People Places
History Art
Science
SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Cave of Altamira and Paleolithic Cave Art of Northern Spain

Under the name Cave of Altamira and Paleolithic Cave Art of Northern Spain are grouped 18 caves of northern Spain, which together represent the apogee of Upper Paleolithic cave art in Europe between 35,000 and 11,000 years ago. They have been collectively designated a World Heritage Site by the UNESCO in 2008. Chief among these caves is Altamira, located within the town of Santillana del Mar in Cantabria, it remains one of the most important painting cycles of prehistory, originating in the Magdalenian and Solutrean periods of the Upper Paleolithic. This cave's artistic style represents the Franco-cantabrian school, characterized by the realism of its figural representation. Altamira Cave was declared a World Heritage Site in 1985. In 2008 the World Heritage Site was expanded to include 17 additional caves located in three autonomous regions of northern Spain: Asturias and the Basque Country. National Museum and Research Center of Altamira Caves in Cantabria Franco-Cantabrian region Art of the Upper Paleolithic List of Stone Age art Cave of Altamira and Paleolithic Cave Art of Northern Spain Pike, A. W. G..

"U-Series Dating of Paleolithic Art in 11 Caves in Spain". Science. 336: 1409–1413. Doi:10.1126/science.1219957. PMID 22700921

Ghassan Rahbani

Ghassan Elias Rahbani is a Lebanese producer, composer, orchestra conductor and singer. He is a member of the prominent Rahbani family well known for their musical contributions to Lebanese music through the decades including inspiring and nurturing songstress Fairuz whom Assi Rahbani would marry, he was raised in a family of musicians, led by his late uncles Assi Rahbani and Mansour Rahbani, by his father Elias Rahbani. He started his involvement with music early by stealing music and began composing between the age of 7 and 10. At the age of six he started his classical piano courses under the guidance of his teacher Mr. Agop Arslanian, followed by Solfege theory, both traditional and modern harmony, contre point, musical analysis, orchestration. At the age of 11, he sang along with his brother Jad Rahbani, famous long playing songs composed by their father "Elias Rahbani", containing 13 of what became famous kids songs on which many Lebanese in the 1970s grew up listening to such as, "Kellon Indoun Sayarat", "Toll' Eddaou al Wawi", "Ammy Bou Massoud"...etc.

He pioneered in combining of Hard rock in Lebanon with the music of the Middle East. He spent the first 10 years of his career composing in this genre. At the age of fifteen, he released his first album, followed by two more the next year, as a solo artist. In 1981 and at the age of 17, Gassan formed a band called "WILD HAZE" with George Hayek, Fida Zalloom, Tony Samaha; the band was formed during the climax of the Lebanese war which affected Gassan's ideas in Heavy Metal music. Wild Haze's first album At Last the First was so called for being the first heavy metal English album in the Middle East under the name of a band and not as a solo artist; this album has been left unreleased due to internal conflicts. Wild Haze performed at Mont La Salle, USEK university, George V theater; the band broke up in. The same year, he created The Ghassan Rahbani Group. "GRG" took the audience by storm specially with its one step ahead performances and stage appearances starting with the unforgettable "Dog river rock concert" in 1985, followed by " The Casino du Liban rock concert" in 1986.

The musicians that went through "GRG" were many... Guitarists: Marwan Nahle, Habib Sleilati, Mario Ashy, Kabalan Samaha, Nabil Heshy, George Hayek and Alain McDessi. Keyboardists: Jad Rahbani, Hadi Sharara Jean-Claude Issa. Bass: Anto Katerjian, Tarek Kabbani, Andre Segone, Roger Abi Akl and Richard Fawaz. Drummers: Nanoo Khoory, Tony Samaha, Ramsey Khattar, Michel Matar, Johnny Badran, Sammy Jureidini, Walleed Taweel and Sako Sagherian; the group's current members are: -Anto Katerjian -Ghassan Rahbani -Alain Makdessi -Richard Fawaz -Sako Sagherian. In 1987 GR. won the press prize in the International song contest in Sopot, performing 2 of his compositions. In 1990 the imposed "fake peace" in Lebanon pushed GR to express his pain and ideas in the Lebanese Language beside the English singing defending ecology and criticizing authorities and Arab governors. In this field "GRG" Knew lots of hits written and composed by GR such as: Vitamine, Kossitna bhal mujtamaa, Baladyyet Beirut, Iza Zaajak Sheelo, Wen'elkon nehna meen, Tareek el mataar, Maaly Lwazeer, Sentel 2000 part one and two and El jamhoor aayez kidah.

