Daylight saving time
Daylight saving time daylight savings time or daylight time and summer time, is the practice of advancing clocks during summer months so that evening daylight lasts longer, while sacrificing normal sunrise times. Regions that use daylight saving time adjust clocks forward one hour close to the start of spring and adjust them backward in the autumn to standard time. In effect, DST causes a lost hour of an extra hour of sleep in the fall. George Hudson proposed the idea of daylight saving in 1895; the German Empire and Austria-Hungary organized the first nationwide implementation starting on April 30, 1916. Many countries have used at various times since particularly since the 1970s energy crisis. DST is not observed near the equator, where sunrise times do not vary enough to justify it; some countries observe it only in some regions. Only a minority of the world's population uses DST, because Asia and Africa do not observe it. DST clock shifts sometimes complicate timekeeping and can disrupt travel, record keeping, medical devices, heavy equipment, sleep patterns.
Computer software adjusts clocks automatically, but policy changes by various jurisdictions of DST dates and timings may be confusing. Industrialized societies follow a clock-based schedule for daily activities that do not change throughout the course of the year; the time of day that individuals begin and end work or school, the coordination of mass transit, for example remain constant year-round. In contrast, an agrarian society's daily routines for work and personal conduct are more governed by the length of daylight hours and by solar time, which change seasonally because of the Earth's axial tilt. North and south of the tropics daylight lasts longer in summer and shorter in winter, with the effect becoming greater the further one moves away from the tropics. By synchronously resetting all clocks in a region to one hour ahead of standard time, individuals who follow such a year-round schedule will wake an hour earlier than they would have otherwise. However, they will have one less hour of daylight at the start of each day, making the policy less practical during winter.
While the times of sunrise and sunset change at equal rates as the seasons change, proponents of Daylight Saving Time argue that most people prefer a greater increase in daylight hours after the typical "nine to five" workday. Supporters have argued that DST decreases energy consumption by reducing the need for lighting and heating, but the actual effect on overall energy use is disputed; the manipulation of time at higher latitudes has little impact on daily life, because the length of day and night changes more throughout the seasons, thus sunrise and sunset times are out of phase with standard working hours regardless of manipulations of the clock. DST is of little use for locations near the equator, because these regions see only a small variation in daylight in the course of the year; the effect varies according to how far east or west the location is within its time zone, with locations farther east inside the time zone benefiting more from DST than locations farther west in the same time zone.
Ancient civilizations adjusted daily schedules to the sun more flexibly than DST does dividing daylight into 12 hours regardless of daytime, so that each daylight hour became progressively longer during spring and shorter during autumn. For example, the Romans kept time with water clocks that had different scales for different months of the year. From the 14th century onwards, equal-length civil hours supplanted unequal ones, so civil time no longer varies by season. Unequal hours are still used in a few traditional settings, such as some monasteries of Mount Athos and all Jewish ceremonies. Benjamin Franklin published the proverb "early to bed and early to rise makes a man healthy and wise", he published a letter in the Journal de Paris during his time as an American envoy to France suggesting that Parisians economize on candles by rising earlier to use morning sunlight; this 1784 satire proposed taxing window shutters, rationing candles, waking the public by ringing church bells and firing cannons at sunrise.
Despite common misconception, Franklin did not propose DST. However, this changed as rail transport and communication networks required a standardization of time unknown in Franklin's day. In 1810, the Spanish National Assembly Cortes of Cádiz issued a regulation that moved certain meeting times forward by one hour from May 1 to September 30 in recognition of seasonal changes, but it did not change the clocks, it acknowledged that private businesses were in the practice of changing their opening hours to suit daylight conditions, but they did so of their own volition. New Zealand entomologist George Hudson first proposed modern DST, his shift-work job gave him leisure time to collect insects and led him to value after-hours daylight. In 1895, he presented a paper to the Wellington Philosophical Society proposing a two-hour daylight-saving shift, considerable interest was expressed in
Salinas is the county seat and largest municipality of Monterey County, California. Salinas is an urban area located just outside the southern portion of the Greater Bay Area and 10 miles east-southeast of the mouth of the Salinas River; the population was 157,218 as of 2016. The city is located at the mouth of the Salinas Valley eight miles from the Pacific Ocean and has a climate more influenced by the ocean than the hot-summer interior; the majority of residents live in single-unit detached homes, built between 1950 and 2000, while one third of the housing stock has three or more units per structure. Salinas serves as the main business and industrial center of the region; the marine climate is ideal for the floral industry, grape vineyards, vegetable growers. Salinas is known for its vibrant and large agriculture industry and being "The Salad Bowl of the World" as the hometown of writer and Nobel Prize in Literature laureate John Steinbeck, who based several of his novels there; the land occupied by the city of Salinas is thought to have been settled by Native Americans known as the Esselen prior to 200 AD.
