Great Western Tiers
The Great Western Tiers are a collection of mountain bluffs that form the northern edge of the Central Highlands plateau in Tasmania, Australia. The bluffs are contained within the Tasmanian Wilderness World Heritage Site; the bluffs stretch northwest to southeast over 100 kilometres from the 1,420-metre Western Bluff near the town of Mole Creek to the 1,210-metre Millers Bluff 25 kilometres west of Campbell Town. During the late 19th century the Tiers were known as the Great Western Range; the Central Highlands, or Tasmanian central plateau, was uplifted from the lower Meander Valley, most in the Eocene epoch though earlier, forming the Tiers' escarpment. The plateau's north-east boundary, which ranges from 760 metres –1,500 metres, originated in extensive Tertiary faulting; this escarpment divides the high, sparsely inhabited central plateau from the fertile lower land of the Meander Valley and the northern midlands. The edge of the tiers have prominent columns of Jurassic dolerite; the highest peak in the tiers is the 1,444-metre Ironstone Mountain.
Unlike most of the bluffs this mountain is not visible from the Meander Valley, but is south of the escarpment. The escarpment has a distinct concave profile. Cliffs and scree slopes are common features; the dolerite is so prominent as the older rocks that overlay them are softer and have been eroded away. In places dolerite columns have collapsed into scree slopes; the face of the tiers has been eroded and retreated 4 miles since their formation, leaving the mountain Quamby Bluff as a solitary outlier. The central plateau's landform has been changed by glaciation. Valleys under the tiers are filled with talus bounders with a 25% mix of soil formed from boulder weathering; the peaks and bluffs of the Great Western Tiers include: Brady's lookout, at 1,371 metres. Named after the bushranger Matthew Brady. Billop Bluff Dry's Bluff at 1,298 metres. Origin of the Liffey River. Ironstone Mountain, at 1,444 metres Millers Bluff, at 1,210 metres Mother Cummings Peak, at 1,255 metres Mount Blackwood Mount Parmeener Neals Bluff Panorama Hill Projection Bluff Quamby Bluff, at 1,227 metres Western Bluff, at 1,420 metres List of highest mountains of Tasmania Fish, Graham L..
Behind the scenery: the geological background to Tasmanian landforms. Hobart: Tasmanian Education Department. Forestry Commission of Tasmania. Quamby Bluff Forest Reserve Management Plan. ISBN 0-7246-3507-6. Lloyd, Sarah; the edge, a natural history of Tasmania's Great Western Tiers. Friends of Jacky's Marsh Inc. ISBN 978-0-646-57082-2. Whitworth, Robert Percy. Bailliere's Tasmanian gazetteer and road quide: containing the most recent and accurate information as to every place in the colony. Hobart: F. F. Bailliere
Census in Australia
The census in Australia, or the Census of Population and Housing, collects key characteristic data on every person in Australia, the place they are staying in, on a particular night. The census is the largest statistical collection compiled by the Australian Bureau of Statistics and is held every five years. Participation in the census is compulsory; the Australian Bureau of Statistics is legislated to collect and disseminate census data under the Australian Bureau of Statistics Act 1975, the Census and Statistics Act 1905. The first Australian census was held in 1911, on the night of 2 April and subsequent censuses were held in 1921, 1933, 1947, 1954 and 1961. In 1961 the five-year period was introduced. Censuses are held on the second Tuesday of August; the most recent was held on 9 August 2016 at a cost of $440 million. The census counts all people who are located within Australia and its external and internal territories, with the exception of foreign diplomats and their families, on census night.
For the first time, in 2016 Norfolk Island was included in the Australian census rather than being conducted by the Norfolk Island Government. The census examines data such as age, incomes, dwelling types and occupancy, transportation modes, languages spoken, religion; the census is collected and published against geographic areas defined by the Australian Standard Geographical Classification. The ASGC provides a set of geographic classifications for the dissemination of all ABS statistics. In 2007 the ABS published; the primary aim of mesh blocks is to provide a building block for constructing alternative and more relevant geographies. Only data on total persons and total dwellings is released at the mesh block level. Mesh blocks will form the basis of a new statistical geography, the Australian Statistical Geography Standard; the traditional concept of a Collection District is that it was the area that one census collector can cover in about a ten-day period. In the 2001 census, collectors may be allocated more than one urban collection district because of their size.
