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Centaur

A centaur, or hippocentaur, is a creature from Greek mythology with the upper body of a human and the lower body and legs of a horse. Centaurs are thought of in many Greek myths as being as wild as untamed horses, were said to have inhabited the region of Magnesia and Mount Pelion in Thessaly, the Foloi oak forest in Elis, the Malean peninsula in southern Laconia. Centaurs are subsequently featured in Roman mythology, were familiar figures in the medieval bestiary, they remain a staple of modern fantastic literature. The centaurs were said to have been born of Ixion and Nephele; as the story goes, Nephele was a cloud made into the likeness of Hera in a plot to trick Ixion into revealing his lust for Hera to Zeus. Ixion seduced Nephele. Another version, makes them children of Centaurus, a man who mated with the Magnesian mares. Centaurus was either himself the son of Apollo and the nymph Stilbe. In the latter version of the story, Centaurus's twin brother was ancestor of the Lapiths. Another tribe of centaurs was said to have lived on Cyprus.

According to Nonnus, they were fathered by Zeus, who, in frustration after Aphrodite had eluded him, spilled his seed on the ground of that land. Unlike those of mainland Greece, the Cyprian centaurs were horned. There were the Lamian Pheres, twelve rustic daimones of the Lamos river, they were set by Zeus to guard the infant Dionysos, protecting him from the machinations of Hera, but the enraged goddess transformed them into ox-horned Centaurs. The Lamian Pheres accompanied Dionysos in his campaign against the Indians; the centaur's half-human, half-horse composition has led many writers to treat them as liminal beings, caught between the two natures they embody in contrasting myths. The Centaurs are best known for their fight with the Lapiths who, according to one origin myth, would have been cousins to the centaurs; the battle, called the Centauromachy, was caused by the centaurs' attempt to carry off Hippodamia and the rest of the Lapith women on the day of Hippodamia's marriage to Pirithous, the king of the Lapithae and a son of Ixion.

Theseus, a hero and founder of cities, who happened to be present, threw the balance in favour of the Lapiths by assisting Pirithous in the battle. The Centaurs were destroyed. Another Lapith hero, invulnerable to weapons, was beaten into the earth by Centaurs wielding rocks and the branches of trees. In her article "The Centaur: Its History and Meaning in Human Culture," Elizabeth Lawrence claims that the contests between the centaurs and the Lapiths typify the struggle between civilization and barbarism; the Centauromachy is most famously portrayed in the Parthenon metopes by Phidias and in a Renaissance-era sculpture by Michelangelo. The Greek word kentauros is regarded as being of obscure origin; the etymology from ken + tauros, "piercing bull," was a euhemerist suggestion in Palaephatus' rationalizing text on Greek mythology, On Incredible Tales, which included mounted archers from a village called Nephele eliminating a herd of bulls that were the scourge of Ixion's kingdom. Another possible related etymology can be "bull-slayer".

The most common theory holds that the idea of centaurs came from the first reaction of a non-riding culture, as in the Minoan Aegean world, to nomads who were mounted on horses. The theory suggests that such riders would appear as half-animal. Bernal Díaz del Castillo reported that the Aztecs had this misapprehension about Spanish cavalrymen; the Lapith tribe of Thessaly, who were the kinsmen of the Centaurs in myth, were described as the inventors of horse-back riding by Greek writers. The Thessalian tribes claimed their horse breeds were descended from the centaurs. Robert Graves, speculated that the centaurs were a dimly remembered, pre-Hellenic fraternal earth cult who had the horse as a totem. A similar theory was incorporated into Mary Renault's The Bull from the Sea. Though female centaurs, called centaurides or centauresses, are not mentioned in early Greek literature and art, they do appear in antiquity. A Macedonian mosaic of the 4th century BC is one of the earliest examples of the centauress in art.

Ovid mentions a centauress named Hylonome who committed suicide when her husband Cyllarus was killed in the war with the Lapiths. The Kalibangan cylinder seal, dated to be around 2600-1900 BC, found at the site of Indus-Valley civilization shows a battle between men in the presence of centaur-like creatures. Other sources claim the creatures represented are half human and half tigers evolving into the Hindu Goddess of War; these seals are evidence of Indus-Mesopotamia relations in the 3rd millennium BC. In a popular legend associated with Pazhaya Sreekanteswaram Temple in Thiruvananthapuram, the curse of a saintly Brahmin transformed a handsome Yadava prince into a creature having a horse's body and the prince's head and torso in place of the head and neck of the horse. Kinnaras, another half-man, half-horse mythical creature from Indian mythology, appeared in various ancient texts and sculptures from all around India, it is shown as a horse with the torso of a man where the horse's head would be, is similar to a Greek centaur.

