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Cedar Rapids, Iowa

Cedar Rapids is the second-largest city in Iowa and is the county seat of Linn County. The city lies on both banks of the Cedar River, 20 miles north of Iowa City and 100 miles northeast of Des Moines, the state's capital and largest city, it is a part of the Cedar Rapids/Iowa City Corridor of Linn, Cedar, Jones and Washington counties. As of the 2010 United States Census, the city population was 126,326; the estimated population of the three-county Metropolitan Statistical Area, which includes the nearby cities of Marion and Hiawatha, was 255,452 in 2008. Cedar Rapids is an economic hub of the state, located at the core of the Interstate 380 corridor; the Cedar Rapids Metropolitan Statistical Area is a part of a Combined Statistical Area with the Iowa City MSA. This CSA plus two additional counties are known as the Iowa City-Cedar Rapids Corridor and collectively have a population of over 450,000. A flourishing center for arts and culture in Eastern Iowa, the city is home to the Cedar Rapids Museum of Art, the National Czech & Slovak Museum & Library, the Paramount Theatre, Orchestra Iowa, Theatre Cedar Rapids, the African American Museum of Iowa, the Iowa Cultural Corridor Alliance.

In the 1990s and 2000s, several Cedar Rapidians became well-known actors, including Bobby Driscoll, Ashton Kutcher, Elijah Wood, Ron Livingston. The city is the comedy film Cedar Rapids. Cedar Rapids is nicknamed the "City of Five Seasons", for the so-called "fifth season,", time to enjoy the other four; the symbol of the five seasons is the Tree of Five Seasons sculpture in downtown along the north river bank. The name "Five Seasons" and representations of the sculpture appear throughout the city in many forms; the location of present-day Cedar Rapids was in the territory of the Sac tribes. The first white settler on the site of the future city was Osgood Shepherd, who built a log cabin in 1837 or 1838 next to the Cedar River at what is now the corner of First Avenue and First Street Northeast. Shepherd was a squatter who claimed the land without legal title and a reputed ne’er-do-well, who, if he was not a horse thief himself consorted with them. Early on, it appears that he “jumped the claim” of another squatter, Wilbert Stone, who had built a cabin and platted out a town, some distance south of Shepherd's cabin, that he called Columbus.

Shepherd drove Stone across the river, claiming that Stone had built his cabin on Shepherd's land sold Stone's cabin to a buyer named Hull. Shepherd tried the same tactic with the first settler on the west side of the river, Robert Ellis, but Ellis happened to be chopping wood at the time and warned that someone would be dead if Shepherd did not retreat; the true founders of the city were George Greene, Nicholas Brown, a few others. Brown had experience as a miller and Greene had surveyed much of eastern Iowa, so both saw the value of the spot Shepherd had claimed, it was right next to the rapids—a prime spot to build a mill—the last set of rapids on the river before the Cedar fed into the Iowa River, meaning that goods milled on the spot could be carried by boat down river to the Mississippi. In 1841, they formed a partnership that bought out Shepherd's claim and platted out a town they called Rapids City. Brown constructed a primitive dam and built the town's first mill, his crude dam soon washed away, prompting Greene to induce Alexander Ely, an engineer from Michigan, to build a proper dam that would create a millrace capable of powering several mills.

At this time, the city was confined to the east side of the river. The west bank soon contained a village named Kingston for resident David King who early on operated a rope ferry across the river; the town was formally incorporated by the Iowa State Legislature on January 15, 1849 as Cedar Rapids, named for the rapids in the Cedar River. The population was less than 400. During the 1850s Cedar Rapids grew in size, it was during this decade that the Czech population became substantial; the availability of cheap land in the new state of Iowa happened to coincide with the Revolutions of 1848 in the Austrian Empire that caused a large number of Czechs to flee their homeland and emigrate to the U. S. In 1851 was founded the institution that would become Coe College; the decade witnessed attempts by local leaders to improve the city's access to distant markets, first through purchase of a steamboat and through investment in a railroad. The first locomotive rolled into town on June 15, 1859. Railroads were an important factor in the development of the state and the growth of cities along the rail lines.