Between 200 and 500 AD, they were displaced by the Rumsen group of Ohlone speaking people. The Rumsen-Ohlone remained as the inhabitants of the area for another 1,200 years, in the 1700s, were the group of native inhabitants contacted and recorded by the first Spanish explorers of the Salinas area. Upon the arrival of the Spanish, large Spanish land grants were issued for the Catholic Missions and as bonuses to soldiers. On after Mexican independence, smaller land grants continued to be issued for ranchos where cattle were grazed. One of the many land grants was the Rancho Las Salinas land grant, part of which included the area of modern-day Salinas; as a result of the many new cattle ranches, a thriving trade developed in cattle hide shipments, shipping out of the Port of Monterey. In 1848 California became a part of the United States of America; this transition followed several years of battles in the Salinas area with John Fremont flying the American flag on the highest peak of the Gabilan Mountains and claiming California for the United States.
Before the transition to American administration, Monterey had been the capital of California. For a short while after the transition, California was ruled by martial law. On September 9, 1850, California was admitted to the Union and became a State, celebrated as California Admission Day. In the 1850s a junction of two main stage coach routes was located 18 miles east of Monterey and along the big bend of what is locally referred to as the Alisal Slough. In 1854, six years after becoming a part of the United States, a group of American settlers living in the vicinity of this route-junction opened a post office at the junction, naming their town "Salinas," a reference to the original "Rancho Las Salinas" name for the area, which in turn was named in Spanish for the salt marshes of the area around the central Salinas slough, drained. Soon thereafter, in 1856, a traveler's inn called the Halfway House was opened at that junction in Salinas.. The streets of Salinas were laid out in 1867, the town was incorporated in 1874.
The conversion of grazing land to crops and the coming of the rail road in 1868 to transport goods and people was a major turning point in the history and economic advancement of Salinas. Dry farming of wheat and other grains as well as potatoes and mustard seed was common in the 1800s. Chinese labor drained thousands of acres of swampland to become productive farmland, as much early farm labor was done by Chinese immigrants, Salinas boasted the second largest Chinatown in the state smaller than San Francisco. Irrigation changed farming in Salinas to row crops of root vegetables and sugar beets. Many major vegetable producers placed their headquarters in Salinas; the historic prevalence of row crops is documented by aerial photographic interpretation of Earth Metrics, Driven by the profitable agricultural industry, Salinas had the highest per capita income of any city in the United States in 1924. During World War II, the Salinas Rodeo Grounds was one of the locations used as a temporary detention camp for citizens and immigrant residents of Japanese ancestry, before they were relocated to more permanent and remote facilities.
One of seventeen such sites overseen by the Wartime Civilian Control Administration, the Salinas Assembly Center was built after President Roosevelt issued Executive Order 9066, authorizing the removal and confinement of Japanese Americans living on the West Coast. The camp opened on April 27, 1942 and held a total of 3,608 people before closing two months on July 4. Following World War II major urban and suburban development converted much farmland to city; the city experienced two strong growth spurts in the 1950s and 1960s, again in the 1990s and early 2000s. Aerial photographic interpretation indicate such major conversion of cropland to urban uses over the time period 1956 to 1968, while the city annexed the adjacent communities of Alisal and Santa Rita during this time; the Harden Ranch and Williams Ranch neighborhoods constituting much of the city's North-East were built exclusively between 1990 and 2004. Salinas was the birthplace of writer and Nobel Prize laureate John Steinbeck; the historic downtown, known as Oldtown Salinas, features much fine Victorian architecture, is home to the National Steinbeck Center, the Steinbeck House and the John Steinbeck Libr
Tulare is a city in Tulare County, California. The population was 59,278 at the 2010 census. Tulare is located in the heart of the San Joaquin Valley, eight miles south of Visalia and sixty miles north of Bakersfield; the city is named for the dry Tulare Lake, once the largest freshwater lake west of the Great Lakes. The city's mission statement is: "To promote a quality of life making Tulare the most desirable community in which to live, play, work and prosper." The Stockton seaport is 170 miles away, the Sacramento port is 207 miles away. The Los Angeles and San Francisco ports are each 200 miles away, making Tulare a hub or central location for product movement; the English name Tulare derives from Classical Nahuatl tōllin, "sedge" or "reeds", by way of Spanish tule, which exists in English as a loanword. The name is cognate with Tula and Tultitlán de Mariano Escobedo; the Yokuts people built reed boats and fished in what was to be called Tulare Lake in their homeland for centuries, until the invasion and settlement by the Spanish and American pioneers.
