A star chart or star map called a sky chart or sky map, is a map of the night sky. Astronomers divide these into grids to use them more easily, they are used to identify and locate constellations and astronomical objects such as stars and galaxies. They have been used for human navigation since time immemorial. Note that a star chart differs from an astronomical catalog, a listing or tabulation of astronomical objects for a particular purpose. Tools utilizing a star chart include the planisphere. A variety of archaeological sites and artifacts found are thought to indicate ancient made star charts; the oldest known star chart may be a carved ivory Mammoth tusk drawn by early people from Asia that moved into Europe, discovered in Germany in 1979. This artifact is 32,500 years old and has a carving that resembles the constellation Orion, although it could not be confirmed and could be a pregnancy chart. A drawing on the wall of the Lascaux caves in France has a graphical representation of the Pleiades open cluster of stars.
This is dated from 33,000 to 10,000 years ago. Researcher Michael A. Rappenglueck has suggested that a panel in the same caves depicting a charging bison, a man with a bird's head and the head of a bird on top of a piece of wood, together may depict the Summer Triangle, which at the time was a circumpolar formation. Rappenglueck discovered a drawing of the Northern Crown constellation in the cave of El Castillo, made in the same period as the Lascaux chart. Another star chart panel, created more than 21,000 years ago, was found in the La Tête du Lion cave; the bovine in this panel may represent the constellation Taurus, with a pattern representing the Pleiades just above it. A star chart drawn 5000 years ago by the Indias in Kashmir, which depict a supernova for the first time in human history; the Nebra sky disk, a 30 cm wide bronze disk dated to 1600 BC, bears gold symbols interpreted as a sun or full moon, a lunar crescent, several stars including the Pleiades cluster and the Milky Way. The oldest dated star chart appeared in ancient Egyptian astronomy in 1534 BC.
The earliest known star catalogues were compiled by the ancient Babylonian astronomers of Mesopotamia in the late 2nd millennium BC, during the Kassite Period. The oldest records of Chinese astronomy date to the Warring States period, but the earliest preserved Chinese star catalogues of astronomers Shi Shen and Gan De are found in the 2nd-century BC Shiji by the Western Han historian Sima Qian; the oldest Chinese graphical representation of the night sky is a lacquerware box from the 5th-century BC Tomb of Marquis Yi of Zeng, although this depiction shows the positions of the Chinese constellations by name and does not show individual stars. The Farnese Atlas is a 2nd-century AD Roman copy of a Hellenistic era Greek statue depicting the Titan Atlas holding the celestial sphere on his shoulder, it is the oldest surviving depiction of the ancient Greek constellations, includes grid circles that provide coordinate positions. Because of precession, the positions of the constellations change over time.
By comparing the positions of the 41 constellations against the grid circles, an accurate determination can be made of the epoch when the original observations were performed. Based upon this information, the constellations were catalogued at 125 ± 55 BC; this evidence indicates that the star catalogue of the 2nd-century BC Greek astronomer Hipparchus was used. A Roman era example of a graphical representation of the night sky is the Ptolemaic Egyptian Dendera zodiac, dating from 50 BC; this is a bas relief sculpting on a ceiling at the Dendera Temple complex. It is a planisphere depicting the zodiac in graphical representations. However, individual stars are not plotted; the oldest surviving manuscript star chart was the Dunhuang Star Chart, dated to the Tang dynasty and discovered in the Mogao Caves of Dunhuang in Gansu, Western China along the Silk Road. This is a scroll 210 cm in length and 24.4 cm wide showing the sky between declinations 40° south to 40° north in twelve panels, plus a thirteenth panel showing the northern circumpolar sky.
A total of 1,345 stars are grouped into 257 asterisms. The date of this chart is uncertain, but is estimated as 705–10 AD. During the Song dynasty, the Chinese astronomer Su Song wrote a book titled Xin Yixiang Fa Yao containing five maps of 1,464 stars; this has been dated to 1092. In 1193, the astronomer Huang Shang prepared a planisphere along with explanatory text, it was engraved in stone in 1247, this chart still exists in the Wen Miao temple in Suzhou. In Muslim astronomy, the first star chart to be drawn was most the illustrations produced by the Persian astronomer Abd al-Rahman al-Sufi in his 964 work titled Book of Fixed Stars; this book was an update of parts VII.5 and VIII.1 of the 2nd century Almagest star catalogue by Ptolemy. The work of al-Sufi contained illustrations of the constellations and portrayed the brighter stars as dots; the original book did not survive. The oldest European star map was a parchment manuscript titled De Composicione Spere Solide, it was most produced in Vienna, Austria in 1440 and consisted of a two-part map depicting the constellations of the northern celestial hemisphere and the ecliptic.