By the end of the 19th century, the 23rd largest state was the fifth largest in track mileage. In this same decade, "Major" John May, an inventor and land speculator, purchased the island situated between Cedar Rapids and Kingston with the intention of founding a town he called May Island; when that scheme proved impractical due to the island's tendency to flood, he conceived the idea of making his island the center of a larger city that spanned the river and convinced the state legislature to name the land he had bought there, just south of Kingston, "West Cedar Rapids."Cedar Rapids annexed the community of Kingston in 1870 and constructed an iron bridge across the river along the line of the current Third Avenue bridge. The economic growth of Cedar Rapids increased in 1871 upo

Chiranjeevi filmography

Chiranjeevi is an Indian actor, politician and a member of the Indian National Congress. He was the Minister of State with independent charge for the Ministry of Tourism, Government of India. Chiranjeevi has attended the Madras Film Institute, had worked in Telugu cinema, in addition to Tamil and Hindi films, he is a huge fan of Bollywood actors Mithun Chakraborty and Govinda and has always drawn inspiration from them for his action and dancing skills. He made his acting debut with the film Punadhirallu. However, Pranam Khareedu was released earlier at the box office. Known for his break dancing skills, Chiranjeevi has starred in 150 feature films, he starred in Swayam Krushi. In 1988, he co-produced Rudraveena, which won the National Film Award for Best Feature Film on National Integration. In a film career spanning thirty five years, He won four state Nandi Awards and nine Filmfare Awards South. In 2006, Chiranjeevi was honoured with the Padma Bhushan, India's third highest civilian award, for his contributions to Indian cinema, was presented with an honorary doctorate from Andhra University.

In 2013, he inaugurated the Incredible India Exhibition, a joint participation of the Ministry of Tourism and Ministry of Information and Broadcasting at the 66th Cannes Film Festival. He represented Incredible India at the 14th International Indian Film Academy Awards ceremony held in Macau. In 2013, IBN LIVE named him as one of "The men who changed the face of the Indian Cinema". Chiranjeevi's 1992 film Gharana Mogudu, directed by K. Raghavendra Rao, is the first Telugu film to gross over ₹ 10 crore at the box office; the film made Chiranjeevi the highest-paid actor in India at the time, catapulting him to the cover pages of noted national weekly magazines in India. The entertainment magazines Filmfare and India Today named him "Bigger than Bachchan", a reference to Bollywood's Amitabh Bachchan. News magazine The Week hailed him as "The new money machine", he was paid a remuneration of ₹1.25 crores for the 1992 film Aapad Bandhavudu. In 2002, Chiranjeevi was given the Samman Award for the Highest Income Tax Payer for the assessment year 1999-2000 by the Minister of State for Finance, Government of India.

A poll conducted by CNN-IBN in 2006 named Chiranjeevi the most popular star of the Telugu Film Industry. Chiranjeevi founded the Chiranjeevi Charitable Foundation, established in 1998, involved in humanitarian activities. In 2008, he entered politics by forming the Praja Rajyam Party. In the 2009 Andhra Pradesh elections, Chiranjeevi contested from his native places and Tirupati, he was defeated by the Congress party candidate in Palakollu and was elected as a member of the State Assembly from the Tirupati constituency. However, he lost election in his own constituency, he led the Praja Rajyam Party to emerge as the third largest party in Andhra Pradesh during the same election. In February 2011, his Praja Rajyam Party merged into the Indian National Congress, and in 2014 elections he never fought due to state division by INC. The following is the filmography of Chiranjeevi. Besides Telugu he has acted in Tamil and Hindi films. "Chiranjeevi Filmography". Chiranjeeviblog. Retrieved 2 June 2012. "Filmography".

Idlebrain. Retrieved 2 June 2012. Chiranjeevi on IMDb

Planck constant

The Planck constant, or Planck's constant, denoted h, is a physical constant, the quantum of electromagnetic action, which relates the energy carried by a photon to its frequency. A photon's energy is equal to its frequency multiplied by the Planck constant; the Planck constant is of fundamental importance in quantum mechanics, in metrology it is the basis for the definition of the kilogram. The Planck constant is defined to have the exact value h = 6.62607015×10−34 J⋅s. At the end of the 19th century, physicists were unable to explain why the observed spectrum of black body radiation, still considered to have been measured, diverged at higher frequencies from that predicted by existing theories. In 1900, Max Planck empirically derived a formula for the observed spectrum, he assumed that a hypothetical electrically charged oscillator in a cavity that contained black-body radiation could only change its energy in a minimal increment, E, proportional to the frequency of its associated electromagnetic wave.