In urban areas collection districts average about 220 dwellings. In rural areas the number of dwellings per collection district reduces as population densities decrease. For the 2016 census there were 358,122'mesh blocks' and 57,523 spatial Statistical Area Level 1 regions defined throughout Australia; the Census and Statistics Act 1905 and Privacy Act 1988 guarantee that no personally-identifiable information is released from the ABS to other government organisations, or the public. However the ABS makes confidential census data available to researchers, who must make various legal commitments before being given access. In the 1970s there was public debate about the census. In 1979 the Law Reform Commission reported on the Census. One of the key elements under question was the inclusion of names, it was found. On 18 December 2015, the ABS announced that it will retain name and address data collected in the 2016 census for up to four years; this was an increase from 18 months in the 2011 censuses.
From 1971 to 1996 the ABS had a policy of destruction of the original census forms and their electronic representations, as well as field records. Prior to that it appears there was no explicit policy of destruction, but most material had been destroyed because of lack of storage facilities; however the 2001 census offered, for the first time, an option to have personal data archived by the National Archives of Australia and released to the public 99 years and in 2001 54% of Australians agreed to do so. Indigenous Australians in contact with the colonists were enumerated at many of the colonial censuses; when the Federation of Australia occurred in 1901, the new Constitution contained a provision, which said: "In reckoning the numbers of the people of the Commonwealth, or of a State or other part of the Commonwealth, aboriginal natives shall not be counted." In 1967, a referendum was held which approved two amendments to the Australian constitution relating to indigenous Australians. The second of the two amendments deleted Section 127 from the Constitution.
It was believed at the time of the referendum, is still said, that Section 127 meant that aboriginal people were not counted in Commonwealth censuses before 1967. In fact section 127 related to calculating the population of the states and territories for the purpose of allocating seats in Parliament and per capita Commonwealth grants, its purpose was to prevent Queensland and Western Australia using their large aboriginal populations to gain extra seats or extra funds. Thus the Commonwealth Bureau of Census and Statistics interpreted Section 127 as meaning that they may enumerate "aboriginal natives" but that they must be excluded from published tabulations of population. Aboriginal people living in settled areas were counted to a greater or lesser extent in all censuses before 1967; the first Commonwealth Statistician, George Handley Knibbs, obtained a legal opinion that "persons of the half blood" or less are not "aboriginal natives" for the purposes of the Constitution. At the first Australian census in 1911 only those "aboriginal natives" living near white settlements were enumerated, the main population tables included only those of half or less aboriginal descent.
Details of "half-caste" (but not "ful
Division of Lyons (state)
The electoral division of Lyons is one of the five electorates in the Tasmanian House of Assembly, it is the largest electorate covering most of central and eastern Tasmania. Lyons is named jointly in honor of Prime Minister of Australia; the electorate shares its name and boundaries with the federal division of Lyons. Lyons and the other House of Assembly electoral divisions are each represented by five members elected under the Hare-Clark electoral system. Before 1984, it was known as the Division of Wilmot. In 1984, it was renamed to jointly honour Joseph Lyons, his wife, Dame Enid Lyons, the first woman elected to the Australian House of Representatives in 1943 and subsequently the first female member of Cabinet. Joseph Lyons represented the area for over 30 years at the state and federal levels. Lyons is the largest electorate in Tasmania measuring 33,212 km2, it includes the far northern suburbs of Hobart and the towns of St. Helens, Bicheno, Campbell Town, Longford and Bothwell. Tasmanian Legislative Council Parliament of Tasmania Tasmanian Electoral Commission - House of Assembly
Devonport is a city in northern Tasmania, Australia. It is situated at the mouth of the Mersey River. Devonport had an urban population of 23,046 at the 2016 Australian census During the 1850s the twin settlements of Formby and Torquay were established on opposite banks at the mouth of the Mersey River. Torquay on the eastern shore was the larger community with police, magistrate, at least three hotels and stores. A river ferry service connected the two communities. Between 1870 and 1880 the shipping industry grew and work was undertaken to deepen the mouth of the river; when the mouth of the river could support a shipping industry the first regular steamer services commenced, operating directly between the Mersey and Melbourne. In 1882 the Marine Board building remains the oldest standing building in Devonport. In 1889 the Bluff lighthouse was completed and the turn of the century saw the railway make a significant difference to the Formby community, it combined a port facilities in the one place.
