Abd al-Rahman al-Sufi
'Abd al-Rahman al-Sufi (Persian: عبدالرحمن صوفی was a Persian astronomer known as'Abd ar-Rahman as-Sufi,'Abd al-Rahman Abu al-Husayn,'Abdul Rahman Sufi, or'Abdurrahman Sufi and in the West as Azophi and Azophi Arabus. The lunar crater Azophi and the minor planet 12621 Alsufi are named after him. Al-Sufi published his famous Book of Fixed Stars in 964, describing much of his work, both in textual descriptions and pictures. Al-Biruni reports, he lived at the Buyid court in Isfahan.'Abd al-Rahman al-Sufi was one of the famous nine Muslim astronomers. His name implies, he lived at the court of Emir Adud ad-Daula in Isfahan and worked on translating and expanding Greek astronomical works the Almagest of Ptolemy. He contributed several corrections to Ptolemy's star list and did his own brightness and magnitude estimates which deviated from those in Ptolemy's work, he was a major translator into Arabic of the Hellenistic astronomy, centered in Alexandria, the first to attempt to relate the Greek with the traditional Arabic star names and constellations, which were unrelated and overlapped in complicated ways.
He identified the Large Magellanic Cloud, visible from Yemen, though not from Isfahan. He made the earliest recorded observation of the Andromeda Galaxy in 964 AD; these were the first galaxies other than the Milky Way to be observed from Earth. He observed that the ecliptic plane is inclined with respect to the celestial equator and more calculated the length of the tropical year, he observed and described the stars, their positions, their magnitudes and their colour, setting out his results constellation by constellation. For each constellation, he provided two drawings, one from the outside of a celestial globe, the other from the inside. Al-Sufi wrote about the astrolabe, finding numerous additional uses for it: he described over 1000 different uses, in areas as diverse as astronomy, horoscopes, surveying, Qibla, Salat prayer, etc. Since 2006, Astronomy Society of Iran – Amateur Committee hold an international Sufi Observing Competition in the memory of Al-Sufi; the first competition was held in 2006 in the north of Semnan Province and the second was held in the summer of 2008 in Ladiz near the Zahedan.
More than 100 attendees from Iran and Iraq participated in the event. List of Iranian scientists List of Muslim scientists Astronomy in Islam Liber locis stellarum fixarum, 964 da www.atlascoelestis.com Liber locis stellarum fixarum, 964, manoscritto del 1417 riprodotto il 1730 da www.atlascoelestis.com Ulug Beg in www.atlascoelestis.com Al-Sufi's constellations Al-Sūfī’s Book of the Constellations of the Fixed Stars and its Influence on Islamic and Western Celestial Cartography
Johannes Hevelius was a councillor and mayor of Danzig, Kingdom of Poland. As an astronomer, he gained a reputation as "the founder of lunar topography", described ten new constellations, seven of which are still used by astronomers. According to the Polish Academy of Sciences the origin of the name goes back to the surname Hawke, a historical alternative spelling for the English word hawk, which changed into Hawelke or Hawelecke. In Poland he is known as Jan Heweliusz, According to Patrick Moore Hevelius is a Latinised version of the name Hewelcke other versions of the name include Hewel, Hevelke or Hoefel, Höwelcke, Höfelcke. According to Feliks Bentkowski during his early years he signed as Hoefelius, Ludwig Günther-Fürstenwalde reports, next to the usage of the Latinised version, Hevelius' signature as Johannes Höffelius Dantiscanus in 1631 and Hans Höwelcke in 1639. Hevelius' father was his mother Kordula Hecker, they were wealthy brewing merchants of Bohemian origin. As a young boy, Hevelius was sent to Gądecz.
