Rosario Norte Station
Rosario Norte is a railway station in Rosario, province of Santa Fe, Argentina. It is located on Aristóbulo del Valle Avenue, at the junction with Callao St. north of the city centre, in the neighbourhood known as Barrio Pichincha. The station, part of the Ferrocarril Mitre network, is operated by two companies, State-owned Operadora Ferroviaria and private Nuevo Central Argentino; the station was terminus of the Buenos Aires and Rosario Railway company. The railway line was the first to join Rosario and Buenos Aires. From Rosario Norte the line continued to the northwest, crossing several provinces of Argentina to reach Tucumán. In 1908, after the merging of the BARR and the Central Argentine Railway companies, the station was set aside to handle long-distance and express services. Around 1935–1940, a few years after the "golden age" of the Argentine railway system, Rosario Norte served 326,000 passengers per year. In 1977 all of the local and mid-distance passenger services were cancelled. Rosario Norte was left in charge of the few remaining ones.
Starting in 1991, passenger rail services were eliminated throughout the country, while cargo lines were privatized. The Rosario Norte – Retiro line was shut down in July 1992, the services going from Rosario Norte to Tucumán suffered the same fate in March 1993. Rosario Norte was reactivated in October 1997, as the exploitation of a new passenger service between Tucumán and Buenos Aires was granted by the government of Tucumán to the firm Tucumán Ferrocarriles. At the same time, the municipality of Rosario took over most of the building and began to reform it for administrative use. In June 1999 the Municipal Secretariat of Culture and Education was installed there, sharing the facilities with Tucumán Ferrocarriles and with a cargo train company. After the turn of the millennium and maintenance of the station's infrastructure, overdue by about two decades continued, new services were added; as of 2007, Rosario Norte manages two passenger services from Buenos Aires, a weekly one run by Trenes de Buenos Aires, another one run by Ferrocentral.
The latter company has a weekly service to Tucumán and one to Córdoba. These services are slower than going by bus, but safer and much cheaper. Since October 2014, State-owned company Operadora Ferroviaria Sociedad del Estado operates the Rosario Norte station as part of the passenger services from Retiro to Tucumán. In June 2016, Rosario Norte was set as new terminus for the Buenos Aires – Rosario service; until trains only reached Rosario Sur. Operadora Ferroviaria, operator Nuevo Central Argentino, operator
Caldera is a port city and commune in the Copiapó Province of the Atacama Region in northern Chile. It has an excellent harbor, protected by breakwaters, being the port city for the productive mining district centering on Copiapó to which it is connected by the first railroad constructed in Chile. Caldera lies about 75 km west of Copiapó at the Pacific; the climate is warm and dry, because of its location on the Atacama desert's coast. But the temperatures are moderated by the cooling sea currents; however the climate has become colder due to the climatic change. The commune spans an area of 4,666.6 km2. In 1687, Englishman Edward Davis reached the Playa Bahia Inglesa 6 km south of Caldera. In 1840, William Wheelwright of the Pacific Steam Navigation Company visited the region of Caldera. On his proposal the first railway was created in the year of 1851 from Caldera to Copiapó, its inauguration was on Christmas Day in 1851. Caldera became an important port for the exportation of minerals; the city itself was founded on 23 September 1850.
The city has been struck by earthquakes and tsunamis several times the major ones being that of 1868, 1877 and 1922. During the 1891 Chilean Civil War, Caldera Bay outside the city became the site of the Battle of Caldera Bay where torpedo boats loyal to Manuel Balmaceda sunk the rebel ironclad Blanco Encalada. In 1903, 2,130 people lived in Caldera. According to the 2002 census of the National Statistics Institute, Caldera had 13,734 inhabitants. Of these, 13,540 lived in 194 in rural areas; the population grew by 13.9 % between the 2002 censuses. Former Railway Station: first in Chile, its construction dates back to 1850, with the beginnings of the works for the railway Caldera-Copiapó, first in Chile and third one in South America, it was designed to house inside a complete train in order to protect valuable minerals brought from Chañarcillo. The walls, were made of mud and reeds from Guayaquil, with a wooden roof made of Oregon Pine. Inside had a passenger platform and three load lines, all covered by a large shed 82 meters long by 32 meters wide.