He was able to calculate the proportionality constant, h, from the experimental measurements, that constant is named in his honor. In 1905, the value E was associated by Albert Einstein with a "quantum" or minimal element of the energy of the electromagnetic wave itself; the light quantum behaved in some respects as an electrically neutral particle, as opposed to an electromagnetic wave. It was called a photon. Max Planck received the 1918 Nobel Prize in Physics "in recognition of the services he rendered to the advancement of Physics by his discovery of energy quanta". Since energy and mass are equivalent, the Planck constant relates mass to frequency. In the last years of the 19th century, Max Planck was investigating the problem of black-body radiation first posed by Kirchhoff some 40 years earlier; every physical body continuously emits electromagnetic radiation. At low frequencies, Planck's law tends to the Rayleigh–Jeans law, while in the limit of high frequencies it tends to the Wien approximation, but there was no overall expression or explanation for the shape of the observed emission spectrum.

Approaching this problem, Planck hypothesized that the equations of motion for light describe a set of harmonic oscillators, one for each possible frequency. He examined how the entropy of the oscillators varied with the temperature of the body, trying to match Wien's law, was able to derive an approximate mathematical function for the black-body spectrum. To create Planck's law, which predicts blackbody emissions by fitting the observed curves, he multiplied the classical expression by a factor that involves a constant, h, in both the numerator and the denominator, which subsequently became known as the Planck Constant; the spectral radiance of a body, B ν, describes the amount of energy it emits at different radiation frequencies. It is the power emitted per unit area of the body, per unit solid angle of emission, per unit frequency. Planck showed that the spectral radiance of a body for frequency ν at absolute temperature T is given by B ν = 2 h ν 3 c 2 1 e h ν k B T − 1 where k B is the Boltzmann constant, h is the Planck constant, c is the speed of light in the medium, whether material or vacuum.

The spectral radiance can be expressed per unit wavelength λ instead of per unit frequency. In this case, it is given by B λ = 2 h c 2 λ 5 1 e h c λ k B T − 1, showing how radiated energy emitted at shorter wavelengths increases more with temperature than energy emitted at longer wavelengths; the law may be expressed in other terms, such as the number of photons emitted at a certain wavelength, or the energy density in a volume of radiation. The SI units of B ν are W·sr−1·m−2·Hz−1, while those of B λ are W·sr−1·m−3. Planck soon realized. There were several different solutions, each of which gave a different value for the entropy of the oscillators. To save his theory, Planck resorted to using the then-controversial theory of statistical mechanics, which he described as "an act of despair … I was ready to sacrifice any of my previous convictions about physics." One of his new boundary conditions was to interpret UN not as a continuous, infinitely divisible quantity, but as a discre

Andreas van der Schaaf

Andreas van der Schaaf is a Dutch television presenter and program developer. Internationally known for his work as the presenter of First Class Around the World and as international Holland based reporter for CNN World Report. 1974-1975: NCRV-TV. 1977-1978: Actor in Dutch television serie "Dagboek van een herdershond". 1976-1978: Copywriter at Ogilvy & Mather Advertising in Amsterdam and Free-Lance TV activities for.. 1978-1980: Copywriter & Concepts at Young & Rubicam in Amsterdam and for Cato Johnson in Amsterdam. 1980–present:Andreas van der Schaaf TV & Video Productions and in 1995 start of Andreas van der Schaaf Creative Enterprises B. V. 1979-1980: Presenter of "Live" Quiz": "Teleraadsel" TROS and Creative Director at Young & Rubicam Advertising, Amsterdam. 1995-1997: Presenter "First Class Around the World" [RTL5 The Netherlands, broadcast in over 60 countries 1998: Presenter of RTL4 TV series. 2002-2005: Presenter at BVN TV The Netherlands for'Van Huis Uit' combined with items about Holland for CNN World Report.

2006–present:Member of the creative & editorial team of the TROS TV Show at Niehe Media/Media Lane in Amsterdam. 2016–present:Counselor for the City of Gooise Meren 4 times winner of the Dutch Golf Federation press prize Created first video commercial in the Netherlands in 1981 for PDM A swing of his golf club ended in a fatal accident during the First Class Around the world episode "Crocodile Hole". Andreas van der Schaaf on IMDb Website Andreas Schaaf

Fairview Wine and Cheese

Fairview Wine and Cheese farm is a South African producer of wines and cheeses based in the Paarl region of the Western Cape province. It is owned and run by Charles Back, who owns The Goats do Roam Wine Company and The Spice Route Winery; the Fairview farm is on the south western slopes of the Paarl mountain range 60 km from Cape Town. The farm comprises 320 hectares; the farm ranges in altitude from 400m above sea level on the slopes of the mountain to 180m on the valley floor. The farm is located at 33°46'21″ south 18°55'25″ east; the current Fairview property was first designated as a farm by the Governor of the Cape Simon van der Stel in 1693, with Steven Vervey the first official owner. Vervey is thought to be one of the French Huguenots who arrived in the Cape in 1688; the earliest recorded name for the property is Bloemkoolfontein and hints at the mixed agriculture that took place on the property over the centuries. Towards the end of the 19th century the name of the property was changed to Fairview.