Hevelius brewed the famous Jopen beer, which gave its name to the "Jopengasse"/"Jopejska" Street, after 1945 renamed as Piwna Street, where St. Mary's Church is located. After gymnasium, where he was taught by Peter Crüger, Hevelius in 1630 studied jurisprudence at Leiden travelled in England and France, meeting Pierre Gassendi, Marin Mersenne and Athanasius Kircher. In 1634 he settled in his native town, on 21 March 1635 married Katharine Rebeschke, a neighbour two years younger who owned two adjacent houses; the following year, Hevelius became a member of the beer-brewing guild, which he led from 1643 onwards. Throughout his life, Hevelius took a leading part in municipal administration, becoming town councillor in 1651. In 1641 he built an observatory on the roofs of his three connected houses, equipping it with splendid instruments including a large Keplerian telescope of 46 m focal length, with a wood and wire tube he constructed himself; this may have been the longest "tubed" telescope before the advent of the tubeless aerial telescope.
The observatory was known by the name Sternenburg or "Star Castle". This private observatory was visited by Polish Queen Marie Louise Gonzaga on 29 January 1660; as a subject of the Polish kings, Hevelius enjoyed the patronage of four consecutive kings of Poland, his family was raised to the position of nobility by the King of Poland Jan Kazimierz in 1660, who visited his observatory in 1659. While the noble status was not ratified by the Polish Sejm Hevelius's coat of arms includes the distinctive Polish royal crown; the Polish King John III Sobieski who visited Hevelius numerous times in years 1677–1683 released him from paying taxes connected to brewing and allowed his beer to be sold outside the city limits. In May 1679 the young Englishman Edmond Halley visited him as emissary of the Royal Society, whose fellow Hevelius had been since 1664; the Royal Society considers him one of the first German fellows. Małgorzata Czerniakowska writes that "Jan Heweliusz was the first Pole to be inducted into the Royal Society in London.
This important event took place on 19th March 1664". Hevelius considered himself as being citizen of the Polish world and stated in a letter dated from 9 January 1681 that he was Civis orbis Poloni, qui in honorem patriae suae rei Literariae bono tot labores molestiasque, absit gloria, cum maximo facultatum suarum dispendio perduravit-"citizen of Polish world who, for glory of his country and for the good of science, worked so much, while not boasting much, executed his work with most effort per his abilities" Halley had been instructed by Robert Hooke and John Flamsteed to persuade Hevelius to use telescopes for his measurements, yet Hevelius demonstrated that he could do well with only quadrant and alidade, he is thus considered the last astronomer to do major work without the use of a telescope. Hevelius made observations of sunspots, 1642–1645, devoted four years to charting the lunar surface, discovered the Moon's libration in longitude, published his results in Selenographia, sive Lunae descriptio, a work which entitles him to be called "the founder of lunar topography".
He discovered four comets, in 1652, 1661, 1672 and 1677. These discoveries led to his thesis. A complex halo phenomenon was observed by many in the city on 20 February 1661, was described by Hevelius in his Mercurius in Sole visus Gedani the following year. Katharine, his first wife, died in 1662, a year Hevelius married Elisabeth Koopmann, the young daughter of a merchant family; the couple had four children. Elisabeth supported him, published two of his works after his death, is considered the first female astronomer, his observatory and books were destroyed by fire on 26 September 1679. The catastrophe is described in the preface to his Annus climactericus, he promptly repaired the damage enough to enable him to observe the great comet of December 1680. He named the constellation Sextans in memory of this lost instrument. In late 1683, in commemoration of the victory of Christian forces led by Polish King John III Sobieski at the Battle of Vienna, he invented and named the constellation Scutum Sobiescianum, now called Scutum.
This constellation first occurred publicly in his star atlas Firmamentum Sobi
Celestial cartography, astrography or star cartography is the fringe of astronomy and branch of cartography concerned with mapping stars and other astronomical objects on the celestial sphere. Measuring the position and light of charted objects requires a variety of instruments and techniques; these techniques have developed from angle measurements with quadrants and the unaided eye, through sextants combined with lenses for light magnification, up to current methods which include computer-automated space telescopes. Uranographers have produced planetary position tables, star tables, star maps for use by both amateur and professional astronomers. More computerized star maps have been compiled, automated positioning of telescopes is accomplished using databases of stars and other astronomical objects; the word "uranography" derived from the Greek "ουρανογραφια" through the Latin "uranographia". In Renaissance times, Uranographia was used as the book title of various celestial atlases. During the 19th century, "uranography" was defined as the "description of the heavens".
