Delaware County, Iowa
Delaware County is a county located in the U. S. state of Iowa. As of the 2010 census, the population was 17,764; the county seat is Manchester. The county was named in honor of Delaware. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 579 square miles, of which 578 square miles is land and 1.2 square miles is water. It has a rough hilly surface. U. S. Highway 20 Iowa Highway 3 Iowa Highway 13 Iowa Highway 38 Buchanan County Clayton County Dubuque County Fayette County Jones County Linn County The 2010 census recorded a population of 17,764 in the county, with a population density of 30.7415/sq mi. There were 8,028 housing units, of which 7,062 were occupied; as of the census of 2000, there were 18,404 people, 6,834 households, 5,029 families residing in the county. The population density was 32 people per square mile. There were 7,682 housing units at an average density of 13 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 99.28% White, 0.07% Black or African American, 0.10% Native American, 0.14% Asian, 0.01% Pacific Islander, 0.10% from other races, 0.30% from two or more races.
0.66% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 6,834 households out of which 36.70% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 64.10% were married couples living together, 6.20% had a female householder with no husband present, 26.40% were non-families. 23.00% of all households were made up of individuals and 11.20% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.66 and the average family size was 3.15. In the county, the population was spread out with 29.00% under the age of 18, 7.00% from 18 to 24, 27.60% from 25 to 44, 21.50% from 45 to 64, 15.00% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 37 years. For every 100 females there were 98.40 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 96.60 males. The median income for a household in the county was $37,168, the median income for a family was $43,607. Males had a median income of $30,712 versus $19,685 for females; the per capita income for the county was $17,327.
About 6.30% of families and 7.90% of the population were below the poverty line, including 8.50% of those under age 18 and 9.80% of those age 65 or over. Delaware County is divided into these townships: The population ranking of the following table is based on the 2010 census of Delaware County.† county seat National Register of Historic Places listings in Delaware County, Iowa County website
Johnson County, Iowa
Johnson County is a county located in the U. S. state of Iowa. As of the 2010 census, the population was 130,882 making it the fifth-most populous county in Iowa; the county seat is home of the University of Iowa. The county is named for the ninth vice president of the United States. Johnson County is included in the Iowa City, IA Metropolitan Statistical Area, included in the Cedar Rapids-Iowa City Corridor Combined Statistical Area. Johnson County was created in December 1837 by the legislature of the Wisconsin Territory, one of thirteen counties established by that body in a comprehensive act; the county's area was partitioned from Dubuque County, was not provided with a civil government, instead being governed by Cedar County officials. It was named for the US Vice President Richard M. Johnson; the first courthouse in the county was a two–story log cabin structure, built in 1838 in the settlement of Napoleon, about two miles south of the current courthouse. The building stood across from what would become the James McCollister Farmstead on land owned by Philip Clark.
After Iowa City was established by fiat as the new territorial capitol of Iowa, the county seat was removed there. The second Johnson County Courthouse, the first in Iowa City, was built on Lot 8 Block 8 of the County Seat Addition to Iowa City in 1842 for $3,690; this location was in the southeast corner of the intersection of Clinton Streets. The building was two stories tall, it was built by James Trimble, who had built the first jail. A third courthouse was built in 1857 in the courthouse square on Clinton Street between Court and Harrison Streets, it was used until 1901, after cracks appeared in its south wall in 1899. The building was built of brick with stone and wood ornamentation; the Richardsonian Romanesque style courthouse in use today was designed by the firm of Rush and Rush of Grand Rapids, MI. It was built by the firm Rowson & Son of Johnson County; the cornerstone was laid in December 1899. The building's tower was based on Henry Hobson Richardson's design for the spire of Trinity Church in Boston.
