A census is the procedure of systematically acquiring and recording information about the members of a given population. This term is used in connection with national population and housing censuses; the United Nations defines the essential features of population and housing censuses as "individual enumeration, universality within a defined territory and defined periodicity", recommends that population censuses be taken at least every ten years. United Nations recommendations cover census topics to be collected, official definitions and other useful information to co-ordinate international practices; the word is of Latin origin: during the Roman Republic, the census was a list that kept track of all adult males fit for military service. The modern census is essential to international comparisons of any kind of statistics, censuses collect data on many attributes of a population, not just how many people there are. Censuses began as the only method of collecting national demographic data, are now part of a larger system of different surveys.

Although population estimates remain an important function of a census, including the geographic distribution of the population, statistics can be produced about combinations of attributes e.g. education by age and sex in different regions. Current administrative data systems allow for other approaches to enumeration with the same level of detail but raise concerns about privacy and the possibility of biasing estimates. A census can be contrasted with sampling in which information is obtained only from a subset of a population. Modern census data are used for research, business marketing, planning, as a baseline for designing sample surveys by providing a sampling frame such as an address register. Census counts are necessary to adjust samples to be representative of a population by weighting them as is common in opinion polling. Stratification requires knowledge of the relative sizes of different population strata which can be derived from census enumerations. In some countries, the census provides the official counts used to apportion the number of elected representatives to regions.

In many cases, a chosen random sample can provide more accurate information than attempts to get a population census. A census is construed as the opposite of a sample as its intent is to count everyone in a population rather than a fraction. However, population censuses rely on a sampling frame to count the population; this is the only way to be sure that everyone has been included as otherwise those not responding would not be followed up on and individuals could be missed. The fundamental premise of a census is that the population is not known and a new estimate is to be made by the analysis of primary data; the use of a sampling frame is counterintuitive as it suggests that the population size is known. However, a census is used to collect attribute data on the individuals in the nation; this process of sampling marks the difference between historical census, a house to house process or the product of an imperial decree, the modern statistical project. The sampling frame used by census is always an address register.

Thus it is not known how many people there are in each household. Depending on the mode of enumeration, a form is sent to the householder, an enumerator calls, or administrative records for the dwelling are accessed; as a preliminary to the dispatch of forms, census workers will check any address problems on the ground. While it may seem straightforward to use the postal service file for this purpose, this can be out of date and some dwellings may contain a number of independent households. A particular problem is what are termed'communal establishments' which category includes student residences, religious orders, homes for the elderly, people in prisons etc; as these are not enumerated by a single householder, they are treated differently and visited by special teams of census workers to ensure they are classified appropriately. Individuals are counted within households, information is collected about the household structure and the housing. For this reason international documents refer to censuses of housing.

The census response is made by a household, indicating details of individuals resident there. An important aspect of census enumerations is determining which individuals can be counted and which cannot be counted. Broadly, three definitions can be used: de facto residence; this is important in considering individuals who have temporary addresses. Every person should be identified uniquely as resident in one place. Where an individual uses services may be more useful, this is at their usual residence. An individual may be recorded at a "permanent" address, which might be a family home for students or long term migrants. A precise definition of residence is needed, to decide whether visitors to a country should be included in the population count; this is becoming more important as students travel abroad for education for a period of several years. Other groups causing problems of enumeration are new-born babies, people away on holiday, people moving home around census day, people without a fixed address.

People with second homes because they are working in another part of the country or ha

Sam Rapira (boxer)

Sam Rapira is a New Zealand boxing promoter and professional boxer. Rapira had a well credentialed amateur career, fighting 70 fights before turning pro. Rapira was his own promoter. Rapira, his brother Jake and their co-owned boxing gym do regular charity work for the community and SPCA, their biggest contribution is organizing food banks for Christmas Season. They donate to the community including the food banks on average a hundred times a month. Born in, New Plymouth, New Zealand, Rapira is the cousin of New Zealand rugby league international, Sam Rapira. Rapira has fought in seventy amateur boxing bouts, fighting local stars like Reece Papuni and Gunnar Jackson, Australian Damien Hooper, German Champion, Enrice Koelling. Rapira biggest win was at the 2011 Arafura Games where he won the silver medal in the 81 kg division; the biggest upset of the tournament was when Rapira defeated world ranked number one at the time Vijender Singh. Sam Rapira was the captain of the New Zealand Boxing team, which went on to win five Golds and three Silvers.

In July 2016, Rapira Announced that he will be self promoting his 8th show with Rapira taking on Robert Berridge in the main event. This is one of New Zealand's most talked about dream fight in the light heavyweight weight division; the bout took place at TSB Stadium in September 2016. Berridge won the bout by unanimous decision. After the bout Berridge commented on how poor referee David Craig officiated the fight, with the lack of control and not stepping in when there was too much holding or wrestling. On 29 October 2016, it was announced that Rapira would face Ryan Ford on 17 February 2017 for the Vacant UBO World Light Heavyweight Championship, he lost the fight via TKO in the ninth round. On 5 April 2017, Rapira announced his retirement fight which will take place on 26 May against undefeated boxer, Tipene Maniapoto. Rapira final undercard will include the debut of Tania Reid going up against Wendy Talbot and Taranaki's Simon Jullen going against Taihiti's Tautu Brillant. A few days before the bout, Rapira announce that the fight was upgraded to a title bout for the PABA title.

Rapira won the bout by Unanimous Decision with Maniapoto being knocked down multiple times throughout the bout. New Zealand National Boxing Federation NZNBF Light Heavyweight Title International Boxing Organization IBO Asia Pacific Light Heavyweight Title World Boxing Association PABA Light Heavyweight Title 2019 Gladrap Boxing Awards Event of the year Professional boxing record for Sam Rapira from BoxRec Rapira Boxing Website

Illidge's ant blue

Illidge's ant-blue butterfly, is an endangered species of butterfly endemic to Australia. This species can be found at six confirmed sites: Mary River Heads, Beaver Rock and Maaroom in the Mary River Region; the eggs of the Illidge's ant-blue butterfly have an average diameter of 0.7 mm. In its caterpillar stage it is white; the pupa of the butterfly is 1 cm lengthwise and is brown. As adults they are brown and the females of the species contain blue coloured regions on the surface of their wings that change shades depending on the angle from which the surface is being viewed; the ventral side of both genders of the butterfly contain small dark spots. The wingspan of the butterfly is 2 cm; the life cycle of the Illidge's ant-blue butterfly, from when the eggs are laid to when the butterfly emerges, is complex. It is one of the best illustrations of the symbiotic relationship between organisms within mangrove systems; the eggs are laid by the females of the species in stubs on grey mangrove trees where there is a presence of Crematogaster ant colonies.

The larvae are transported to the ants' nests by the ants where they feed on excretions from the larvae, while a larva on the other hand feeds on developing ants. There have been no recorded natural enemies of the Illidge's ant-blue, except for the exposed immature stage as an egg to hunting spiders; the largest cause of mortality of the larvae has been the host ants turning hostile towards it. Fluffy scales cover the body of an emerging butterfly so as to protect it from such hostile attacks; the essential threat to the existence of Illidge's ant-blue butterfly arises as a result of the destruction of mangrove habitats. Since numerous plants and animals are so reliant on each other within the mangrove systems, its destruction endangers the existence of other organisms such as crustaceans and molluscs. To prevent the extinction of the Illidge's ant-blue butterfly the state government of Queensland granted the species permanently protected status in 1990; this necessitated all collected samples of the species to be registered and made it illegal to collect the species without prior consent from relevant state officials