Elijah H. Burritt re-defined it as the "geography of the heavens"; the German word for uranography is "Uranographie", the French is "uranographie" and the Italian is "uranografia". A determining fact source for drawing star charts is a star table; this is apparent when comparing the imaginative "star maps" of Poeticon Astronomicon – illustrations beside a narrative text from the antiquity – to the star maps of Johann Bayer, based on precise star-position measurements from the Rudolphine Tables by Tycho Brahe. C:AD 150, Almagest – contains the last known star table from antiquity, prepared by Ptolemy, 1,028 stars. C.964, Book of the Fixed Stars, Arabic version of the Almagest by al-Sufi. 1627, Rudolphine Tables – contains the first West Enlightenment star table, based on measurements of Tycho Brahe, 1,005 stars. 1690, Prodromus Astronomiae – by Johannes Hevelius for his Firmamentum Sobiescanum, 1,564 stars. 1729, Britannic Catalogue – by John Flamsteed for his Atlas Coelestis, position of more than 3,000 stars by accuracy of 10".
1903, Bonner Durchmusterung – by Friedrich Wilhelm Argelander and collaborators, circa 460,000 stars. 15th century BC – The ceiling of the tomb TT71 for the Egyptian architect and minister Senenmut, who served Queen Hatshepsut, is adorned with a large and extensive star chart. C:a 1 CE?? Poeticon astronomicon by Gaius Julius Hyginus 1092 – Xin Yi Xiang Fa Yao, by Su Song, a horological treatise which had the earliest existent star maps in printed form. Su Song's star maps featured the corrected position of the pole star, deciphered due to the efforts of astronomical observations by Su's peer, the polymath scientist Shen Kuo. 1515 – First European printed star charts published in Nuremberg, engraved by Albrecht Dürer. 1603 – Uranometria, by Johann Bayer, the first western modern star map based on Tycho Brahe's and Johannes Kepler's Tabulae Rudolphinae 1627, Julius Schiller published the star atlas Coelum Stellatum Christianum which replaced pagan constellations with biblical and early Christian figures.
1660 – Jan Janssonius' 11th volume of Atlas Maior featured the Harmonia Macrocosmica by Andreas Cellarius 1693 – Firmamentum Sobiescanum sive Uranometria, by Johannes Hevelius, a star map updated with many new star positions based on Hevelius'es Prodromus astronomiae – 1564 stars. 1729 Atlas Coelestis by John Flamsteed 1801 Uranographia by Johann Elert Bode 1843 Uranometria Nova by Friedrich Wilhelm Argelander 1914 Franklin-Adams Charts, by John Franklin-Adams, a early photographic atlas. The Falkau Atlas. Stars to magnitude 13. Atlas Stellarum. Stars to magnitude 14. True Visual Magnitude Photographic Star Atlas. Stars to magnitude 13.5. Bright Star Atlas – Wil Tirion Cambridge Star Atlas – Wil Tirion Norton's Star Atlas and Reference Handbook – Ed. Ian Ridpath Stars & Planets Guide – Ian Ridpath and Wil Tirion Cambridge Double Star Atlas – James Mullaney and Wil Tirion Cambridge Atlas of Herschel Objects – James Mullaney and Wil Tirion Pocket Sky Atlas – Roger Sinnott Deep Sky Reiseatlas – Michael Feiler, Philip Noack Atlas Coeli Skalnate Pleso 1950.0 – Antonín Bečvář SkyAtlas 2000.0, second edition – Wil Tirion & Roger Sinnott 1987, Uranometria 2000.0 Deep Sky Atlas – Wil Tirion, Barry Rappaport, Will Remaklus Herald-Bobroff AstroAtlas – David Herald & Peter Bobroff Millennium Star Atlas – Roger Sinnott, Michael Perryman Field Guide to the Stars and Planets – Jay M. Pasachoff, Wil Tirion charts SkyGX – Christopher Watson The Great Atlas of the Sky – Piotr Brych.