The building was dedicated on June 8, 1901. The unused jail that stands to the west of the courthouse was designed by C. L. Wundt of Burlington on behalf of the Stewart Iron Works, Cleveland, OH and bid for $14,000. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 623 square miles, of which 614 square miles is land and 9.1 square miles is water. Interstate 80 Interstate 380 U. S. Highway 6 U. S. Highway 218 Iowa Highway 1 Iowa Highway 22 Iowa Highway 27 Benton County – northwest Cedar County – east Iowa County – west Linn County – north Muscatine County – east and southeast Louisa County – southeast and south Washington County – south Iowa County – west The 2010 census recorded a population of 130,882 in the county, with a population density of 212.9964/sq mi. There were 55,967 housing units, of which 52,715 were occupied; as of the census of 2000, there were 111,006 people, 44,080 households, 23,582 families residing in the county. The population density was 181 people per square mile.
There were 45,831 housing units at an average density of 75 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 90.13% White, 2.90% Black or African American, 0.28% Native American, 4.12% Asian, 0.04% Pacific Islander, 1.01% from other races, 1.51% from two or more races. 2.51% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 44,080 households out of which 26.50% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 43.90% were married couples living together, 6.80% had a female householder with no husband present, 46.50% were non-families. 30.20% of all households were made up of individuals and 5.60% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.34 and the average family size was 2.97. Age spread: 20.10% under the age of 18, 23.40% from 18 to 24, 30.80% from 25 to 44, 18.20% from 45 to 64, 7.40% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 28 years. For every 100 females, there were 99.10 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 97.30 males.
The median income for a household in the county was $40,060, the median income for a family was $60,112. Males had a median income of $36,279 versus $29,793 for females; the per capita income for the county was $22,220. About 5.20% of families and 15.00% of the population were below the poverty line, including 8.10% of those under age 18 and 3.80% of those age 65 or over. As a result of the presence of the University of Iowa, Johnson County is the most liberal leaning county in Iowa and a stronghold of the Democratic Party, it has been the strongest Democratic county in the state since 1984. The last Republican to win the county in a presidential election was Richard Nixon in 1960, this is true in state elections as well, where Johnson County is the lone county to vote against the Republican in landslide elections, such as Senator Chuck Grassley's landslide re-election wins in 2010 and 2016 or Governor Terry Branstad's landslide re-election in 2014. Frytown Midway The population ranking of the following table is based on the 2010 census of Johnson County.† county seat John T. Struble early builder and farmer.
Grant Wood, artist. National Register of Historic Places listings in Johnson County, Iowa Secrest Octagon Barn Charles Ray Aurner, Leading Events in Johnson County, History, Volume I reproduction by Torch Press, Cedar Rapids IA Johnson County Government Johnson County Crisis Center Johnson County website
The American Revolution was a colonial revolt that took place between 1765 and 1783. The American Patriots in the Thirteen Colonies won independence from Great Britain, becoming the United States of America, they defeated the British in the American Revolutionary War in alliance with others. Members of American colonial society argued the position of "no taxation without representation", starting with the Stamp Act Congress in 1765, they rejected the authority of the British Parliament to tax them because they lacked members in that governing body. Protests escalated to the Boston Massacre in 1770 and the burning of the Gaspee in Rhode Island in 1772, followed by the Boston Tea Party in December 1773, during which Patriots destroyed a consignment of taxed tea; the British responded by closing Boston Harbor followed with a series of legislative acts which rescinded Massachusetts Bay Colony's rights of self-government and caused the other colonies to rally behind Massachusetts. In late 1774, the Patriots set up their own alternative government to better coordinate their resistance efforts against Great Britain.
Tensions erupted into battle between Patriot militia and British regulars when the king's army attempted to capture and destroy Colonial military supplies at Lexington and Concord on April 19, 1775. The conflict developed into a global war, during which the Patriots fought the British and Loyalists in what became known as the American Revolutionary War; each of the thirteen colonies formed a Provincial Congress that assumed power from the old colonial governments and suppressed Loyalism, from there they built a Continental Army under the leadership of General George Washington. The Continental Congress determined King George's rule to be tyrannical and infringing the colonists' rights as Englishmen, they declared the colonies free and independent states on July 2, 1776; the Patriot leadership professed the political philosophies of liberalism and republicanism to reject monarchy and aristocracy, they proclaimed that all men are created equal. The Continental Army forced the redcoats out of Boston in March 1776, but that summer the British captured and held New York City and its strategic harbor for the duration of the war.