In 1996 a big turning point in GR's artistic career was his first historical musical epic "HANNIBAL" which he wrote and composed with more than 60 actors on stage directed by Mr. Yacoob Shedrawi; this historical epic played around 12 months in Lebanon and moved to Tunisia for five performances inaugurating the 33rd Carthage summer festival and the Madina festival. Ghassan Saleeba played Hannibal's role, Ranya Ghosen El Hajj played Imilsa, Joseph Boo Nassar played Scipio Africanus, Pierre Dagher played Maharbaal along with 60 actors and dancers. "HANNIBAL" is considered to be a turning point in the Lebanese and Arab theater for dealing with it from a different angle, a lots of renovations were made in the "HANNIBAL" epic such as realizing the whole life of a hero from birth until death within 2 hours, working on the scenes from a cinematic point of view, first to show real battles between soldiers fighting on stage, mixing hard rock and classical scenes. In 2000, GR played the role of Judas in "And He roses on the third day", a musical by Ossama Rahbani, written by Mr. Mansour Rahbani and directed by Marwan Rahbani.

"The 4 CATS" band, was his last innovation formed late 1997. Until nowadays both "The 4 Cats" and "GRG" are going stronger, # 1 in Arabian top charts as long as CD selling. -GR has more than 120 English and Lebanese recorded songs. 3 music soundtrack for movies. More than 60 live indoor and outdoor concerts were made until the present day by "GRG" in Lebanon and all around the Middle East. 7 CD's were released under Ghassan Rahbani as a solo album. -In summer 2001, June, GR and Ziad Rahbani joined together in the "Mneeha" concert at "Mont la Salle" joining around 10.000 spectators in two consecutive nights. In 2002 GRG released a heavy metal video clip in Lebanese called "Al Jamhoor Ayez Kidah". In February 2003 GRG released a special Valentine Video clip R'n'B style in English called "Without Ur Love" shot in Beirut. LBCI has produced the latest GRG Video clip "Karn El Alfen" Shot in Beirut in the BUS, the classical part shot in Saint Joseph Cathedral, with collaboration of

Diamond Mine (video game)

Diamond Mine is a video game first published by MRM Software for the Acorn Electron and BBC Micro home computers in 1984. Blue Ribbon released Diamond Mine II, at the same time. Both games are similar to the 1983 game Oil's Well, which itself is a re-themed version of the 1982 Anteater arcade game. Diamond Mine was reissued by Blue Ribbon in 1985 and ported to other systems in 1985 and 1986; the aim of the game is to guide a pipe through a maze-like mine to collect diamonds while avoiding hitting the walls or the patrolling monsters. The player has a set length of pipe for each level. Once the pipe has started moving, it cannot stop and if it is retracted, that section of pipe is lost. If the pipe is hit by a monster or hits a wall, twice the amount of pipe is lost. Diamonds are placed sporadically in the maze and there is no way to kill the monsters; the sequel is similar but with fundamental changes in the game play. The pipe can pause, can be retracted at any time without penalty and the walls cannot be hit.

The monsters can be killed by touching them with the end of the pipe and they do not move while the pipe is being retracted. The maze is populated by regular diamonds which more resemble the dots in a Pac-Man maze. Diamond Mine at Atari Mania Diamond Mine at Plus/4 World Diamond Mine II at Plus/4 World Diamond Mine II at Generation MSX MRM Software at Acorn Electron World