This may have served as a prototype for the oldest European printed star chart, a 1515 set of woodcut portraits produced by Albrecht Dürer in Nuremberg, Germany. During the European Age of Discovery, expeditions to the southern hemisphere began to result in the addition of new constellations; these most came from the records
East Berbice-Corentyne is one of ten regions in Guyana covering the whole of the east of the country. It borders the Atlantic Ocean to the north, Suriname to the east, Brazil to the south and the regions of Mahaica-Berbice, Upper Demerara-Berbice, Potaro-Siparuni and Upper Takutu-Upper Essequibo to the west. Towns in the region include New Amsterdam, Corriverton and Rose Hall; the Corentyne River forms the whole of the eastern border with Suriname, though the southern-most section is disputed territory known as the Tigri Area. Tamil Indians are the majority in this region; the Government of Guyana has administered three official censuses since the 1980 administrative reforms, in 1980, 1991 and 2002. In 2012, the population of East Berbice-Corentyne was recorded at 109,431 people. Official census records for the population of East Berbice-Corentyne are as follows: 2012: 109,431 2002: 123,695 1991: 142,541 1980: 152,386: Merville
The Bullen–Stratton–Cozzen House is a historic First Period house at 52 Brush Hill Road in Sherborn, Massachusetts. Its oldest portion is estimated to date to about 1680, the building reflects changes in taste and use over the intervening centuries; the house was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1986. The Bullen–Stratton–Cozzen House is located on the north side of Brush Hill Road, a rural country road in northwestern Sherborn, it is set in bend in the road, is set facing south, not far from Course Brook, a typical First Period siting. The main block of the house is a 2-1/2 story wood frame structure, five bays wide, with a side gable roof, twin interior chimneys and clapboard siding. A leanto section integral to its early construction, extends to the rear, with a "Beverly jog" extending the leanto beyond the left side; the central entrance has a Greek Revival surround. 1840. It has narrow sidelights and pilasters with a distinctive Greek key motif, unusual in the town; the oldest portion of this house was built c. 1680 by Deacon Samuel Bullen, early settler of the area.
The main block was extended to its present size c. 1760 by Nathaniel Stratton, who married into the Bullen family, was also responsible for the added Beverly jog. In the 19th century the house belonged to Isaac Cozzen; the house's Colonial Revival porches were added around 1910, when the property was being used as a vacation house. National Register of Historic Places listings in Sherborn, Massachusetts
Robert John Davies, GC was a Royal Engineers officer, awarded the George Cross for the heroism he displayed in defusing a bomb which threatened to destroy St Paul's Cathedral on 12 September 1940. Davies was born in Newlyn, the son of John Sampson Davies of St Erth and Annie Vingoe. Davies had emigrated to Canada and joined the Canadian Army in 1918, he returned to Cornwall in the 1930s, on 6 March 1940 was commissioned as a second lieutenant in the Royal Engineers, serving as a bomb disposal officer during the Blitz. On the night 8/9 September 1940, a Luftwaffe air raid on the city of London resulted in an unexploded bomb landing close to St Paul's Cathedral; the bomb took three days to dig out. It was placed on two lorries and Davies drove it through deserted streets to Hackney Marshes where it was safely destroyed; the citation from a supplement to the London Gazette of 27 September 1940 reads: The King has been graciously pleased to approve the award of the George Cross to the undermentioned:—Temporary Lieutenant Robert Davies, Royal Engineers.
Lieutenant Davies was the officer in charge of the party detailed to recover the bomb which fell in the vicinity of St. Paul's Cathedral. So conscious was this officer of the imminent danger to the Cathedral that regardless of personal risk he spared neither himself nor his men in their efforts to locate the bomb. After unremitting effort, during which all ranks knew that an explosion might occur at any moment, the bomb was extricated. In order to shield his men from further danger, Lieutenant Davies himself drove the vehicle in which the bomb was removed and carried out its disposal. Sapper George Cameron Wylie was awarded the George Cross for his part in the same action. Sergeant James Wilson and Lance-Corporal Herbert Leigh were awarded the British Empire Medal for their part in the action. After defusing the St Paul's bomb, Davies served in the Middle East, but returned to the United Kingdom for an investiture at Buckingham Palace in February 1942. In May 1942, Davies was court-martialled and convicted of eight charges of fraud, obtaining money dishonestly, theft, he pleaded guilty to 13 further charges of issuing cheques without ensuring he had sufficient funds to draw on.