100,000 Stars Cartes du Ciel Celestia 3D Galaxy Map CyberSky GoSkyWatch Planetarium Google Sky KStars Stellarium SKY-MAP. ORG SkyMap Online WorldWide Telescope XEphem, for Unix-like systems Stellarmap.com – online map of the stars Star Walk and Kepler Explorer OpenLab: 2 celestial cartography apps for smartphones The TriAtlas Project Toshimi Taki Star Atlases DeepSky Hunter Star Atlas Andrew Johnson mag 7 Star chart Astrometry Cosmography Cheonsang Yeolcha Bunyajido History of cartography Planet
Prodromus Astronomiae is a star catalog created by Johannes Hevelius and published posthumously by his wife and research aid Elisabeth Hevelius in 1690. The catalog consists of the location of 1,564 stars listed by constellation, it consists of three separate parts: a preface, a star catalog, an atlas of constellations. Prodromus outlines the technology used in creating the star catalogue, it provides examples of the use of the sextant and quadrant by Johannes, in tandem with known positions of the sun, in calculating each stars' longitude and latitude. The written draft of the Catalogus Stellarum consists of 183 leaves, 145, alphabetized according to constellation, containing star positions; each star had specific information recorded in columns: the reference number and magnitude found by astronomer Tycho Brahe, Johannes' own magnitude calculation, the star's longitude and latitude by both ecliptic coordinates measured by angular distances and meridian altitudes found using Johannes' quadrant, the star's equatorial coordinates calculated using spherical trigonometry.
The printed version was similar to the written draft, except the two columns describing a star's ecliptic coordinates were combined, only the single best value for the star's latitude and longitude was given. The printed version held more than 600 new stars and 12 new constellations not documented in the written draft, bringing its total to 1564. Although the observations of the catalog used nothing more than the astronomer's naked eye, the measurements were so precise as to be used in the making of celestial globes into the early 18th Century. Firmamentum Sobiescianum, while technically part of the Prodromus Astronomiae as a well, was published separately and in tighter circulation. Housing its own cover page and page-numbering system, the atlas consisted of two hemispheres and 54 double-page plates of 73 constellations. Both the northern and southern hemispheres were centered on an ecliptic pole, most star locations were all based off Johannes' own observations; those that were not, the southern polar stars, were based on a catalog and map published in 1679 by Edmond Halley
Astrophotography is photography of astronomical objects, celestial events, areas of the night sky. The first photograph of an astronomical object was taken in 1840, but it was not until the late 19th century that advances in technology allowed for detailed stellar photography. Besides being able to record the details of extended objects such as the Moon and planets, astrophotography has the ability to image objects invisible to the human eye such as dim stars and galaxies; this is done by long time exposure since both film and digital cameras can accumulate and sum light photons over these long periods of time. Photography revolutionized the field of professional astronomical research, with longtime exposures recording hundreds of thousands of new stars and nebulae that were invisible to the human eye, leading to specialized and larger optical telescopes that were big cameras designed to record light using photographic plates. Astrophotography had an early role in sky surveys and star classification but over time it has given way to more sophisticated equipment and techniques designed for specific fields of scientific research, with image sensors becoming just one of many forms of sensor.
Today, astrophotography is a subdiscipline in amateur astronomy seeking aesthetically pleasing images rather than scientific data. Amateurs use a wide range of special equipment and techniques. With a few exceptions, astronomical photography employs long exposures since both film and digital imaging devices can accumulate and light photons over long periods of time; the amount of light hitting the film or detector is increased by increasing the diameter of the primary optics being used. Urban areas produce light pollution so equipment and observatories doing astronomical imaging are located in remote locations to allow long exposures without the film or detectors being swamped with stray light. Since the Earth is rotating and equipment are rotated in the opposite direction to follow the apparent motion of the stars overhead; this is accomplished by using either equatorial or computer-controlled altazimuth telescope mounts to keep celestial objects centered while the earth rotates. All telescope mount systems suffer from induced tracking errors due to imperfect motor drives, mechanical sag of the telescope and atmospheric refraction.