The Royal Navy blockaded ports and captured other cities for brief periods, but they failed to defeat Washington's forces. The Patriots unsuccessfully attempted to invade Canada during the winter of 1775–76, but captured a British army at the Battle of Saratoga in October 1777. France now entered the war as an ally of the United States with a large army and navy that threatened Britain itself; the war turned to the American South where the British under the leadership of Charles Cornwallis captured an army at Charleston, South Carolina in early 1780 but failed to enlist enough volunteers from Loyalist civilians to take effective control of the territory. A combined American–French force captured a second British army at Yorktown in the fall of 1781 ending the war; the Treaty of Paris was signed September 3, 1783, formally ending the conflict and confirming the new nation's complete separation from the British Empire. The United States took possession of nearly all the territory east of the Mississippi River and south of the Great Lakes, with the British retaining control of Canada and Spain taking Florida.
Among the significant results of the revolution was the creation of the United States Constitution, establishing a strong federal national government that included an executive, a national judiciary, a bicameral Congress that represented states in the Senate and the population in the House of Representatives. The Revolution resulted in the migration of around 60,000 Loyalists to other British territories British North America; as early as 1651, the English government had sought to regulate trade in the American colonies. On October 9, the Navigation Acts were passed pursuant to a mercantilist policy intended to ensure that trade enriched only Great Britain, barring trade with foreign nations; some argue that the economic impact was minimal on the colonists, but the political friction which the acts triggered was more serious, as the merchants most directly affected were most politically active. King Philip's War ended in 1678, much of it was fought without significant assistance from England.
This contributed to the development of a unique identity from that of the British people. In the 1680s, King Charles II determined to bring the New England colonies under a more centralized administration in order to regulate trade more effectively, his efforts were fiercely opposed by the colonists, resulting in the abrogation of their colonial charter by the Crown. Charles' successor James II finalized these efforts in 1686, establishing the Dominion of New England. Dominion rule triggered bitter resentment throughout New England. New Englanders were encouraged, however, by a change of government in England that saw James II abdicate, a populist uprising overthrew Dominion rule on April 18, 1689. Colonial governments reasserted their control in the wake of the revolt, successive governments made no more attempts to restore the Dominion. Subsequent English governments continued in their efforts to tax certain goods, passing acts regulating the trade of wool and molasses; the Molasses Act of 1733 in particular was egregious to the colonists, as a significant part of colonial trade relied on the product.
The taxes damaged the N
Cedar County, Iowa
Cedar County is a county located in the U. S. state of Iowa. As of the 2010 census, the population was 18,499, its county seat is Tipton. The county is named for the Cedar River. Cedar County is located between the Cedar Rapids, Quad Cities and Iowa City metropolitan areas, areas known as the "Tri-Metro" county, it is the only Iowa county. Cedar County was the focus of the Iowa Cow War of 1931. Cedar County was formed on December 1837, from sections of Dubuque County, it was named for the Cedar River. In 1840, the City of Tipton, the current county seat, was established. Before the American Civil War, the area around West Branch was an active focal point of the Underground Railroad, a network for the freeing of slaves from the southern states; the former US President Herbert Hoover was born in West Branch in Cedar County. The Cedar County Sheriff's House and Jail is believed to be the last jail and residence combination still in use when it closed in 2001, it was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 2003.
According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 582 square miles, of which 579 square miles is land and 2.5 square miles is water. Rock Creek flows through Cedar County. Interstate 80 U. S. Highway 6 U. S. Highway 30 Iowa Highway 38 Iowa Highway 130 Jones County Clinton County Scott County Muscatine County Johnson County Linn County Herbert Hoover National Historic Site The 2010 census recorded a population of 13,956 in the county, with a population density of 31.89/sq mi. There were 8,064 housing units, of which 7,511 were occupied; as of the census of 2000, there were 18,187 people, 7,147 households, 5,138 families residing in the county. The population density was 31 people per square mile. There were 7,570 housing units at an average density of 13 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 98.47% White, 0.19% Black or African American, 0.19% Native American, 0.30% Asian, 0.03% Pacific Islander, 0.26% from other races, 0.57% from two or more races. 0.94% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race.