Church of San Vicente de Paul: Built in 1862 in wood, stone floor and a Gothic wooden tower. Inside there is an image of the Virgin of Sorrows, brought from Peru as spoils of war after the military campaigns during the War of the Pacific. Cave of Padre Negro: is a pilgrimage center built on a rock by the Colombian priest Crisógono Sierra -known locally as Padre Negro (Spanish for "Black Father"-. Inside there are murals vigorous painter Luis Enrique Cerda. Municipal Cemetery of Caldera: first secular cemetery in Chile, was inaugurated on 20 September 1876. In its historical sector and tombs have cast iron structures made by English craftsmen and Carrara marble tombstones. Tornini House Museum: a private museum, opened on 5 November 2010, it houses a historical sample relating to the city-port of Caldera, the Constitutional Revolution, the War of the Pacific, the Italian immigration in the late nineteenth century. The property was built around 1875 by the Railway Administration Manager, Thomas Smith, purchased by Henry B.
Beazley, British Consul to Copiapó, Caldera and Peru. On 14 October 1907 was acquired by Bernardo Tornini Capelli, serving for some years as viceconsular seat of the Kingdom of Italy. Orbicular Granite Nature Sanctuary: this geological oddity is located 11 km North of Caldera, it is a formation of a small area, about 400 m², with circular rock mineral scale on granite rocks, giving a peculiar way. Given the strangeness of this training, was declared a nature sanctuary in 1981 and is protected by conservation laws that apply to this type of monument. Bahía Inglesa:, is a wide-known resort located a short distance from Caldera, through an asphalt road and in excellent condition. With a population of 135 inhabitants, is named after the visit made the English pirate Edward Davis, it is known for its white sands and warm waters, in addition to a good infrastructure to receive both domestic and foreign visitors. There are camping facilities, hotels and summer houses that can be rented on the spot. There in the bay an underwater museum.
Playa La Virgen: located 35 km south of Bahía Inglesa and 68 km west of Copiapó, this beach of white sand and warm waters has been considered the best beach in Chile for several years. His name is because road to there is a rock beach simulates the image of a Virgin; this beach has services of camping, camping parking, etc. Mainstays of the economy are copper ore mining and cultivation of citrus plants which are exported via the port. Fishing and tourism play an important role; the nice beaches attract many visitors. As a commune, Caldera is a third-level administrative division of Chile administered by a municipal council, headed by an alcalde, directly elected every four years; the 2012-2016 mayor is Patricia González Brizuela. Within the electoral divisions of Chile, Caldera is represented in the Chamber of Deputies by Mr. Alberto Robles and Mrs. Yasna Provoste as part of the 6th electoral district; the commune is represented in the Senate by Isabel Allende Bussi and Baldo Prokurica Prokurica as part of the 3rd senatorial constituency.
Lules, Argentina Villa Unión, Argentina General Lamadrid, Argentina Municipality of Caldera
Buenos Aires is the capital and largest city of Argentina. The city is located on the western shore of the estuary of the Río de la Plata, on the South American continent's southeastern coast. "Buenos Aires" can be translated as "fair winds" or "good airs", but the former was the meaning intended by the founders in the 16th century, by the use of the original name "Real de Nuestra Señora Santa María del Buen Ayre". The Greater Buenos Aires conurbation, which includes several Buenos Aires Province districts, constitutes the fourth-most populous metropolitan area in the Americas, with a population of around 15.6 million. The city of Buenos Aires is the Province's capital. In 1880, after decades of political infighting, Buenos Aires was federalized and removed from Buenos Aires Province; the city limits were enlarged to include the towns of Flores. The 1994 constitutional amendment granted the city autonomy, hence its formal name: Autonomous City of Buenos Aires, its citizens first elected a chief of government in 1996.
