Celestial equator

The celestial equator is the great circle of the imaginary celestial sphere on the same plane as the equator of Earth. This plane of reference bases the equatorial coordinate system. In other words, the celestial equator is an abstract projection of the terrestrial equator into outer space. Due to Earth's axial tilt, the celestial equator is inclined by about 23.44° with respect to the ecliptic. The inclination has varied from about 22.0° to 24.5° over the past 5 million years. An observer standing on Earth's equator visualizes the celestial equator as a semicircle passing through the zenith, the point directly overhead; as the observer moves north, the celestial equator tilts towards the opposite horizon. The celestial equator is defined to be infinitely distant. At the poles, the celestial equator coincides with the astronomical horizon. At all latitudes, the celestial equator is a uniform arc or circle because the observer is only finitely far from the plane of the celestial equator, but infinitely far from the celestial equator itself.

Astronomical objects near the celestial equator appear above the horizon from most places on earth, but they culminate highest near the equator. The celestial equator passes through these constellations: These are the most globally visible constellations. Celestial bodies other than Earth have defined celestial equators. Celestial pole Rotation around a fixed axis Celestial sphere Declination Equatorial coordinate system

Social computing

Social computing is an area of computer science, concerned with the intersection of social behavior and computational systems. It is based on creating or recreating social conventions and social contexts through the use of software and technology. Thus, email, instant messaging, social network services, social bookmarking and other instances of what is called social software illustrate ideas from social computing. Social computing begins with the observation. From birth, humans orient to one another, as they grow, they develop abilities for interacting with each other; this ranges from gesture to spoken and written language. As a consequence, people are remarkably sensitive to the behavior of those around them and make countless decisions that are shaped by their social context. Whether it's wrapping up a talk when the audience starts fidgeting, choosing the crowded restaurant over the nearly deserted one, or crossing the street against the light because everyone else is doing so, social information provides a basis for inferences and coordinating activity.

The premise of social computing is that it is possible to design digital systems that support useful functionality by making produced information available to their users. This information may be provided directly, as when systems show the number of users who have rated a review as helpful or not. Or the information may be provided after being filtered and aggregated, as is done when systems recommend a product based on what else people with similar purchase history have purchased. Alternatively, the information may be provided indirectly, as is the case with Google's page rank algorithms which orders search results based on the number of pages that point to them. In all of these cases, information, produced by a group of people is used to provide or enhance the functioning of a system. Social computing is concerned with systems of this sort and the mechanisms and principles that underlie them. Social computing can be defined as follows: "Social Computing" refers to systems that support the gathering, processing and dissemination of information, distributed across social collectivities such as teams, communities and markets.

Moreover, the information is not "anonymous" but is precise because it is linked to people, who are in turn linked to other people. More recent definitions, have foregone the restrictions regarding anonymity of information, acknowledging the continued spread and increasing pervasiveness of social computing; as an example, Hemmatazad, N. defined social computing as "the use of computational devices to facilitate or augment the social interactions of their users, or to evaluate those interactions in an effort to obtain new information."PLATO may be the earliest example of social computing in a live production environment with hundreds and soon thousands of users, on the PLATO computer system based in the University of Illinois at Urbana Champaign in 1973, when social software applications for multi-user chat rooms, group message forums, instant messaging appeared all within that year. In 1974, email was made available as well as the world's first online newspaper called NewsReport, which supported content submitted by the user community as well as written by editors and reporters.

Social computing has to do with supporting "computations" that are carried out by groups of people, an idea, popularized in James Surowiecki's book, The Wisdom of Crowds. Examples of social computing in this sense include collaborative filtering, online auctions, prediction markets, reputation systems, computational social choice and verification games; the social information processing page focuses on this sense of social computing. The idea to engage users using websites to interact was first brought forth by Web 2.0 and was an advancement from Web 1.0 where according to Cormode, G. and Krishnamurthy, B.: "content creators were few in Web 1.0 with the vast majority of users acting as consumers of content."Web 2.0 provided functionalities that allowed for low cost web-hosting services and introduced features with browser windows that used basic information structure and expanded it to as many devices as possible using HTTP. By 2006, Of particular interest in the realm of social computing is social software for enterprise.

