Cave paintings are a type of parietal art, found on the wall or ceilings of caves. The term implies prehistoric origin, but cave paintings can be of recent production: In the Gabarnmung cave of northern Australia, the oldest paintings predate 28,000 years ago, while the most recent ones were made less than a century ago; the oldest known cave paintings are more than 44,000 years old, found in both the Franco-Cantabrian region in western Europe, in the caves in the district of Maros. The oldest type of cave paintings are simple geometric shapes. A 2018 study claimed an age of 64,000 years for the oldest examples of cave art in Iberia, which would imply production by Neanderthals rather than modern humans. In November 2018, scientists reported the discovery of the oldest known figurative art painting, over 40,000 years old, of an unknown animal, in the cave of Lubang Jeriji Saléh on the Indonesian island of Borneo. In December 2019, scientists reported the discovery of cave paintings in the Caves in the Maros-Pangkep karst in Sulawesi, estimated to be at least 43,900 years old, noted that the finding was “the oldest pictorial record of storytelling and the earliest figurative artwork in the world”.
Nearly 350 caves have now been discovered in France and Spain that contain art from prehistoric times. The age of the paintings had been a contentious issue, since methods like radiocarbon dating can produce misleading results if contaminated by samples of older or newer material, caves and rocky overhangs are littered with debris from many time periods, but subsequent technology has made it possible to date the paintings by sampling the pigment itself, torch marks on the walls, or the formation of carbonate deposits on top of the paintings. The subject matter can indicate chronology: for instance, the reindeer depicted in the Spanish cave of Cueva de las Monedas places the drawings in the last Ice Age; the oldest known cave painting is a red hand stencil in Cáceres, Spain. It has been dated using the uranium-thorium method to older than 64,000 years and was made by a Neanderthal; the oldest date given to an animal cave painting is now a bull dated circa as over 40 000 years, at Lubang Jeriji Saléh cave, East Kalimantan, Indonesia.
Before this discovery, the oldest known cave painting was a depiction of a pig with a minimum age of 35,400 years, at Timpuseng cave in Sulawesi, Indonesia. The earliest known European figurative cave paintings are those of Chauvet Cave in France; these paintings date to earlier than 30,000 BCE according to radiocarbon dating. Some researchers believe the drawings question this age. However, more than 80 radiocarbon dates had been obtained by 2011, with samples taken from torch marks and from the paintings themselves, as well as from animal bones and charcoal found on the cave floor; the radiocarbon dates from these samples show that there were two periods of creation in Chauvet: 35,000 years ago and 30,000 years ago. One of the surprises was that many of the paintings were modified over thousands of years explaining the confusion about finer paintings that seemed to date earlier than cruder ones. In 2009, cavers discovered drawings in Coliboaia Cave in Romania, stylistically comparable to those at Chauvet.
An initial dating puts the age of an image in the same range as Chauvet: about 32,000 years old. In Australia, cave paintings have been found on the Arnhem Land plateau showing megafauna which are thought to have been extinct for over 40,000 years, making this site another candidate for oldest known painting. Another Australian site, Nawarla Gabarnmang, has charcoal drawings that have been radiocarbon-dated to 28,000 years, making it the oldest site in Australia and among the oldest in the world for which reliable date evidence has been obtained. Other examples may date as late as the Early Bronze Age, but the well-known Magdalenian style seen at Lascaux in France and Altamira in Spain died out about 10,000 BCE, coinciding with the advent of the Neolithic period; some caves continued to be painted over a period of several thousands of years. The next phase of surviving European prehistoric painting, the rock art of the Iberian Mediterranean Basin, was different, concentrating on large assemblies of smaller and much less detailed figures, with at least as many humans as animals.
This was created between 10,000 and 5,500 years ago, painted in rock shelters under cliffs or shallow caves, in contrast to the recesses of deep caves used in the earlier period. Although individual figures are less naturalistic, they are grouped in coherent grouped compositions to a much greater degree; the most common subjects in cave paintings are large wild animals, such as bison, horses and deer, tracings of human hands as well as abstract patterns, called finger flutings. The species found most were suitable for hunting by humans, but were not the actual typical prey found in associated deposits of bones. Drawings of humans were rare and are schematic as opposed to the more detailed and naturalistic images of animal subjects. Kieran
Yonohommachi Station is a railway station on the Saikyō Line in Chūō-ku, Saitama Prefecture, operated by the East Japan Railway Company. Yonohommachi Station is served by the Saikyō Line which runs between Ōsaki in Tokyo and Ōmiya in Saitama Prefecture; some trains continue northward to Kawagoe via the Kawagoe Line and southward to Shin-Kiba via the TWR Rinkai Line. The station is located 20.6 km from Ikebukuro Station. The station identification colour is "flesh"; the station consists of one elevated island platform serving two tracks, with the station building located underneath. The tracks of the Tōhoku Shinkansen run adjacent to this station, on the west side; the station has a "Midori no Madoguchi" staffed ticket office. The station opened on 30 September 1985. In fiscal 2014, the station was used by an average of 14,497 passengers daily; the passenger figures for previous years are as shown below. Yono Station Saitama Chūō-ku Ward Office Yono Post Office Saitama Regional Immigration Office Saitama Yono High School National Route 17 Yono Park Sai-no-Kuni Saitama Arts Theater List of railway stations in Japan Yonohommachi Station information
Wolter Kroes is a Dutch singer with many hits. He is best known for his big hit single "Viva Hollandia" that reached #1 on Dutch Top 40 in 2008. 1994: Laat me los 1998: De wereld in 2000: Niemand anders 2000 Jij Bent Alles Voor Mij 2002: 24 Uur per dag 2005: Laat me zweven 2006: Langzaam 2008: Echt niet normaal! 2011: Feest met Wolter Kroes 2011: Tussen jou en mij 2016: Formidabel Live albums2003: Het beste Live 2005: Live in Ahoy 1995: "Laat me los" 2000: "Jij bent alles voor mij" 2005: "Laat me zweven" 2007: "Niet normaal" 2008: "Donker om je heen" 2008: "Viva Hollandia" 2010: "Viva Hollandia" 2012: "Ben je ook voor Nederland? - De geluksvogeltjesdans" 2017: "Vannacht" met StukTV 2003: Wolter Kroes Live in concert in de Heineken Music Hall 2005: Live in Ahoy 2006: Uit en thuis - Documentary film about Wolter Kroes Official website