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Celluloids are a class of compounds created from nitrocellulose and camphor, with added dyes and other agents. Considered the first thermoplastic, it was first created as Parkesine in 1856 and as Xylonite in 1869, before being registered as Celluloid in 1870. Celluloid is molded and shaped, it was first used as an ivory replacement; the main use was in movie and photography film industries, which used only celluloid film stock prior to the adoption of acetate safety film in the 1950s. Celluloid is flammable and expensive to produce and no longer used. Nitrocellulose-based plastics predate celluloid. Collodion, invented in 1848 and used as a wound dressing and an emulsion for photographic plates, is dried to a celluloid-like film; the first celluloid as a bulk material for forming objects was made in 1855 in Birmingham, England, by Alexander Parkes, never able to see his invention reach full fruition, after his firm went bankrupt due to scale-up costs. Parkes patented his discovery as Parkesine in 1862 after realising a solid residue remained after evaporation of the solvent from photographic collodion.

Parkes patented it as a clothing waterproofer for woven fabrics in the same year. Parkes showcased Parkesine at the 1862 International Exhibition in London, where he was awarded a bronze medal for his efforts; the introduction of Parkesine is regarded as the birth of the plastics industry. Parkesine was made from cellulose treated with a solvent, it is called synthetic ivory. The Parkesine company ceased trading in 1868. Pictures of Parkesine are held by the Plastics Historical Society of London. There is a plaque on the wall of the site of the Parkesine Works in London. In the 1860s, an American, John Wesley Hyatt, acquired Parkes's patent and began experimenting with cellulose nitrate with the intention of manufacturing billiard balls, which until that time were made from ivory, he used cloth, ivory dust, shellac, on April 6, 1869, patented a method of covering billiard balls with the addition of collodion. With assistance from Peter Kinnear and other investors, Hyatt formed the Albany Billiard Ball Company in Albany, New York, to manufacture the product.

In 1870, John and his brother Isaiah patented a process of making a "horn-like material" with the inclusion of cellulose nitrate and camphor. Alexander Parkes and Daniel Spill listed camphor during their earlier experiments, calling the resultant mix "xylonite", but it was the Hyatt brothers who recognized the value of camphor and its use as a plasticizer for cellulose nitrate. Isaiah Hyatt dubbed his material "celluloid" in 1872. English inventor Daniel Spill had worked with Parkes and formed the Xylonite Co. to take over Parkes' patents, describing the new plastic products as Xylonite. He took exception to the Hyatts' claims and pursued the brothers in a number of court cases between 1877 and 1884; the judge found in Spill's favour, but it was judged that neither party held an exclusive claim and the true inventor of celluloid/xylonite was Alexander Parkes, due to his mention of camphor in his earlier experiments and patents. The judge ruled all manufacturing of celluloid could continue both in Spill's British Xylonite Company and Hyatts' Celluloid Manufacturing Company.

The name Celluloid began as a trademark of the Celluloid Manufacturing Company, first of Albany, NY, of Newark, New Jersey, which manufactured the celluloids patented by John Wesley Hyatt. Hyatt used pressure to simplify the manufacture of these compounds. Over the years, celluloid became the common use term used for this type of plastic. In 1878 Hyatt was able to patent a process for injection moulding thermoplastics, although it took another fifty years before it could be realised commercially, in years celluloid was used as the base for photographic film. English photographer John Carbutt founded the Keystone Dry Plate Works in 1879 with the intention of producing gelatin dry plates; the Celluloid Manufacturing Company was contracted for this work, done by thinly slicing layers out of celluloid blocks and removing the slice marks with heated pressure plates. After this, the celluloid strips were coated with a photosensitive gelatin emulsion, it is not certain how long it took for Carbutt to standardize his process, but it occurred no than 1888.

A 15-inch-wide sheet of Carbutt's film was used by William Dickson for the early Edison motion picture experiments on a cylinder drum Kinetograph. However, the celluloid film base produced by this means was still considered too stiff for the needs of motion-picture photography. By 1889, more flexible celluloids for photographic film were developed, both Hannibal Goodwin and the Eastman Kodak Company obtained patents for a film product.. This ability to produce photographic images on a flexible material was a crucial step toward making possible the advent of motion pictures. Most movie and photography films prior to the widespread move to acetate films in the 1950s were made of celluloid, its high flammability was legendary since it self-explodes when exposed to temperatures over 150° C in front of a hot movie-projector beam. While celluloid film was standard for 35mm theatrical productions until around 1950, motion-picture film for amateur use, such as 16mm and 8mm film, were on acetate "safety base", at least in the US.