There were 7,147 households out of which 33.30% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 61.60% were married couples living together, 6.70% had a female householder with no husband present, 28.10% were non-families. 23.70% of all households were made up of individuals and 11.90% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.51 and the average family size was 2.96. In the county, the population was spread out with 25.30% under the age of 18, 6.90% from 18 to 24, 27.70% from 25 to 44, 23.80% from 45 to 64, 16.20% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 39 years. For every 100 females there were 97.50 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 94.60 males. The median income for a household in the county was $42,198, the median income for a family was $48,850. Males had a median income of $32,008 versus $23,260 for females; the per capita income for the county was $19,200. About 4.00% of families and 5.50% of the population were below the poverty line, including 5.00% of those under age 18 and 7.70% of those age 65 or over.
Rochester Cedar County is divided into seventeen townships: The population ranking of the following table is based on the 2010 census of Cedar County.† county seat Herbert Hoover, the 31st President of the United States and the first president born west of the Mississippi River. John Brown, maintained his headquarters at William Maxson's house near the small community of Springdale in Cedar County while planning his Harpers Ferry raid. Lawrie Tatum, an Indian Agent to the Kiowa and Comanche tribes and, beginning in 1884, guardian to future President Herbert Hoover. National Register of Historic Places listings in Cedar County, Iowa Official Cedar County Government website Cedar County Economic Development Commission
2010 United States Census
The 2010 United States Census is the twenty-third and most recent United States national census. National Census Day, the reference day used for the census, was April 1, 2010; the census was taken via mail-in citizen self-reporting, with enumerators serving to spot-check randomly selected neighborhoods and communities. As part of a drive to increase the count's accuracy, 635,000 temporary enumerators were hired; the population of the United States was counted as 308,745,538, a 9.7% increase from the 2000 Census. This was the first census in which all states recorded a population of over half a million, as well as the first in which all 100 largest cities recorded populations of over 200,000; as required by the United States Constitution, the U. S. census has been conducted every 10 years since 1790. The 2000 U. S. Census was the previous census completed. Participation in the U. S. Census is required by law in Title 13 of the United States Code. On January 25, 2010, Census Bureau Director Robert Groves inaugurated the 2010 Census enumeration by counting World War II veteran Clifton Jackson, a resident of Noorvik, Alaska.
More than 120 million census forms were delivered by the U. S. Post Office beginning March 15, 2010; the number of forms mailed out or hand-delivered by the Census Bureau was 134 million on April 1, 2010. Although the questionnaire used April 1, 2010 as the reference date as to where a person was living, an insert dated March 15, 2010 included the following printed in bold type: "Please complete and mail back the enclosed census form today." The 2010 Census national mail participation rate was 74%. From April through July 2010, census takers visited households that did not return a form, an operation called "non-response follow-up". In December 2010, the U. S. Census Bureau delivered population information to the U. S. President for apportionment, in March 2011, complete redistricting data was delivered to states. Identifiable information will be available in 2082; the Census Bureau did not use a long form for the 2010 Census. In several previous censuses, one in six households received this long form, which asked for detailed social and economic information.
The 2010 Census used only a short form asking ten basic questions: How many people were living or staying in this house, apartment, or mobile home on April 1, 2010? Were there any additional people staying here on April 1, 2010 that you did not include in Question 1? Mark all that apply: Is this house, apartment, or mobile home – What is your telephone number? What is Person 1's name? What is Person 1's sex? What is Person 1's age and Person 1's date of birth? Is Person 1 of Hispanic, Latino, or Spanish origin? What is Person 1's race? Does Person 1 sometimes live or stay somewhere else? The form included space to repeat all of these questions for up to twelve residents total. In contrast to the 2000 census, an Internet response option was not offered, nor was the form available for download. Detailed socioeconomic information collected during past censuses will continue to be collected through the American Community Survey; the survey provides data about communities in the United States on a 1-year or 3-year cycle, depending on the size of the community, rather than once every 10 years.