A wharf was created on the west bank, close to warehouses. The railway brought a building boom to Formby. In 1890 a public vote united Torquay and Formby, the settlements became the town of Devonport; the Victoria bridge was opened in 1902 which enabled a land transport link between Devonport and East Devonport. Devonport was proclaimed a city by Prince Charles of Wales on 21 April 1981 in a ceremony conducted on the Devonport Oval; the cross river ferry service was discontinued in 2014 after 160 years of continuous service when the vessel the "Torquay" was taken out of service. It has since resumed operating. Areas within Devonport as a suburb include Highfield Areas within East Devonport as a suburb includes Pardoe Downs, Pannorama Heights The full list of Suburbs of the City of Devonport are: List of suburbs The main CBD is on the west side of the Mersey River and includes a pedestrian mall, speciality stores, chain stores such as IGA and hotels. There are several local cafes. Local theatre and Conventions are held at the Devonport Entertainment and Convention Centre in the city's CBD.
The Devonport Regional Gallery evolved from the inception of The Little Gallery, founded by Jean Thomas as a private enterprise in 1966. The Gallery presents an annual program of exhibitions and public programs including events and workshops. Another smaller gallery is the Blue Apple Gift Gallery. A selected range of local artisan works are displayed at the North West Regional Craft Centre in the CBD. Tiagarra Aboriginal Culture Centre and Museum displays petroglyphs, designs in rock and exhibits that depict the traditional lifestyle of Tasmanian Aboriginal people; the Bass Strait Maritime Centre housed in the former Harbour Master's House has objects and photographs that tells the stories of Bass Strait and Devonport. A Railway Museum is situated at Don; the former Devonport Maternity Hospital was demolished and the land sold to a developer for building affordable housing. The Mersey Community Hospital at Latrobe serves the Devonport community for their health needs. Devonport's night club was known as "City Limits" in the 1980s, "The Warehouse" from 1991, re-branded as "House" in 2014.
Kokoda Barracks is an army barracks in Devonport. Annette Rockliff was elected mayor of the City of Devonport in 2018. There are 9 aldermen that govern the Devonport City Council Devonport AirportDevonport Airport is located at Pardoe Downs 7 km to the east of the city of Devonport, about a 15 min drive by car; the airport is serviced by Bombardier Dash 8 turboprop aircraft, operated by QantasLink, with four daily services to Melbourne, Victoria. There are several bus companies serving Devonport including Mersey Link, Redline Coaches and Phoenix Coaches. Metropolitan Devonport bus services are limited on Saturdays and there are no services on Sundays or Public holidays. Freight Searoad Road Shipping operate two roll on roll off vessel of general freight between Devonport and King Island; these vessels include MV Searoad Mersey II and MV Searoad Tamar. Cement Australia has exported cement products produced from Railton to Melbourne since 1926. Other exports via ships include tallow. In early days coal was an export product.
Imports include petroleum, bunker fuel and caustic soda. RailA rail line still services the ports area of Devonport. Devonport once had a railway maintenance yards on the foreshore of the Mersey River. A park exists there today. Passenger Ferry TerminalDevonport is the southern terminus for the Spirit of Tasmania ferries – Spirit I and II travel the 11 hours to Melbourne. Melbourne – Devonport Passenger Ferry History The Devonport area has rich red soils that are ideal for producing vegetable crops and significant values of cereals, oil poppies and other crops. Hillcrest Primary School Devonport Primary School Miandetta Primary School East Devonport Primary School Nixon Street Primary School Spreyton Primary School Devonport Christian School Our Lady of Lourdes Catholic Primary School Devonport High School Reece High School St Brendan-Shaw College The Don College St Brendan-Shaw CollegeA TasTAFE campus, an adult training institution, is situated in Valley Road. Devonport has an oceanic climate with mild to warm summers and moist winters and high humidity all year round.