Sometimes referred to as "Enterprise 2.0", a term derived from Web 2.0, this refers to the use of social computing in corporate intranets and in other medium- and large-scale business environments. It consisted of a class of tools that allowed for networking and social changes to businesses at the time, it was a layering of the business tools on Web 2.0 and brought forth several applications and collaborative software with specific uses. FinanceElectronic negotiation, which first came up in 1969 and was adapted over time to suit financial markets networking needs, represents an important and desirable coordination mechanism for electronic markets. Negotiation between agents allows cooperative and competitive sharing of information to determine a proper price. Recent research and practice has shown that electronic negotiation is beneficial for the coordination of complex interactions among organizations. Electronic negotiation has emerged as a dynamic, interdisciplinary research area covering aspects from disciplines such as Economics, Information Systems, Computer Science, Communication Theory and Psychology.

Social computing has become more known because of its relationship to a number of recent trends. These include the growing popularity of social software and Web 3.0, i

Women's Suffrage in Newfoundland

Women in Newfoundland won the right to vote and run for political office in 1925. The first general election in which women were able to participate occurred in 1928. In that election, 90 per cent of eligible women voters cast ballots. In 1930, Lady Helena Squires became the first women elected into the Newfoundland House of Assembly after winning a by-election; the Newfoundland women’s suffrage movement began in the 1890s and was linked to the prohibition movement. In September 1890, a local branch of the Women’s Christian Temperance Union formed in St. John’s. WCTU members argued that alcohol abuse was a problem in the dominion, that it led to increased rates of domestic violence and poverty, of which women and children were the primary victims; the WCTU argued that women should be given the right to vote in local option elections, so they could vote on prohibition and other issues. To help promote its cause, the WCTU published. Edited by Jessie Ohman, it contained editorials and essays calling for women’s suffrage, as well as political cartoons skewering the Newfoundland government and Prime Minister Sir William Whiteway, seen as being weak on prohibition and women’s suffrage.

The WCTU circulated a petition across the island of Newfoundland, demanding the women be given the right to vote in local option elections. On March 18, 1891, WCTU members marched to the Colonial Building and gave the petition to the government; the Newfoundland legislature debated enfranchising women on March 15, 1892, but defeated the motion in a vote of 13 to ten. Another vote on May 4, 1893 was unsuccessful, with 17 votes against the suffrage bill and 14 in favor; the WCTU stopped advocating for suffrage and turned its attention to missionary and charitable work. Although the WCTU was no longer fighting for women’s suffrage, the topic did not disappear from the public consciousness. Suffragists were active in other parts of the world, news of their work was reported in Newfoundland newspapers and debated in local clubs and societies. However, most clubs barred women. In response, a group of St. John’s women formed the Ladies Reading Room in 1909 to give women a space to discuss current affairs and read international journals and newspapers.

The Reading Room hosted a Current Events Club, which met every Saturday to debate current affairs, including suffrage. The Ladies Reading Room and Current Events Club politicized a new generation of suffragists, its leaders included Armine Gosling, Fannie McNeil, Myra Campbell, Anna Mitchell, Agnes Miller Ayre, Adeline Browning. The outbreak of the First World War caused suffragists to reduce their efforts, when the war ended, the movement gained significant ground; the war service of Newfoundland women helped the postwar suffragettes make their case that women deserved the vote. Women's Patriotic Association, formed to support war effort and its leaders were to key to the postwar proliferation of women's civic organizations, including the suffrage movement. In 1920, Armine Gosling, Adeline Browning, Anna Mitchell founded the Newfoundland Women’s Franchise League. Browning was London representative to the International Woman Suffrage Alliance, it had one goal: to win voting rights for women. League members embarked on an island-wide publicity campaign: suffragists screened advertisements in movie houses, published essays and letters in newspapers, canvassed homes and businesses, circulated a petition throughout the island to garner support.

Their efforts ended in success on March 9, 1925, when Prime Minister Walter Stanley Monroe introduced a suffrage bill to the legislature. It passed unanimously and became law on April 13, 1925, it was not, however, a total success: women could become voters at the age of 25, while men could vote at the age of 21. Nonetheless, suffragists hailed the new law as a victory and the Women’s Franchise League changed its name to The League of Women Voters, a non-partisan organization that promoted such social issues as compulsory education, child welfare, maternal health