A small percentage of the population on a rotating basis will receive the survey each year, no household will receive it more than once every five years. In June 2009, the U. S. Census Bureau announced. However, the final form did not contain a separate "same-sex married couple" option; when noting the relationship between household members, same-sex couples who are married could mark their spouses as being "Husband or wife", the same response given by opposite-sex married couples. An "unmarried partner" option was available for couples; the 2010 census cost $13 billion $42 per capita. Operational costs were $5.4 billion under the $7 billion budget. In December 2010 the Government Accountability Office noted that the cost of conducting the census has doubled each decade since 1970. In a detailed 2004 report to Congress, the GAO called on the Census Bureau to address cost and design issues, at that time, had estimated the 2010 Census cost to be $11 billion. In August 2010, Commerce Secretary Gary Locke announced that the census operational costs came in under budget.
Locke credited the management practices of Census Bureau director Robert Groves, citing in particular the decision to buy additional advertising in locations where responses lagged, which improved the overall response rate. The agency has begun to rely more on questioning neighbors or other reliable third parties when a person could not be reached at home, which reduced the cost of follow-up visits. Census data for about 22% of U. S. househol
Buchanan County, Iowa
Buchanan County is a county located in the U. S. state of Iowa. As of the 2010 census, the population was 20,958, its county seat is Independence. The county was created in 1837 and was named in honor of Senator James Buchanan, the 15th President of the United States. Buchanan County was formed on December 1837 from parts of Dubuque County, it was named after future US president James Buchanan. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 573 square miles, of which 571 square miles is land and 2.1 square miles is water. Interstate 380 U. S. Route 20 Iowa Highway 27 Iowa Highway 150 Iowa Highway 187 Iowa Highway 281 Clayton County Fayette County Delaware County Linn County Benton County Black Hawk County Bremer County The 2010 census recorded a population of 20,958 in the county, with a population density of 36.70/sq mi. There were 8,968 housing units, of which 8,161 were occupied; as of the census of 2000, there were 21,093 people, 7,933 households, 5,672 families residing in the county.
The population density was 37 people per square mile. There were 8,697 housing units at an average density of 15 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 98.41% White, 0.27% Black or African American, 0.21% Native American, 0.40% Asian, 0.16% from other races, 0.54% from two or more races. 0.62% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 7,933 households out of which 34.50% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 60.70% were married couples living together, 7.40% had a female householder with no husband present, 28.50% were non-families. 24.70% of all households were made up of individuals and 12.50% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.61 and the average family size was 3.13. In the county, the population was spread out with 28.60% under the age of 18, 8.10% from 18 to 24, 26.30% from 25 to 44, 22.50% from 45 to 64, 14.50% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36 years. For every 100 females there were 98.70 males.
For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 94.40 males. The median income for a household in the county was $38,036, the median income for a family was $45,421. Males had a median income of $30,212 versus $22,356 for females; the per capita income for the county was $18,405. About 6.80% of families and 9.40% of the population were below the poverty line, including 12.90% of those under age 18 and 7.60% of those age 65 or over. A number of historic communities in Buchanan County once appeared on state maps, but no longer exist. Hamerville was located east of Brandon at the intersection of Highway 150. Today, the site is the location of three farmhouses. Vista, once located between Brandon and Independence, appeared on maps until the 1950s; this site is not accessed by paved road. Kier, between Fairbank and Littleton, appeared on many maps in the 19th century and early 20th century; the area is now settled by Amish. Several towns named Middlefield existed southeast of Winthrop. Newtonville was located a few miles south of Monti.
The houses at Castleville were moved to Aurora. Wise, once located between Independence and Jesup just north of Highway 939, was a train-stop between the 1920s and the 1950s. Little remains at the site. Kiene was founded in 1911 between Quasqueton and Monti, but was empty by 1955. Few or no houses remain at any of these sites. Buchanan County is divided into sixteen townships: The population ranking of the following table is based on the 2010 census of Buchanan County.† county seat Buchanan County is home to the Hazleton Old Order Amish settlement, founded in 1914, that in 1987 had to six church districts with an estimated population of about 1,200 Amish. The Buchanan Amish affiliation is named after Buchanan County. National Register of Historic Places listings in Buchanan County, Iowa Website for Buchanan County Buchanan County Economic Development Commission's website
Time in the United States
Time in the United States, by law, is divided into nine standard time zones covering the states and its possessions, with most of the United States observing daylight saving time for the spring and fall months. The time zone boundaries and DST observance are regulated by the Department of Transportation. Official and precise timekeeping services are provided by two federal agencies: the National Institute of Standards and Technology; the clocks run by these services are kept synchronized with each other as well as with those of other international timekeeping organizations. It is the combination of the time zone and daylight saving rules, along with the timekeeping services, which determines the legal civil time for any U. S. location at any moment. Before the adoption of four standard time zones for the continental United States, many towns and cities set their clocks to noon when the sun passed their local meridian, pre-corrected for the equation of time on the date of observation, to form local mean solar time.