Charles Back purchased the Fairview farm from a Mr Hugo in 1937 for the sum of 6500 pounds. Fairview has been in the Back family to the present day. Charles Louis Back was a Lithuanian immigrant to the Cape, who arrived in South Africa in 1902, he settled in Paarl where he set up a butcher shop as well as selling farm produce from the local farmers. Through these dealings he was offered a piece of land on the farm Klein Babylonstoren in the Paarl winelands. In 1916 Charles Back purchased what would become the Backsberg farm from David Louw and left the butchery behind to become a wine farmer. In 1926 he was awarded the General Smuts Trophy for South Africa's champion wine. After establishing himself and learning the trade, Charles Back purchased Fairview from Hugo in 1937, for the sum of 6500 pounds. Charles Back had two sons and Cyril, in whom Back instilled a love for the land, as well as a strong work ethic; when Charles died in 1955, he left Backsberg to Fairview to Cyril. Cyril spent much of his first years at Fairview planning vineyards.

In 1974, Cyril broke away from the KWV. In 1975, Cyril held South Africa's first public wine auction and, together with his wife, began to recognise the farm's possibilities of public visitation. Fairview become one of the first farms to open cellar door sales to the public. Cyril's son, joined Fairview in 1978, after completing his winemaking studies at Elsenburg agricultural college. In 1981, Charles built Fairview's goat tower; the first recorded wine production on the property was in 1699 and wine grape cultivation has continued to this day. When Charles Back purchased Fairview in 1937 the farm was planted to the common varietal Cinsaut, this formed the majority of the wine produced at Fairview in the 1940s and 1950s; when Cyril Back took over in 1955, following his father's death, he replanted most of the Fairview vineyards. He introduced Cabernet Sauvignon and Pinotage to the property. In 1974 Cyril Back was amongst the first producers to break away from the regulated body controlling South African wine at the time, where grape growers supplied their grapes to the co-operative KWV.

He established Fairview as an independent estate and the first wines were bottled under the Fairview label in 1974, from grapes grown on the Fairview property. The first wines bottled were a Cabernet Sauvignon and Pinotage. In 1975 Cyril Back held South Africa's first public wine auction, with his entire 1975 production selling in under three hours; this auction pre-dated the now famous Nederburg Auction. With Charles Back joining his father in 1978, Fairview's range of wines began to diversify, with white wines being added to the portfolio and new varietals being planted. Charles introduced innovative winemaking practices. Using the Gamay varietal, Fairview produced South Africa's first Beaujolais nouveau style wine in 1987 using the traditional carbonic maceration method. During the late 1980s Charles began watch the international wine trends more making subtle adjustments to bring the quality of his wines in line with international standards; these markets had always been closed to South African wines due to Apartheid sanctions.

Charle's proactive approach meant that when democracy came to South Africa and the markets opened, Fairview's wine style and quality was recognised internationally. Cyril Back died in 1995 and Charles took full control of Fairview. In 1997 Charles Back appointed Anthony de Jager as head winemaker at Fairview. 50 000 twelve bottle cases are produced under the Fairview label annually. Seventy percent of Fairview's production is exported, with the company's leading export markets being the United States, The United Kingdom and Germany. In 2008 Fairview launched the La Capra range of wines, an endorsed label targeting the retail and value end of the wine market. Fairview produces a wide range of varietals under its label and 70% of production is red wine. Grapes for these wines are sourced from Charles Back's own vineyards as well as from contracted growers. Amongst others, the Fairview range of wines includes: White wines: Sauvignon Blanc, Chardonnay, Oom Pagel Semillon and Viognier Special Late Harvest.