Buenos Aires is considered an'alpha city' by the study GaWC5. Buenos Aires' quality of life was ranked 91st in the world, being one of the best in Latin America in 2018, it is the most visited city in South America, the second-most visited city of Latin America. Buenos Aires is a top tourist destination, is known for its preserved Eclectic European architecture and rich cultural life. Buenos Aires held the 1st Pan American Games in 1951 as well as hosting two venues in the 1978 FIFA World Cup. Buenos Aires hosted the 2018 the 2018 G20 summit. Buenos Aires is a multicultural city, being home to multiple religious groups. Several languages are spoken in the city in addition to Spanish, contributing to its culture and the dialect spoken in the city and in some other parts of the country; this is because in the last 150 years the city, the country in general, has been a major recipient of millions of immigrants from all over the world, making it a melting pot where several ethnic groups live together and being considered one of the most diverse cities of the Americas.
It is recorded under the archives of Aragonese that Catalan missionaries and Jesuits arriving in Cagliari under the Crown of Aragon, after its capture from the Pisans in 1324 established their headquarters on top of a hill that overlooked the city. The hill was known to them as Bonaira, as it was free of the foul smell prevalent in the old city, adjacent to swampland. During the siege of Cagliari, the Catalans built a sanctuary to the Virgin Mary on top of the hill. In 1335, King Alfonso the Gentle donated the church to the Mercedarians, who built an abbey that stands to this day. In the years after that, a story circulated, claiming that a statue of the Virgin Mary was retrieved from the sea after it miraculously helped to calm a storm in the Mediterranean Sea; the statue was placed in the abbey. Spanish sailors Andalusians, venerated this image and invoked the "Fair Winds" to aid them in their navigation and prevent shipwrecks. A sanctuary to the Virgin of Buen Ayre would be erected in Seville.
In the first foundation of Buenos Aires, Spanish sailors arrived thankfully in the Río de la Plata by the blessings of the "Santa Maria de los Buenos Aires", the "Holy Virgin Mary of the Good Winds", said to have given them the good winds to reach the coast of what is today the modern city of Buenos Aires. Pedro de Mendoza called the city "Holy Mary of the Fair Winds", a name suggested by the chaplain of Mendoza's expedition – a devotee of the Virgin of Buen Ayre – after the Sardinian Madonna de Bonaria. Mendoza's settlement soon came under attack by indigenous people, was abandoned in 1541. For many years, the name was attributed to a Sancho del Campo, said to have exclaimed: How fair are the winds of this land!, as he arrived. But Eduardo Madero, in 1882 after conducting extensive research in Spanish archives concluded that the name was indeed linked with the devotion of the sailors to Our Lady of Buen Ayre. A second settlement was established in 1580 by Juan de Garay, who sailed down the Paraná River from Asunción.
Garay preserved the name chosen by Mendoza, calling the city Ciudad de la Santísima Trinidad y Puerto de Santa María del Buen Aire. The short form "Buenos Aires" became the common usage during the 17th century; the usual abbreviation for Buenos Aires in Spanish is Bs. As, it is common as well to refer to it as "B. A." or "BA". While "BA" is used more by expats residing in the city, the locals more use the abbreviation "Baires", in one word. Seaman Juan Díaz de Solís, navigating in the name of Spain, was the first European to reach the Río de la Plata in 1516, his expedition was cut short when he was killed during an attack by the native Charrúa tribe in what is now Uruguay. The city of Buenos Aires was first established as Ciudad de Nuestra Señora Santa María del Buen Ayre after Our Lady of Bonaria on 2 February 1536 by a Spanish expedition led by Pedro de Mendoza; the settlement founded by Mendoza was located in what is today the San Telmo district of Buenos Aires, south of the city centre. More attacks by the indigenous
Santiago del Estero
Santiago del Estero is the capital of Santiago del Estero Province in northern Argentina. It has a population of 252,192 inhabitants, making it the twelfth largest city in the country, with a surface area of 2,116 km², it lies on the Dulce River and on National Route 9, at a distance of 1,042 km north-northwest from Buenos Aires. Estimated to be 455 years old, Santiago del Estero was the first city founded by Spanish settlers in the territory, now Argentina; as such, it is nicknamed "Madre de Ciudades". It has been declared the "mother of cities and cradle of folklore."The city houses the National University of Santiago del Estero, founded in 1973, the Universidad Católica, founded in 1960. Other points of interest include the city's Cathedral, the Santo Domingo Convent, the Provincial Archeology Museum; the Santiago del Estero Airport is located 6 kilometres north of the city, has regular flights to Buenos Aires and San Miguel de Tucumán. The climate is subtropical with a dry season winter and sometimes autumn.