Tracking errors are corrected by keeping a selected aiming point a guide star, centered during the entire exposure. Sometimes the object to be imaged is moving, so the telescope has to be kept centered on that object; this guiding is done through a second co-mounted telescope called a "guide scope" or via some type of "off-axis guider", a device with a prism or optical beam splitter that allows the observer to view the same image in the telescope, taking the picture. Guiding was done manually throughout the exposure with an observer standing at the telescope making corrections to keep a cross hair on the guide star. Since the advent of computer-controlled systems this is accomplished by an automated systems in professional and amateur equipment. Astronomical photography was one of the earliest types of scientific photography and from its inception it diversified into subdisciplines that each have a specific goal including star cartography, stellar classification, spectroscopy and the discovery of astronomical objects such as asteroids, comets, variable stars and unknown planets.
These require specialized equipment such as telescopes designed for precise imaging, for wide field of view, or for work at specific wavelengths of light. Astronomical CCD cameras may cool the sensor to reduce thermal noise and to allow the detector to record images in other spectra such as in infrared astronomy. Specialized filters are used to record images in specific wavelengths; the development of astrophotography as a scientific tool was pioneered in the mid-19th century for the most part by experimenters and amateur astronomers, or so-called "gentleman scientists". Because of the long exposures needed to capture faint astronomical objects, many technological problems had to be overcome; these included making telescopes rigid enough so they would not sag out of focus during the exposure, building clock drives that could rotate the telescope mount at a constant rate, developing ways to keep a telescope aimed at a fixed point over a long period of time. Early photographic processes had limitations.
The daguerreotype process was far too slow to record anything but the brightest objects, the wet plate collodion process limited exposures to the time the plate could stay wet. The first known attempt at astronomical photography was by Louis Jacques Mandé Daguerre, inventor of the daguerreotype process which bears his name, who attempted in 1839 to photograph the Moon. Tracking errors in guiding the telescope during the long exposure meant the photograph came out as an indistinct fuzzy spot. John William Draper, New York University Professor of Chemistry and scientific experimenter managed to make the first successful photograph of the moon a year on March 23, 1840, taking a 20-minute-long daguerreotype image using a 5-inch reflecting telescope; the Sun may have been first photographed in an 1845 daguerreotype by the French physicists Léon Foucault and Hippolyte Fizeau. A failed attempt to obtain a photograph of a Total Eclipse of the Sun was made by the Italian physicist, Gian Alessandro Majocchi during an eclipse of the Sun that took place in his h
Aquarius is a constellation of the zodiac, situated between Capricornus and Pisces. Its name is Latin for "water-carrier" or "cup-carrier", its symbol is, a representation of water. Aquarius is one of the oldest of the recognized constellations along the zodiac, it was one of the 48 constellations listed by the 2nd century astronomer Ptolemy, it remains one of the 88 modern constellations. It is found in a region called the Sea due to its profusion of constellations with watery associations such as Cetus the whale, Pisces the fish, Eridanus the river. At apparent magnitude 2.9, Beta Aquarii is the brightest star in the constellation. Aquarius is identified as GU. LA "The Great One" in the Babylonian star catalogues and represents the god Ea himself, depicted holding an overflowing vase; the Babylonian star-figure appears on entitlement stones and cylinder seals from the second millennium. It contained the winter solstice in the Early Bronze Age. In Old Babylonian astronomy, Ea was the ruler of the southernmost quarter of the Sun's path, the "Way of Ea", corresponding to the period of 45 days on either side of winter solstice.