Most days from January to March are pleasantly warm. The warmest and driest days can reach up to 28 °C. Unlike the south and east coasts of Tasmania, humid northerly winds prevent heatwaves and temper
Caving – traditionally known as spelunking in the United States and Canada and potholing in the United Kingdom and Ireland – is the recreational pastime of exploring wild cave systems. In contrast, speleology is the scientific study of the cave environment; the challenges involved in caving vary according to the cave being visited. Cave diving is a distinct, more hazardous, sub-speciality undertaken by a small minority of technically proficient cavers. In an area of overlap between recreational pursuit and scientific study, the most devoted and serious-minded cavers become accomplished at the surveying and mapping of caves and the formal publication of their efforts. In the US, these are private, but in the UK and other European countries, they are published and publicly. Sometimes categorized as an "extreme sport", it is not considered as such by longtime enthusiasts, who may dislike the term for its connotation of disregard for safety. Many caving skills overlap with those involved in urban exploration.
Caving is undertaken for the enjoyment of the outdoor activity or for physical exercise, as well as original exploration, similar to mountaineering or diving. Physical or biological science is an important goal for some cavers, while others are engaged in cave photography. Virgin cave systems comprise some of the last unexplored regions on Earth and much effort is put into trying to locate and survey them. In well-explored regions, the most accessible caves have been explored, gaining access to new caves requires cave digging or cave diving. Caving, in certain areas, has been utilized as a form of eco and adventure tourism. Tour companies have established an industry leading and guiding tours through caves. Depending on the type of cave and the type of tour, the experience could be adventure-based or ecological-based. In many areas, there are tours led through lava tubes by a guiding service. Caving has been described as an "individualist's team sport" by some, as cavers can make a trip without direct physical assistance from others but will go in a group for companionship or to provide emergency help if needed.
Some however consider the assistance cavers give each other as a typical team sport activity. Clay Perry, an American caver of the 1940s, wrote about a group of men and boys who explored and studied caves throughout New England; this group referred to themselves as spelunkers, a term derived from the Latin spēlunca, itself from the Greek σπῆλυγξ spēlynks. This is regarded as the first use of the word in the Americas. Throughout the 1950s, spelunking was the general term used for exploring caves in US English, it was used without any positive or negative connotations, although only outside the US. In the 1960s, the terms spelunking and spelunker began to be considered déclassé among experienced enthusiasts. In 1985, Steve Knutson – editor of the National Speleological Society publication American Caving Accidents – made the following distinction: …Note that I use the term'spelunker' to denote someone untrained and unknowledgeable in current exploration techniques, and'caver' for those who are.
This sentiment is exemplified by bumper stickers and T-shirts displayed by some cavers: "Cavers rescue spelunkers". Outside the caving community, "spelunking" and "spelunkers" predominately remain neutral terms referring to the practice and practitioners, without any respect to skill level. Potholing refers to the act of exploring potholes, a word originating in the north of England for predominantly vertical caves; the base term caving comes from the Latin cavea or caverna, meaning a cave. Caving was pioneered by Édouard-Alfred Martel, who first achieved the descent and exploration of the Gouffre de Padirac, in France, as early as 1889 and the first complete descent of a 110-metre wet vertical shaft at Gaping Gill, in Yorkshire, England, in 1895, he developed his own techniques based on metallic ladders. Martel visited Kentucky and notably Mammoth Cave National Park in October 1912. In the 1920s famous US caver Floyd Collins made important explorations in the area and in the 1930s, as caving became popular, small exploration teams both in the Alps and in the karstic high plateaus of southwest France transformed cave exploration into both a scientific and recreational activity.
Robert de Joly, Guy de Lavaur and Norbert Casteret were prominent figures of that time, surveying caves in Southwest France. During World War II, an alpine team composed of Pierre Chevalier, Fernand Petzl, Charles Petit-Didier and others explored the Dent de Crolles cave system near Grenoble, which became the deepest explored system in the world at that time; the lack of available equipment during the war forced Pierre Chevalier and the rest of the team to develop their own equipment, leading to technical innovation. The scaling-pole, nylon ropes, use of explosives in caves and mechanical rope-ascenders can be directly associated to the exploration of the Dent de Crolles cave system. In 1941, American cavers organized themselves into the National Speleological Society to advance the exploration, conservation and understanding of caves in the United States. American caver Bill Cuddington, known as "Vertical Bill", further developed the single-rope technique in
Postcodes in Australia
Postcodes are used in Australia to more efficiently sort and route mail within the Australian postal system. Postcodes in Australia are placed at the end of the Australian address. Postcodes were introduced in Australia in 1967 by the Postmaster-General's Department and are now managed by Australia Post, are published in booklets available from post offices or online from the Australia Post website. Australian envelopes and postcards have four square boxes printed in orange at the bottom right for the postcode; these are used. Postcodes were introduced in Australia in 1967 by the Postmaster-General's Department to replace earlier postal sorting systems, such as Melbourne's letter and number codes and a similar system used in rural and regional New South Wales; the introduction of the postcodes coincided with the introduction of a large-scale mechanical mail sorting system in Australia, starting with the Sydney GPO. By 1968, 75% of mail was using postcodes, in the same year post office preferred-size envelopes were introduced, which came to be referred to as “standard envelopes”.