Noon occurred at different times but time differences between distant locations were noticeable prior to the 19th century because of long travel times and the lack of long-distance instant communications prior to the development of the telegraph. The use of local solar time became awkward as railways and telecommunications improved. American railroads maintained many different time zones during the late 1800s; each train station set its own clock making it difficult to coordinate train schedules and confusing passengers. Time calculation became a serious problem for people traveling by train, according to the Library of Congress; every city in the United States used a different time standard so there were more than 300 local sun times to choose from. Time zones were therefore a compromise, relaxing the complex geographic dependence while still allowing local time to be approximate with mean solar time. Railroad managers tried to address the problem by establishing 100 railroad time zones, but this was only a partial solution to the problem.
Weather service chief Cleveland Abbe had needed to introduce four standard time zones for his weather stations, an idea which he offered to the railroads. Operators of the new railroad lines needed a new time plan that would offer a uniform train schedule for departures and arrivals. Four standard time zones for the continental United States were introduced at noon on November 18, 1883, when the telegraph lines transmitted time signals to all major cities. In October 1884, the International Meridian Conference at Washington DC adopted a proposal which stated that the prime meridian for longitude and timekeeping should be one that passes through the centre of the transit instrument at the Greenwich Observatory in the United Kingdom; the conference therefore established the Greenwich Meridian as the prime meridian and Greenwich Mean Time as the world's time standard. The US time-zone system grew from this, in which all zones referred back to GMT on the prime meridian. In 1960, the International Radio Consultative Committee formalized the concept of Coordinated Universal Time, which became the new international civil time standard.
UTC is, within about 1 second, mean solar time at 0°. UTC does not observe daylight saving time. For most purposes, UTC is considered interchangeable with GMT, but GMT is no longer defined by the scientific community. UTC is one of several related successors to GMT. Standard time zones in the United States are defined at the federal level by law 15 USC §260; the federal law establishes the transition dates and times at which daylight saving time occurs, if observed. It is the authority of the Secretary of Transportation, in coordination with the states, to determine which regions will observe which of the standard time zones and if they will observe daylight saving time; as of August 9, 2007, the standard time zones are defined in terms of hourly offsets from UTC. Prior to this they were based upon the mean solar time at several meridians 15° apart west of Greenwich. Only the full-time zone names listed below are official. View the standard time zone boundaries here; the United States uses nine standard time zones.
As defined by US law they are: From east to west, the four time zones of the contiguous United States are: Eastern Time Zone, which comprises the states on the Atlantic coast and the eastern two thirds of the Ohio Valley. Central Time Zone, which comprises the Gulf Coast, Mississippi Valley, most of the Great Plains. Mountain Time Zone, which comprises the states and portions of states that include the Rocky Mountains and the western quarter of the Great Plains. Pacific Time Zone, which comprises the states on the Pacific coast, plus Nevada and the Idaho panhandle. Alaska Time Zone, which comprises most of the state of Alaska. Hawaii-Aleutian Time Zone, which includes Hawaii and most of the length of the Aleutian Islands chain. Samoa Time Zone, which comprises American Samoa. Chamorro Time Zone, which comprises Guam and the Northern Mariana Islands. Atlantic Time Zone, which comprises Puerto Rico and the US Virgin Islands; some United States Minor Outlying Islands are outside the time zones defined by 15 U.
S. C. § exist in waters defined by Nautical time. In practice, military crews may