Celluloid was useful for creating cheaper jewellery, jewellery boxes, hair accessories and many items t

Sally Rand

Sally Rand was an American burlesque dancer and actress, most noted for her ostrich feather fan dance and balloon bubble dance. She performed under the name Billie Beck. Helen Gould Beck was born in the village of Hickory County, Missouri, her father, William Beck, was a West Point graduate and retired U. S. Army colonel, while her mother, Nettie Beck, was a school teacher and part-time newspaper correspondent; the family moved to Missouri while she was still in grade school. Helen got her start on the stage quite early, working as a chorus girl at Kansas City's Empress Theater when she was only 13. An early supporter of her talent was Goodman Ace, drama critic for the Kansas City Journal who saw her performing in a Kansas City nightclub and wrote glowing reviews. After studying ballet and drama in Kansas City, the teenage Helen decided her future lay in Hollywood. For a short time as she worked her way to the west coast, she was employed as an acrobat in the Ringling Brothers Circus, she performed in summer stock and traveling theater, including working with a then-unknown Humphrey Bogart.

During the 1920s, she appeared in silent films. Cecil B. DeMille gave her the name Sally Rand, inspired by a Rand McNally atlas, she was selected as one of the WAMPAS Baby Stars in 1927. After the introduction of sound films, she became a dancer, known for the fan dance, which she popularized starting at the Paramount Club, at 15 E. Huron, in Chicago, her most famous appearance was at the 1933 Chicago World's Fair, known as the Century of Progress, accompanied by her backing orchestra, directed by Art Frasik. She would play peek-a-boo with her body by manipulating her fans in front and behind her, like a winged bird as she swooped and twirled on the stage to "Clair de Lune", she was arrested four times in a single day during the fair due to perceived indecent exposure after a fan dance performance and while riding a white horse down the streets of Chicago, where the nudity was only an illusion, again after being bodypainted by Max Factor Sr. with his new makeup formulated for Hollywood films.

She conceived and developed the bubble dance, in part to cope with wind while performing outdoors. She performed the fan dance on film in Bolero, released in 1934, she performed the bubble dance in the film Sunset Murder Case available for watching on YouTube. In 1936, she purchased The Music Box burlesque hall in San Francisco, which would become the Great American Music Hall, she starred in "Sally Rand's Nude Ranch" at the Golden Gate International Exposition in San Francisco in 1939 and 1940. She was arrested twice in San Francisco in 1946. S. F. P. D." that time. In an unusual move, the judge viewed her performance at the Savoy and cleared her of all charges after deeming that "anyone who could find something lewd about the dance as she puts it on has to have a perverted idea of morals". In the early'50s she was traveling with a 17-member troupe around the midwest appearing at state fairs and small theaters. Edith Dahl, accompanied Miss Rand's famous fan dance, the finale of the show, on the violin and "cracked a few jokes."

According to local newspaper accounts, Miss Rand's large white feathered fans acted as "a guard to keep too much of mother nature from showing." "Smutty jokes" were at minimum in the afternoon performances." The tour was across Oklahoma and Texas west toward Washington before returning east. She refused to divulge her age to reporters at the time but was known to be approaching 50, she appeared on television in March 12, 1957, in episode 13 of the first season of To Tell the Truth with host Bud Collyer and panelists Polly Bergen, Ralph Bellamy, Kitty Carlisle, Carl Reiner. She did not "stump the panel" but was identified by all four panelists, she continued to appear on stage doing her fan dance into the 1970s. Rand once replaced Ann Corio in the stage show, This Was Burlesque, appeared at the Mitchell Brothers club in San Francisco in the early 1970s and toured as one of the stars of the 1972 nostalgia revue "Big Show of 1928," which played major concert venues, including New York's Madison Square Garden.