He was cashiered on 1 June 1942, sentenced to two years' imprisonment, reduced to 18 months following review by the General Officer Commanding, London District. He afterwards lived with his family in Kogarah, Sydney; the Times of 1 October 1970 reported that his medal had been sold for a record £2,100. It is now on display at the Imperial War Museum. Upon his death on 27 September 1975 he was cremated and his remains interred at the Northern Suburbs Crematorium, Sydney, his interment niche is located in the "OT" wall, niche 175. George Wyllie Further readingDanger UXB by James Owen has several chapters on Davies's life and the St Paul's bomb. Published by Little, Brown, 2010 ISBN 978-1-4087-0255-0 http://vingoe.name/George%20Cross.htm
Marshalls Park Academy is an academy school for 11- to 16-year-olds in Romford in east London. In January 2006, Marshalls Park was granted Performing Arts College Specialist Status, it was awarded the ICT Mark, given to schools that can demonstrate good use of ICT across the curriculum. The award was presented at the BETT show on 12 January 2006 at Olympia; the Deputy Head is Mr Mathew Suttonwood, supported by Assistant and Associate Assistant Headteachers. In 2016, Ofsted marked the school as "Requires Improvement". Art, Business Studies, Drama and Technology, Geography, History, ICT, Modern Foreign Languages, PE, Dance, RE, Statistics, Film Studies and Catering. Andrew Rosindell, Member of Parliament for Romford. Ethan Payne, YouTuber, member of the Sidemen alongside KSI Michael Adebolajo Islamic terrorist and killer of Soldier Lee Rigby in 2013
Link TV, original WorldLink TV, is a non-commercial American satellite television network providing what it describes as "diverse perspectives on world and national issues." It is carried nationally on DirecTV and Dish Network and is broadcast over the air in the Los Angeles area on the 28.2 subchannel of KCET. Link TV was launched as a daily, 24-hour non-commercial network on 15 December 1999, it receives no money from the satellite providers, but relies instead on contributions from viewers and foundations. Link TV broadcasts a mix of documentaries and national news, music of diverse cultures, programs promoting citizen action; the network airs English language news from Al Jazeera English, Deutsche Welle, NHK and France 24, as well as various documentaries and world music videos. Select Link TV programs are streamed on the Internet, via the channel's website at www.linktv.org. The network produced Mosaic: World News from the Middle East, a program of translated news reports from the Middle East.
Direct satellite broadcasters were mandated to set aside 4% of its channel space for noncommercial educational and informational programming. ITVS, Internews Network and Internews Interactive joined in forming Link Media Inc. to program a channel, WorldLink TV, for this mandate. WorldLink TV was one of the nine channels select to meet the mandate for DirecTV. In October 2012, Link TV announced that it was merging with KCET, an independent public television station in Los Angeles, to form a new nonprofit entity, to be called KCETLink; the entity was headquartered at KCET's Burbank facilities. In 2018, KECTLink merged with the KOCE-TV Foundation to form the Public Media Group of Southern California. In 2010, Link TV announced the launch of ViewChange.org, an online video platform funded by the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation that aims to raise awareness of global development issues. It applies Semantic Web technology to video, in order to automatically create links to related content from other online sources.
In conjunction with the New York City Human Rights Watch International Film Festival, LinkTV broadcast a "Youth Producing Change" program which showcases the works of youth from all over the world. They support efforts to fund groups such as imMEDIAte Justice Productions which help youth create their own film works. Production facilities for Link TV are in San Francisco, Washington, D. C. and Burbank, California. Mosaic: World News from the Middle East Mosaic Intelligence Report Global Pulse Latin Pulse CINEMONDO Global Spirit Explore Earth Focus Who Speaks for Islam Bridge to Iran Real Conversations Global Lens Oceans 8 DOC-DEBUT 4REAL Men of Words Lunch with Bokara Bokara's Conversations on Consciousness U. S.-Muslim Engagement Project Ethics and the World Crisis ColorLines Future Express Connections The Israel Lobby Youth Producing Change LinkAsia DW News Borgen France 24 World News Democracy Now! In Focus Newshour NHK Newsline Sleepless in Gaza...and Jerusalem TED Talks Arab Labor Rappers, Virtuosos: New Music From the Muslim World bro'Town KCET KOCE-TV KRCB 1 a.m. to 5 a.m.
United States cable news List of United States over-the-air television networks List of United States cable and satellite television networks List of independent television stations in the U. S. Official website