Aquarius was associated with the destructive floods that the Babylonians experienced, thus was negatively connoted. In Ancient Egypt astronomy, Aquarius was associated with the annual flood of the Nile. In the Greek tradition, the constellation came to be represented as a single vase from which a stream poured down to Piscis Austrinus; the name in the Hindu zodiac is kumbha "water-pitcher". In Greek mythology, Aquarius is sometimes associated with Deucalion, the son of Prometheus who built a ship with his wife Pyrrha to survive an imminent flood, they sailed for nine days before washing ashore on Mount Parnassus. Aquarius is sometimes identified with beautiful Ganymede, a youth in Greek mythology and the son of Trojan king Tros, taken to Mount Olympus by Zeus to act as cup-carrier to the gods. Neighboring Aquila represents the eagle, under Zeus' command. An alternative version of the tale recounts Ganymede's kidnapping by the goddess of the dawn, motivated by her affection for young men, yet another figure associated with the water bearer is Cecrops I, a king of Athens who sacrificed water instead of wine to the gods.
In the first century, Ptolemy's Almagest established the common Western depiction of Aquarius. His water jar, an asterism itself, consists of Gamma, Pi, Zeta Aquarii; the water bearer's head is represented by 5th magnitude 25 Aquarii while his left shoulder is Beta Aquarii. In Chinese astronomy, the stream of water flowing from the Water Jar was depicted as the "Army of Yu-Lin"; the name "Yu-lin" means "feathers and forests", referring to the numerous light-footed soldiers from the northern reaches of the empire represented by these faint stars. The constellation's stars were the most numerous of any Chinese constellation, numbering 45, the majority of which were located in modern Aquarius; the celestial army was protected by the wall Leibizhen, which counted Iota, Lambda and Sigma Aquarii among its 12 stars. 88, 89, 98 Aquarii represent Fou-youe, the axes used as weapons and for hostage executions. In Aquarius is Loui-pi-tchin, the ramparts that stretch from 29 and 27 Piscium and 33 and 30 Aquarii through Phi, Lambda and Iota Aquarii to Delta, Gamma and Epsilon Capricorni.
Near the border with Cetus, the axe Fuyue was represented by three stars. Tienliecheng has a disputed position; the Water Jar asterism was seen to the ancient Chinese as Fenmu. Nearby, the emperors' mausoleum Xiuliang stood, demarcated by Kappa Aquarii and three other collinear stars. Ku and Qi, each composed of two stars, were located in the same region. Three of the Chinese lunar mansions shared their name with constellations. Nu the name for the 10th lunar mansion, was a handmaiden represented by Epsilon, Mu, 3, 4 Aquarii; the 11th lunar mansion shared its name with the constellation Xu, formed by Beta Aquarii and Alpha Equulei. Wei, the rooftop and 12th lunar mansion, was a V-shaped constellation formed by Alpha Aquarii, Theta Pegasi, Epsilon Pegasi. Despite both its prominent position on the zodiac and its large size, Aquarius has no bright stars, its four brightest stars being less than magnitude 2. However, recent research has shown that there are several stars lying within its borders that possess planetary systems.
The two brightest stars and Beta Aquarii, are luminous yellow supergiants, of spectral types G0Ib and G2Ib that were once hot blue-white B-class main sequence stars 5 to 9 times as massive as the Sun. The two are moving through space perpendicular to the plane of the Milky Way. Just shading Alpha, Beta Aquarii is the brightest star in Aquarius with an apparent magnitude of 2.91. It has the proper name of Sadalsuud. Having cooled and swollen to around 50 times the Sun
Tycho Brahe was a Danish nobleman and writer known for his accurate and comprehensive astronomical and planetary observations. He was born in the Danish peninsula of Scania. Well known in his lifetime as an astronomer and alchemist, he has been described as "the first competent mind in modern astronomy to feel ardently the passion for exact empirical facts." His observations were some five times more accurate than the best available observations at the time. An heir to several of Denmark's principal noble families, he received a comprehensive education, he took an interest in the creation of more accurate instruments of measurement. As an astronomer, Tycho worked to combine what he saw as the geometrical benefits of the Copernican system with the philosophical benefits of the Ptolemaic system into his own model of the universe, the Tychonic system, his system saw the Moon as orbiting Earth, the planets as orbiting the Sun, but erroneously considered the Sun to be orbiting the Earth. Furthermore, he was the last of the major naked-eye astronomers, working without telescopes for his observations.