Red wines: Shiraz, Mourvèdre, Cabernet Sauvignon, Tannat, Petite Sirah, Pinotage Viognier, Sweet Red, Solitude Shiraz, The Beacon Shiraz, Jakkalsfontein Shiraz, Pegleg Carignan, Primo Pinotage and the farm's flagship Cyril Back. Cheese production at Fairview started in 198

Democratic Revolutionary Party

The Democratic Revolutionary Party is a political party in Panama founded in 1979 by General Omar Torrijos. It is described as on the centre left. Since its creation, the party had strong ties with the military regime that ruled Panama since the military coup of 1968. Most of its members identified with Torrijos's social policy and the legacy of the Canal Treaties signed a few years before his death. Domestic and international political pressure orchestrated by Torrijos against the United States was viewed as nationalist. Despite his aggressive methods, Torrijos is recognized as one of the most popular leaders Panama has had. With the signing of the Canal Treaties, Torrijos committed to restoring at least nominal civilian rule to Panama. To do so, he created the PRD as his political vehicle, filed to run for president in the 1984 elections against the man he'd overthrown in 1968, Arnulfo Arias. With Torrijos's death, the military regime ruling the country fell into a crisis of power. After his unclear death, two generals resigned.

The political scenario changed drastically, Noriega began to persecute politicians who opposed him, ruling the country by fear and terror. The situation in the country deteriorated under Noriega's rule; the 1985 assassination of dissident Hugo Spadafora generated the beginning of the political turmoil that ended in 1989 with the US invasion of Panama. The PRD was manipulated by Noriega. There were many secretaries of the party, the most famous being Ramito Vasquez Chambonet at the beginning and Darinel Espino the end. Noriega named presidents, ministries and other government positions loyal to him; this created a deep crisis inside the party, which did not have inner democracy until the reforms after the US invasion. Since democracy was restored in 1990, PRD politicians have restructured the party by increasing member participation and, for the first time, holding primaries to elect representatives for government positions, it was the first party in Panama that underwent such restructuring and was viewed as the most organized and biggest political party in the country.

The restructuring was led by Ernesto Perez Balladares, Francisco Sanchez, Mitchell Does, Tomas G. Duque, Gerardo Gonzalez. In 1991 part of this staff met Arias Calderon vice president of Panama, to make clear their interest in forming a political opposition and not a military; the 1993 PRD presidential nomination election was between Ernesto Perez Balladares and Alfredo Oranges, who won 66% and 33% of the vote respectively. Perez Balladares won the presidential elections against Mireya Moscoso and a PRD-majority legislature in 1994; the PRD lost the 1999 elections. Differences between Perez Balladares and presidential candidate Martín Torrijos, who beat Oranges in the inner presidential race, made an unclear political offer for this election that ended with Mireya Moscoso's being elected president and the PRD's controlling the assembly. Once the elections finished, the committee led by Perez Balladares resigned, Martín Torrijos was elected secretary; this period under Martin Torrijos' leadership was managed by "youngers".

The political mistakes by Moscoso's government opened a path for Torrijos, who won the presidential race in 2004. In the 2004 general election, Martín Torrijos won the presidency with 47.4% of the vote, running as the candidate for the Patria Nueva electoral alliance between the PRD and the smaller People's Party. In the same election, the party won 37.8% of the popular vote and 41 out of 78 seats in the National Assembly of Panama. The 2008 primaries were won by Balbina Herrera against Juan Carlos Navarro; the differences between Herrera and Navarro were so deep that they ended with a non-unified party, once again leading the PRD to lose the presidential race led by Balbina Herrera in 2009. The committee resigned in October 2009, a new committee was elected on October 18; the elections ended with the election of President Francisco Sanchez Cardenas and Secretary Mitchell Does. Starting in late 2012 the PRD began the democratic process of renovating all of their internal political structures, from delegates to executive committee members.

In a fiery and passionate speech in March 2012, Juan Carlos Navarro called for all members to join him and his Ola Azul movement in forming a new PRD to ensure the party's victory in the 2014 elections. In August 2012, the 4,200 delegates of the National Congress convened to elect a new executive committee; this was the first time in the party's history that one candidate was able to win all seats of the executive committee. Primaries were held in March 2013, with 17 candidates taking part in the process. Juan Carlos Navarro won 95% of the vote and was elected as the party's presidential candidate for the 2014 general election; the 2014 general election saw former Vice-president and Panameñista Party candidate Juan Carlos Varela elected President with 39% of the vote. Juan Carlos Navarro and the PRD came a distant third in the general election, this is considered the worst election result in the history of the party; as a result of this, Navarro resigned his post a Secretary-General followed by 4 other members.

A new election was held in order to fill the five vacant spots in the Executive Committee and San Francisco Councilman Carlos Perez Herrera was elected as Secretary General