Describing her 40-year career, Rand said, "I haven’t been out of work since the day I took my pants off." Rand died on August 31, 1979, at Foothill Presbyterian Hospital, in Glendora, aged 75, from congestive heart failure. She was in debt at her death. Rand's adopted son told an interviewer that Sammy Davis Jr. stepped in and wrote a $10,000 check which took care of Rand's expenses. Football coaches at the University of Delaware named a football play after Sally Rand. One explanation is that the play misdirected the defense, or in other words, like the dancer herself, the offense was showing more than they had; the name migrated to Canada, where a "naked bootleg" became known as a "Sally Rand" and was used to great effect by the B. C. Lions. In Tex Avery's cartoon Hollywood Steps Out, a rotoscoped Rand performs her famous bubble dance onstage to an appreciative crowd. A grinning Peter Lorre caricature in the front row comments, "I haven't seen such a beautiful bubble since I was a child." The routine continues until the bubble is popped by Harpo Marx and his slingshot, with a surprised Rand (her nudit

Three Studies for a Portrait of Henrietta Moraes

Three Studies for a Portrait of Henrietta Moraes is an oil on canvas 1963 triptych by the Irish-born British figurative painter Francis Bacon. It is one of a series of portraits he painted of his friends, at a time when his art was becoming more personal. Henrietta Moraes was a close friend and drinking companion of Bacon's from the early 1960s, became one of his favourite models, she never posed in person for him. Comparing the panels to Giorgione's self-portrait in the Herzog Anton Ulrich Museum, art critic John Russell wrote, "This is the most... that can be said in painting at this time about human beauty". Three Studies for a Portrait of Henrietta Moraes is one of Bacon's most intimate portraits, described by art critic John Russell as a portrait of a person known by the artist "as minutely as one human being can know another"; the frames are not intended as a narrative, not intended to be read from left to right. More Bacon sought to capture different aspects of her appearance, to reveal her, as he put it, in the'most elemental state'.

Each panel shows a cropped image of Moraes' head. She fills each of the small canvases, with the background reduced to areas of flat black paint, her face is contorted to varying degrees in each, a technique reminiscent of some of Picasso's late period female portraits. In fact, the distortions of Bacon's panels are restrained by the standards of his late 60s and early 70s portraits, in which of some the sitter's faces disappears replaced by eye sockets, or smears of broad paint representing caved in cheek or jaw bones. Consistent with this approach, some of Moraes' features are depicted with a heightened intensity, while others are "obliterated"; this relative restraint adds to the stately dignity of this work. Bacon did not intend his distortions or chromatic swirls - applied by a brush with a towel- as is assumed, as gratuitous indicators of violence or despair, more they were to indicate the effects of time and life on the sitter's physical features. In these works, one of Moraes' eyes is enlarged and fixed squarely on the viewer as the rest of her face melts into chaos.

Art historian Lawrence Gowling describes the painting in terms of an attempt to capture the "pigment-figment" of close friends. While using tools such as towels to apply broad streaks of paint was chancy and indicated the gambler aspect to his personality, Bacon was sustained by a painterly ability built up by over 25 years as an artist

1866 National Union Convention

The National Union Convention was held on August 14, 15, 16 1866, in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. The convention was called in Philadelphia in advance of the mid-year elections of 1866 in an attempt to encourage political support for President Johnson, under attack by both moderate and Radical Republicans. Johnson's friends tried to rally support for the lenient, pro-South Reconstruction policies of Johnson; some hoped to create a new political party but this goal was not realized. Delegates gathered at a hastily built temporary structure, designed to accommodate the several thousand people expected to attend. Formally called "the Wigwam", this immense edifice was located on Girard Avenue between 19th and 20th streets, across from Philadelphia's Girard College. About 7,000 prominent politicians and activists attended the convention. At its opening, representatives from Massachusetts and South Carolina paraded arm-in-arm to symbolize national reconciliation and social equity; the convention was called to order by U.

S. Postmaster General Alexander Randall. General John Adams Dix served as the temporary chairman and Wisconsin Senator James R. Doolittle served as permanent convention president. In the end, the convention was not successful in unifying the country behind President Johnson, he launched a speaking tour hoping to regain political support. On this speaking tour, Johnson at times attacked his Republican opponents with crude and abusive language, on several occasions appeared to have had too much to drink; the tour was a disaster for Johnson, emboldening the Congress to override him and to impeach him in 1868. Notable attendees of the National Union Convention include: Augustus C. Baldwin, U. S. Representative from Michigan John Minor Botts, U. S. Representative from Virginia Augustus Brandegee, U. S. Representative from Connecticut Ralph P. Buckland, U. S. Representative from Ohio Darius Couch, U. S. Army General John Covode, U. S. Representative from Pennsylvania Edgar Cowan, U. S. Senator from Pennsylvania James A. Cravens, U.