It receives an average annual precipitation of 600 mm, the climate is warm and dry. Santiago del Estero and its region are home to about 100,000 speakers of the local variety of Quechua, making it the southernmost outpost of the language of the Incas, it is one of the few indigenous languages surviving in modern Argentina. After a series of exploratory expeditions from Chile starting in 1543, Santiago del Estero del Nuevo Maestrazgo was founded on July 25, 1553 by Francisco de Aguirre. Although it is the oldest city in Argentina, it preserves little of its former Spanish colonial architecture, except for several churches. In 1576, the governor of a province in Northern Argentina commissioned the military to search for a huge mass of iron, which he had heard that Natives used for their weapons, they called the area "Heavenly Fields," translated into Spanish as Campo del Cielo. The city was the capital of the Intendency of San Miguel de Tucumán during the Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata, first seat of its bishop.
Santiago del Estero stands in the middle of an extensive but semi-arid agricultural region. A dry forest area, the abundance of quebracho attracted timber industries of British capital during the 19th century, leading to extensive deforestation; the province, in 1948, elected Carlos Juárez, as its Governor. Santiago del Estero's central political figure during the second half of the 20th Century, he soon became indispensable to local politics. A true Caudillo, his amiable demeanor belied a record of ruthlessness towards opposition figures; the construction of the nearby Quiroga Dam in 1950, eased the city's chronic water shortage and spurred the growth of local agriculture, based on cotton and olives. The city's first school of higher education, the Instituto Superior del Profesorado, was established in 1953; the city developed a sizable manufacturing sector based on textile mills and other light industry from the 1950s on, though the public sector remained the largest employer. Santiago del Estero's population reached 100,000 in 1970.
The province, remained one of the poorest in Argentina, falling further behind. In 1993, the city made international headlines. What began as a protest by government workers who had not been paid in 3 months, soon grew to 4,000 demonstrators who burned cars, destroyed government buildings and invaded the homes of prominent politicians. Juárez, by the 1990s, was ordering his opponents' deaths, notably that of former Governor César Iturre in 1996 and of Bishop Gerardo Sueldo in 1998; the 2002 deaths of two local women, were traced to Juárez's assassin, Antonio Musa Azar, in an attempt to retain power, Juárez resigned. The bid failed, however, as President Néstor Kirchner signed an executive order removing Mrs. Juárez from her post, in March, 2004; the Juárez couple, in their nineties, subsequently lived under house arrest in the city of Santiago del Estero. The Vicecomodoro Ángel de la Paz Aragonés Airport was built in 1959 and has flights to and from Buenos Aires operated by Aerolíneas Argentinas and its subsidiary Austral Líneas Aéreas.
In recent years it has undergone refurbishment and expansion given that it was operating at full capacity. The city's main road connection to other provinces is National Route 9, which connects it to the cities of Cordoba and Buenos Aires to the south and San Miguel de Tucumán, Salta and San Salvador de Jujuy to the north. National Route 64 connects the city to San Fernando del Valle de Catamarca, the capital of Catamarca Province. In November 2008, a new long distance bus terminal was inaugurated, replacing the previous bus terminal in the city; the city has been connected through the Belgrano and Mitre railways. An elevated commuter rail line known as Tren al Desarrollo is under construction in the city, connecting Santiago del Estero to the city of La Banda. Notes: 1 Un
William Wheelwright was a businessman who played an essential role in the development of steamboat and train transportation in Chile and other parts of South America. In 1838, with help from the Chilean government, he founded the Pacific Steam Navigation Company which commenced operations on October 15, 1840 and provided commercial sea access to cities such as Valparaíso and El Callao. Wheelwright owned the Central Argentine Railway, a company established in 1863 that built and operated railway lines in the east-central region of Argentina. William Wheelwright, son of Ebenezer and Anna Wheelwright, was born in Newburyport, Massachusetts on March 16, 1798. Wheelwright lived in a house on High Street and attended public school until he was about twelve years of age, when he was sent to Andover Academy, where he completed his education. Wheelwright's father was a shipmaster in early life, William soon manifested a desire to pursue the same vocation, he shipped as cabin boy on board a vessel bound to the West Indies and during the next two or three years he rose to the rank of captain in 1817, when he was only nineteen years of age.