A centaur-like half-human, half-equine creature called Polkan appeared in Russian folk art and lubok prints of the 17th–19th centuries. Polka

Marcel Linsman Prize

The Marcel Linsman Prize is a Belgian prize awarded every 3 years by the influential AILg, a Belgian academic association of engineers, to living scientists for excellence in the biomedical sciences. The prize is restricted to researchers with a medical or engineering degree having performed research in Belgium; the age limit is 45 years but there is no restriction on the citizenship. For many years, the preference has been given to researchers in the field of neuroscience; this prize is awarded in memory of Marcel Linsman, distinguished University Professor. The prize is awarded during an official ceremony taking place in one Belgian university during which two other prestigious prizes in different fields are awarded. Similar to other prestigious prize ceremonies, the recipients deliver a scientific presentation of their research; the reputation achieved by this prize is ubiquitously recognized amongst academics in Europe. Born in Liège on 22 June 1912, he studied mathematical sciences at the University of Liège, receiving his bachelor's degree in 1934.

In 1937, he received his doctorate, with the highest distinction" He was appointed assistant professor at Liège in 1938, in 1964, full professor. In 1943, he became interested in numerical calculation and recognized the electronic possibilities, he moved to Harvard University in 1947. From 1951 to 1955, he managed the development of one of the earliest European electronic computers, known as Machine I. R. S. I. A, his interest took him into non-numerical applications of the computer. Starting with automatic translation, he initiated many projects, including teaching informatics and medical applications. Throughout his career, he was the recipient of many awards. In IFIP, he was present from the first Council meeting in Rome until 1971, representing the Belgian member society, he was active in the Technical Committee on Education. During the time IFIP was registered in Belgium, 1962 through 1967, he served as IFIP Assistant Secretary and handled all legal matters for IFIP. In 1974, he was in the first group to receive the IFIP Silver Core Award.

Marcel Linsman died during the night from 18 to 19 April 1989. A foundation in his name has been established to promote scientific excellence in the field of biomedical sciences. Source: AILg-Liste des Lauréats 1991 Michel Fombellida, University of Liege 1993 Dr Daniel Dubois, University of Liege 1995 Dr Robert Poirrier, Neurological Department of University of Liege 1997 Dr Paul Maquet, R&D Cyclotron CHU Liège 2000 Elisabeth Thomas, Dept of Neurochemistry of University of Liege 2002 Dr Jean-Marc Wagner, University of Liege 2005 Christophe Phillips 2008 Maxime Bonjean, University of Liege 2011 Thomas Desaive, Scientific expert, University of Liege 2014 Steven Laureys, Coma Science Group, Cyclotron Research Center List of medicine awards List of prizes named after people http://www.ailg.be/Prix/Linsman.html

Cali Fair

The Cali's Fair is the most important cultural event in Cali, Colombia. It is a celebration of the region's cultural identity, famous for the Salsa marathon, horse riding parades and dance parties. Called "La Feria de Cali"; the Fair has been celebrated since 1957, from December 25 to December 30, it promotes cultural and musical diversity in the region. Tourism around The Fair is a main driver of the city's economy during the end of the year. In a few occasions The Fair included Vallenato and Merengue groups from Colombian and surrounding Caribbean countries, samba schools from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; the Fair is known as the " and "Feria de la salsa". People enjoy many activities like an opening cabalgata, salsa concerts, parades, athletic activities/competitions and cultural exhibitions. From an international stand point Cali is known as the "Capital de la Salsa" given the city's infatuation with that type of Afro-Caribbean music. In early July there is the Summer Salsa Festival which lasts for one week.

It includes concerts by the world's great remaining salsa bands as well as dance shows and "melomano" competitions in which salsa connoisseurs try to out do each other by digging deep into the archives of salsa music and related sounds to find and reveal long lost tunes. Official website