S. Representative from Indiana William Earl Dodge, U. S. Representative from New York James Rood Doolittle, U. S. Senator from Wisconsin William McKee Dunn, U. S. Representative from Indiana Joseph Barton Elam, U. S. Representative from Louisiana James Edward English, U. S. Representative and U. S. Senator from Connecticut Nathan A. Farwell, U. S. Senator from Maine Thomas W. Ferry, U. S. Representative and U. S. Senator from Michigan Horace Greeley, publisher and U. S. Representative from New York William S. Groesbeck, state legislator from Ohio Andrew Jackson Hamilton, U. S. Representative from Texas Aaron Harding, U. S. Representative from Kentucky James K. Holland, state legislator from Texas Samuel Hooper, U. S. Representative from Massachusetts Reverdy Johnson, U. S. Senator from Maryland James Harlan, U. S. Senator from Iowa Jacob Merritt Howard, U. S. Senator from Michigan William Lawrence, U. S. Representative from Ohio John Wesley Longyear, U. S. Representative from Michigan Samuel S. Marshall, U. S. Representative from Illinois Horace Maynard, U.

S. Representative from Tennessee Robert Mallory, U. S. Representative from Kentucky Thomas Amos Rogers Nelson, U. S. Representative from Tennessee Richard Oglesby, Governor of Illinois James Lawrence Orr, Governor of South Carolina Halbert E. Paine, U. S. Representative from Wisconsin George Hunt Pendleton, U. S. Senator from Ohio Cyrus L. Pershing and candidate for Governor of Pennsylvania Thomas G. Pratt, Governor and U. S. Senator from Maryland Henry Jarvis Raymond, U. S. Representative from New York James S. Rollins, U. S. Representative from Missouri Robert Cumming Schenck, U. S. Representative from Ohio James Speed, U. S. Attorney General John Dodson Stiles, U. S. Representative from Pennsylvania Byron Gray Stout, U. S. Representative from Michigan William Barrett Washburn, U. S. Representative from Massachusetts Peter Godwin Van Winkle, U. S. Senator from West Virginia Fernando Wood, copperhead Mayor of New York City Clement Vallandigham, copperhead from Ohio, he withdrew to avoid disturbing the harmony of the convention.

McKitrick, Eric. Andrew Johnson and Reconstruction pp 394–420 Thomas Wagstaff. "The Arm-in-Arm Convention," Civil War History 1968 14: 101-119 The proceedings of the National union convention, held at Philadelphia, August 14, 1866 at Internet Archive. Primary sources National Union Party 1864 National Union National Convention address to President, by Hon. Reverdy Johnson, Aug. 18, 1866, communicating proceedings National Union Convention entered into the record of Johnson's impeachment trial. Cartoon mocking the convention by Thomas Nast published in Harper's Weekly, September 29, 1866

Gemini (musician)

Thomas Slinger, known professionally as Gemini, is an English producer, vocalist and DJ, active between 2010 and 2016. Born and raised in Leicester, he soon discovered a talent for the production of electronic dance music and released his first EP, Blue, on 14 February 2011 while studying at Leeds University, he is co-owner of Inspected Records and, has released four EPs with the label. He has featured on BBC Radio 1's night time shows Zane Lowe, Nick Grimshaw and Annie Mac, he appeared in Radio 1's Festival 2011 and produced a minimix for BBC Radio 1Xtra's MistaJam. On 2 April 2013, he launched his Lonely Hearts series with the first edition of Fire Inside including vocals by Greta Svabo Bech and himself, he self-published the releases of this series as limited editions. After a hiatus of over three years, Thomas released a single on 5 February 2016, Time To Share, taken from his first full-length album Wanderlust. Released in September 2016, this album is a representation of his "adventure of a lifetime"

P├ęter Andorka

Péter Andorka is a Hungarian football player for Kaposvári Rákóczi FC. Andorka started his career at Debreceni VSC. Over a four-year period he netted three times in twenty-five games. On January 24, 2005 Andorka moved to Zalaegerszegi TE on a free transfer where he scored three goals in his only season with the club. A short and unsuccessful move to Pécsi MFC followed with Andorka failing to find the net in ten games; this led to his transfer on the 26th of January 2006 to Szombathelyi Haladás VSE. This was Andorka's most successful spell in club football. Over a four-year period he scored 64 times. Andorka palys for Kaposvári Rákóczi FC who operate in the second division of Hungarian football. Despite making appearances for Hungary at youth level, Andorka has failed to break into the senior side at any point during his professional career. Debreceni VSC: NB I: Third place: 2002/2003 2003/2004 Hungarian Cup: Runners-up: 2003 Szombathelyi Haladás: NB I: Third place: 2008/2009 NB II Nyugat: Winner: 2007/2008 Footmercato HLSZ UEFA Péter Andorka at Soccerway