In 1823, he was in command of the ship Rising Empire, owned by William Bartlett, when the vessel was wrecked off the coast of South America, near the mouth of the Río de La Plata. The captain and crew reached shore in safety after twenty-four hours' exposure in an open boat. One man was lost. On his arrival at Buenos Aires, Wheelwright obtained a position as supercargo of a vessel about to sail for Valparaiso; the voyage took five months to complete using the route around Cape Horn. Interested in studying the business opportunities on the west coast of South America, he traveled to Guayaquil, the seaport of Ecuador, where he decided to remain. In 1825, he was appointed United States consul at that port. Three years he left his business in the hands of his partner and returned to his home in Newburyport via the Isthmus of Panama, he had been absent six years. He married Martha Gerrish of Newburyport on February 10, 1829, returned with her to Guayaquil. Wheelwright discovered that nearly all his property had been lost during his absence, through the negligence and mismanagement of his partner.
He decided to return to Valparaiso, bought a small vessel, which he named Fourth of July, which he put to work transporting specie and bullion from port to port along the coast. In 1835, he commenced the great task of establishing a line of steamers between the republics of Peru and Chile and Europe, he went to England in 1837 to raise funds, in 1838 the Pacific Steam Navigation Company was formed with a capital of £250,000. Two steamers, each of seven hundred tons register, were built in 1840 and ordered to proceed through the straits of Magellan to the ports of Valparaiso and Callao. After the arrival of these steamers on the Pacific coast Wheelwright discovered the difficulty of procuring coal and the impossibility of providing for unexpected repairs; these obstacles were surmounted, steam communication was established with Europe. Wheelwright built the first South American railroad from Caldera to Copiapó, extended it nearly 40 miles into the interior of Chile. In 1841, he became interested in a plan to unite Valparaiso and Buenos Aires by rail over the mountain range that separates Chile from Argentina.
The survey work was completed in 1859. Wheelwright moved to Argentina, where he built the Central Argentine Railway that joined the cities of Córdoba and Rosario; the company had been established in London, signing a contract with the Ministry of Interior, Guillermo Rawson, in 1863. The contract included a term stating the company had the exclusive rights to construct a railway to the Andes; the CAR never built the line due to the high costs. The company was granted a minimum profit. Wheelwright died in London in September 1873. A small town in Santa Fe Province of Argentina was named after him. John James Currier. "William Wheelwright". Ould Newbury: Historical and Biographical Sketches. Pp. 651–658. Out of copyright. Newburyport Vital Records and History The Life and Industrial Labors of William Wheelwright in South America by Juan Bautista Alberdi, published 1877, 213 pages. South America: A Popular Illustrated History of the Struggle for Independence by the Andean Republics and Cuba by Hezekiah Butterworth, published 1898, 266 pages.
Chapter 15 William Wheelwright and the Industrial Heroes, page 154. Observations on the Isthmus of Panama by William Wheelwright, published 1844, 31 pages. "Wheelwright, William". New International Encyclopedia. 1905
Cañada de Gómez
Cañada de Gómez is a city in the province of Santa Fe, Argentina. It is the head town of the Iriondo Department and is located about 67 km west of Rosario and 224 km from the provincial capital, on National Route 9, it has a population of about 29,000 inhabitants. The town was founded in 1869 by Guillermo Perkins, became a city on 7 October 1922. Municipal information: Municipal Affairs Federal Institute, Municipal Affairs Secretariat, Ministry of Interior, Argentina. "Cañada de Gómez". Santa Fe provincial government