Rock art

In archaeology, rock art is human-made markings placed on natural stone. A global phenomenon, rock art is found in many culturally diverse regions of the world, it has been produced in many contexts throughout human history, although the majority of rock art, ethnographically recorded has been produced as a part of ritual. Such artworks are divided into three forms: petroglyphs, which are carved into the rock surface, which are painted onto the surface, earth figures, formed on the ground; the oldest known rock art dates from the Upper Palaeolithic period, having been found in Europe, Australia and Africa. Archaeologists studying these artworks believe that they had magico-religious significance; the archaeological sub-discipline of rock art studies first developed in the late-19th century among Francophone scholars studying the Upper Palaeolithic rock art found in the cave systems of Western Europe. Rock art continues to be of importance to indigenous peoples in various parts of the world, who view them as both sacred items and significant components of their cultural patrimony.

Such archaeological sites are significant sources of cultural tourism, have been utilised in popular culture for their aesthetic qualities. Found in literate cultures, a rock relief or rock-cut relief is a relief sculpture carved on solid or "living rock" such as a cliff, rather than a detached piece of stone, they are a category of rock art, sometimes found in conjunction with rock-cut architecture. However, they tend to be omitted in most works on rock art, which concentrate on engravings and paintings by prehistoric peoples. A few such works exploit the natural contours of the rock and use them to define an image, but they do not amount to man-made reliefs. Rock reliefs have been made in many cultures, were important in the art of the Ancient Near East. Rock reliefs are fairly large, as they need to be to make an impact in the open air. Most have figures that are over life-size, in many the figures are multiples of life-size. Stylistically they relate to other types of sculpture from the culture and period concerned, except for Hittite and Persian examples they are discussed as part of that wider subject.

The vertical relief is most common, but reliefs on horizontal surfaces are found. The term excludes relief carvings inside caves, whether natural or themselves man-made, which are found in India. Natural rock formations made into statues or other sculpture in the round, most famously at the Great Sphinx of Giza, are usually excluded. Reliefs on large boulders left in their natural location, like the Hittite İmamkullu relief, are to be included, but smaller boulders may be called stelae or carved orthostats; the term rock art appears in the published literature as early as the 1940s. It has been described as "rock carvings", "rock drawings", "rock engravings", "rock inscriptions", "rock paintings", "rock pictures", "rock records" "rock sculptures; the defining characteristic of rock art is. As such, rock art is a form of landscape art, includes designs that have been placed on boulder and cliff faces, cave walls and ceilings, on the ground surface. Rock art is a global phenomenon, being found in many different regions of the world.

There are various forms of rock art. These include pictographs, which were painted or drawn onto the panel, which were carved or engraved onto the panel, earth figures such as earthforms and geoglyphs; some archaeologists consider pits and grooves in the rock known as cupules, or cups or rings, as a form of rock art. Although there are exceptions, the majority of rock art whose creation was ethnographically recorded had been produced during rituals; as such, the study of rock art is a component of the archaeology of religion. Rock art serves multiple purposes in the contemporary world. In several regions, it remains spiritually important to indigenous peoples, who view it as a significant component of their cultural patrimony, it serves as an important source of cultural tourism, hence as economic revenue in certain parts of the world. As such, images taken from cave art have appeared on memorabilia and other artefacts sold as a part of the tourist industry. Pictographs are drawings that have been placed onto the rock face.

Such artworks have been made with mineral earths and other natural compounds found across much of the world. The predominantly used colours are red and white. Red paint is attained through the use of ground ochre, while black paint is composed of charcoal, or sometimes from minerals such as manganese. White paint is created from natural chalk, kaolinite clay or diatomaceous earth. Once the pigments had been obtained, they would be ground and mixed with a liquid, such as water, urine, or egg yolk, applied to the stone as paint using a brush, fingers, or a stamp. Alternately, the pigment could have been applied on dry, such as with a stick of charcoal. In some societies, the paint itself has religious meaning. One unusual form of pictograph, found in many, although not all rock-art producing cultures, is the hand print. There are three forms of this. The

Battle of Boldon Hill

The Battle of Boldon Hill was a skirmish fought during the English Civil War in March 1644, between a Royalist army attempting to bring the army of the Scottish Covenanters to battle. The Scots, having unsuccessfully attacked Newcastle, crossed the River Tyne higher upstream and attempted an attack against the defences on the southern end of the bridge over the river, which led directly into the walled fortification; the Marquess of Newcastle led his army out of Newcastle in pursuit of the marauding Scots. The two sides met; the Marquess retreated into the Royalist stronghold of Durham. In the following days, Leven made raids on Chester-le-Street, a vital crossing point of the River Wear and crucial to the Marquess of Newcastle's communications with the rest of England, on the Royalist garrison at South Shields. While initial attempts at a raid failed, the second raids of 20 March were successful for Leven. In response to this, the Marquess led his army out of Durham. On the morning of 25 March, the Scots occupied the Royalists took Boldon Hill.

The present day village of East Boldon lies between these two hills. The Boldon topography was not favourable for a battle. Neither side were hesitant to engage with one another. However, the two sides exchanged men lay dead in the valley. Shortly after this skirmish, news reached the Marquess of a major defeat for the Royalists at Selby, directly threatening York and his communications with the King; that year, the Royalist Army was soundly beaten at the Battle of Marston Moor near York ending Royalist control of northern England. Newman, P. R.. Atlas of the English Civil War. London: Routledge. Reed, Stuart. Scots Armies of the English Civil War. London: Osprey. Terry, Charles Sanford; the Life and Campaigns of Alexander Leslie, First Earl of Leven. London: Longmans

1996 South East Staffordshire by-election

A by-election was held for the British House of Commons constituency of South East Staffordshire on 11 April 1996 following the death of sitting Conservative MP Sir David Lincoln Lightbown. The result was a Labour gain from the Conservatives. News Bunny was a character on the cable channel Live TV; the candidate was an employee of the channel. The ballot paper description of the candidate N Samuelson was "Daily Loonylugs Earing Up the World" News Bunny was arrested during the campaign for obstructing the highway, he was filmed by BBC Midlands Today handing carrots out to motorists as part of his electioneering. The BBC captured the memorable line, spoken a female police officer to a male police officer, "Get that rabbit". List of United Kingdom by-elections List of Parliamentary constituencies in Staffordshire Campaign literature from the by-election