In his De nova stella of 1573, he refuted the Aristotelian belief in an unchanging celestial realm. His precise measurements indicated that "new stars", in particular that of 1572, lacked the parallax expected in sublunar phenomena and were therefore not tailless comets in the atmosphere as believed but were above the atmosphere and beyond the moon. Using similar measurements he showed that comets were not atmospheric phenomena, as thought, must pass through the immutable celestial spheres. King Frederick II granted Tycho an estate on the island of Hven and the funding to build Uraniborg, an early research institute, where he built large astronomical instruments and took many careful measurements, Stjerneborg, when he discovered that his instruments in Uraniborg were not sufficiently steady. On the island he founded manufactories, such as a paper mill, to provide material for printing his results. After disagreements with the new Danish king, Christian IV, in 1597, he went into exile, was invited by the Bohemian king and Holy Roman Emperor Rudolph II to Prague, where he became the official imperial astronomer.
He built an observatory at Benátky nad Jizerou. There, from 1600 until his death in 1601, he was assisted by Johannes Kepler, who used Tycho's astronomical data to develop his three laws of planetary motion. Tycho's body has been exhumed twice, in 1901 and 2010, to examine the circumstances of his death and to identify the material from which his artificial nose was made; the conclusion was that his death was caused by a burst bladder, not by poisoning as had been suggested, that the artificial nose was more made of brass than silver or gold, as some had believed in his time. Tycho was born as heir to several of Denmark's most influential noble families and in addition to his immediate ancestry with the Brahe and the Bille families, he counted the Rud, Trolle and Rosenkrantz families among his ancestors. Both of his grandfathers and all of his great grandfathers had served as members of the Danish king's Privy Council, his paternal grandfather and namesake Thyge Brahe was the lord of Tosterup Castle in Scania and died in battle during the 1523 Siege of Malmö during the Lutheran Reformation Wars.
His maternal grandfather Claus Bille, lord to Bohus Castle and a second cousin of Swedish king Gustav Vasa, participated in the Stockholm Bloodbath on the side of the Danish king against the Swedish nobles. Tycho's father Otte Brahe, like his father a royal Privy Councilor, married Beate Bille, herself a powerful figure at the Danish court holding several royal land titles. Both parents are buried under the floor of Kågeröd Church, four kilometres east of Knutstorp. Tycho was born at his family's ancestral seat of Knutstorp Castle, about eight kilometres north of Svalöv in Danish Scania, he was the oldest of 12 siblings. His twin brother died before being baptized. Tycho wrote an ode in Latin to his dead twin, printed in 1572 as his first published work. An epitaph from Knutstorp, but now on a plaque near the church door, shows the whole family, including Tycho as a boy; when he was only two years old Tycho was taken away to be raised by his uncle Jørgen Thygesen Brahe and his wife Inger Oxe who were childless.
It is unclear why Otte Brahe reached this arrangement with his brother, but Tycho was the only one of his siblings not to be raised by his mother at Knutstorp. Instead, Tycho was raised at Jørgen Brahe's estate at Tosterup and at Tranekær on the island of Langeland, at Næsbyhoved Castle near Odense, again at the Castle of Nykøbing on the island of Falster. Tycho wrote that Jørgen Brahe "raised me and generously provided for me during his life until my eighteenth year. From ages 6 to 12, Tycho attended Latin school in Nykøbing. At age 12, on 19 April 1559, Tycho began studies at the University of Copenhagen. There, following his uncle's wishes, he studied law, but studied a variety of other subjects and became interested in astronomy. At the University, Aristotle was a staple of scientific theory, Tycho received a thorough training in Aristotelian physics and cosmology, he experienced the solar eclipse of 21 August 1560, was impressed by the fact that it had been pre