, a cup of liquor, a bowl of liquor and a bronze pot was the symbol of kingship. In 606 BCE, the first lord of Joo in Qing Dynasty, If the virtue of the king is beautiful and bright, it is difficult to move the pot if it is small, if the virtue is distorted and foolish, it is easy to move because it is big if it is big. By comparing the virtue of the king to the size of the pot and expressing the kingship by the weight of the pot, he recognized the pot as a symbol of the kingship. Cooking rice in gamasot is a longstanding custom in Korea, that began at least during the reign of King Daemusin in Goguryeo.
The structure of a pot is divided into a lid that covers the pot and a pot, the body that cooks rice or rice. In the past, there was a leg on the bottom of the pot. A iron pot is a tool to cook rice in a fireplace by burning a tree in an oven; the lid is attached to the pot, so that the steam generated when boiling the food can not escape well. It is made to increase the pressure of water vapor in the pot with the weight of the heavy lid. In this case, there is a science principle that can produce delicious rice more than the general cooker or electric rice cooker we are using. First, when you cook rice using a pot, you burn it; the temperature of the pot will rise due to the heat conduction, the water will boil. The important point is that the lower part of the pot, directly exposed to fire, is made thicker, the upper part is made thinner to 1/2; as a result, the heat is transferred evenly in the pot, so that the moisture content ratio is high, the rice balls are formed. And another reason why delicious rice is made is found on the lid.
When the water boils in the pot, water vapor is generated. When it is blown out, the heat in the pot is lost and the temperature falls. In order to prevent the steam from leaking out, the lid is covered, so when steam is generated, the steam pressure in the pot rises and the rice boils; this principle can be seen when we climb on high mountains and cook rice. On the mountain, the pressure is low and the boiling temperature of the water is lowered. To prevent this, we place heavy stones on the lid, the principle of the lid of the iron pot; that is, when the weight ratio between the lid and the pot is about one third, the pressure inside the pot is the most appropriate, the high temperature is maintained for a long time, so that the color, the gloss, the smell, the taste and the stickiness of rice are the best conditions. And when the lid is made about one third of the weight of the pot, the lid is automatically opened by the water vapor when the rice is cooked; the ancestors see this reduce the heat.
If you cook rice in gamasot, it is good. And because the iron in the pot increased the hemoglobin level, it is said that there is no anemia when eating rice in gamasot, it can be seen that it is the electric pressure cooker which shows the new technology by combining the principle of gamasot with the modern science. The lid of Gamasot is heavy and changes temperature, it maintains high internal pressure and high temperature, it becomes delicious rice. The Gamasot lid is much heavier than the pot lid made of other materials; the pressure cooker, used these days is enough to lock the function. If the pot lid is heavy, the air inside the pot will expand when heated with fire, the water will turn into steam. If the lid is light, water vapor can escape, but if it is heavy, it will escape less and the internal pressure will rise; the higher the pressure, the higher the boiling point of water, the more rice is cooked at over 100 degrees, the better it gets at the lower temperature, the better the taste.
To ripe rice, atmospheric pressure or more is required. When you cook rice, the air and water vapor in the pot escape, when it is steaming it is less ripe; the traditional Gamasot lid weighs one-third of the entire pot, this principle is applied by the electric pressure cooker. However, since the electric pressure cooker can not put such a