Postcode squares were introduced in June 1990 to enable Australia Post to use optical character recognition software in its mail sorting machines to automatically and more sort mail by postcodes. Australian postcodes consist of four digits, are written after the name of the city, suburb, or town, the state or territory: Mr John Smith 100 Flushcombe Road BLACKTOWN NSW 2148When writing an address by hand, a row of four boxes is pre-printed on the lower right hand corner of an envelope, the postcode may be written in the boxes. If addressing a letter from outside Australia, the postcode is recorded before'Australia'. Australian postcodes are sorting information, they are linked with one area. Due to post code rationalisation, they can be quite complex in country areas; the south-western Victoria 3221 postcode of the Geelong Mail Centre includes twenty places around Geelong with few people. This means that mail for these places is not sorted until it gets to Geelong; some postcodes cover large populations, while other postcodes have much smaller populations in urban areas.
Australian postcodes range from 0200 for the Australian National University to 9944 for Cannonvale, Queensland. Some towns and suburbs have two postcodes — one for street deliveries and another for post office boxes. For example, a street address in the Sydney suburb of Parramatta would be written like this: Mr John Smith 99 George Street PARRAMATTA NSW 2150But mail sent to a PO Box in Parramatta would be addressed: Mr John Smith PO Box 99 PARRAMATTA NSW 2124Many large businesses, government departments and other institutions receiving high volumes of mail had their own postcode as a Large Volume Receiver, e.g. the Royal Brisbane and Women's Hospital has the postcode 4029, the Australian National University had the postcode 0200. More postcode ranges were made available for LVRs in the 1990s. Australia Post has been progressively discontinuing the LVR programme since 2006; the first one or two numbers show the state or territory that the postcode belongs to Sometimes near the state and territory borders, Australia Post finds it easier to send mail through a nearby post office, across the border: Some of the postcodes above may cover two or more states.
For example, postcode 2620 covers both a locality in NSW as well as a locality in the ACT, postcode 0872 covers a number of localities across WA, SA, NT and QLD. Three locations straddle the NSW-Queensland border. Jervis Bay Territory, once an exclave of the ACT but now a separate territory, is geographically located on the coast of NSW, it is just south of the towns of Huskisson, with which it shares a postcode. Mail to the Jervis Bay Territory is still addressed to the ACT; the numbers used to show the state on each radio callsign in Australia are the same number as the first number for postcodes in that state, e.g. 2xx in New South Wales, 3xx in Victoria, etc. Radio callsigns pre-date postcodes in Australia by more than forty years. Australia's external territories are included in Australia Post's postcode system. While these territories do not belong to any state, they are addressed as such for mail sorting: Three scientific bases in Antarctica operated by the Australian National Antarctic Research Expeditions share a postcode with the isolated sub-Antarctic island of Macquarie Island: Each state's capital city ends with three zeroes, while territorial capital cities end with two zeroes.
Capital city postcodes were the lowest postcodes in their state or territory range, before new ranges for LVRs and PO Boxes were made available. The last number can be changed from "0" to "1" to get the postcode for General Post Office boxes in any capital city: While the first number of a postcode shows the state or territory, the second number shows a region within the state. However, postcodes with the same second number are not always next to each other; as an example, postcodes in the range 2200–2299 are split between the southern suburbs of Sydney and the Central Coast of New South Wales. Postcodes with a second number of "0" or "1" are always located within the metropolitan area of the state's capital city. Postcodes with higher secon