When California became a state in 1850, Tulare did not yet exist as a town. Tulare was founded by the Southern Pacific Railroad; the town was named for Lake Tulare. The lake had been named for the tule rush plant, a species of bulrush that predominantly lined the marshes and sloughs of its shore. Transportation was the first impetus behind the establishment of the town. Tulare flourished as the headquarters of the railroad in the area; the town suffered through many difficult challenges, but despite burning down and being rebuilt three times in its first fourteen years of existence, it was incorporated in 1888. In 1891, the railroad moved its headquarters to Bakersfield. Although the railroad was gone, the community of Tulare struggled to become an agricultural center for California, which it is today. Due to the inadequate 10 inches of rainfall per year, water resources had to be found. In order to bring water to Tulare, citizens established the Tulare Irrigation District and issued $500,000 in bonds to build an extensive canal system carrying water from the Sierra Nevada.
In 1903, when the bonds were paid off early, they celebrated by having a bond-burning celebration. Once the water system was established, Tulare burgeoned, becoming a center for farming and agriculture because of its central location. In 1912, Hulett C. Merritt founded Tagus Ranch; until its close, Tagus Ranch produce was known the world over, was served in the finest restaurants throughout America. At the end of World War II, a portion of Tagus Ranch served as a German POW camp. In 1940, famed aerobatic stunt pilot J. G. "Tex" Rankin secured a U. S. War Department contract to open and operate a civilian flying school to train United States Army Air Corps flight cadets. Rankin opened the Rankin Aeronautical Academy in Tulare in February 1941, where it operated throughout the duration of World War II. During its heyday Rankin Field, as it was otherwise known, trained 10,000 pilots in primary flight training, including twelve future Army Air Corps Aces and two Medal of Honor recipients. During World War II, in response to West Coast wartime hysteria, the U.
S. Army temporarily assumed control of the Tulare County Fairgrounds, converting it to the Tulare Assembly Center, a temporary detention center for Japanese Americans; the Assembly Center was administered by the Wartime Civil Control Administration, under the Western Defense Command and the U. S. 4th Army. The first internee was inducted on April 27, 1942, the last internee departed on September 4, 1942; the top population numbered 4,978 residents. In the latter part of 1942, internees began being moved to the ten more permanent "War Relocation Camps"; the majority of internees from the Tulare Assembly Center were sent to the Gila River War Relocation Center in Arizona. These temporary sites were located on fairgrounds or race tracks in public and visible locations. Tulare was the site of the National Championships for the Decathlon in Track and Field in 1949, 1950, 1952, 1962, as well as the Olympic Trials for the Decathlon in 1952. In the California State Legislature, Tulare is in the 16th Senate District, represented by Republican Shannon Grove, in the 26th Assembly District, represented by Republican Devon Mathis.
In the United States House of Representatives, Tulare is in California's 22nd congressional district, represented by Republican Devin Nunes. The Tulare City School District operates 10 elementary schools, five middle schools, two k-8 schools in Tulare; the ten elementary schools are Cypress, Garden, Lincoln, Mission Valley, Pleasant and Wilson. Lincoln and Kohn Elementary have Title I preschools; the five middle schools are Cherry, Live Oak, Los Tules and Community Day School. The K-8 school is Alpine Vista, opened in the 2013–14 school year. There is a private K-8 school called St. Aloysius. There are five K-8 country schools: Buena Vista, Oak Valley, Palo Verde and Sundale. Secondary education in Tulare is provided by the Tulare Joint Union High School District; the district operates five high schools in the city: Tulare Union, Tulare Western, Mission Oak, Tech Prep, Sierra Vista. Tulare students have two local area community colleges from which to choose: College of the Sequoias in Tulare, College of the Sequoias in nearby Visalia.
College of the Sequoias new Tulare Center for Agriculture and Technology campus, located on East Bardsley Ave in
Visalia is a city situated in the agricultural San Joaquin Valley of California 230 miles southeast of San Francisco, 190 miles north of Los Angeles, 36 miles west of Sequoia National Park and 43 miles south of Fresno. The population was 130,104 as of a 2015 U. S. Census Bureau estimate. Visalia is the 5th largest city in the San Joaquin Valley after Fresno, Bakersfield and Modesto; as the county seat of Tulare County, Visalia serves as the economic and governmental center to one of the most productive single agricultural counties in the country. Yosemite and Kings Canyon National Parks are located in the nearby Sierra Nevada mountains, the highest mountain range in the contiguous United States; the area around Visalia was first settled by the Yokuts and Mono Native American tribes hundreds of years ago. It is unknown when the first Europeans arrived, but the first to make a written record of the area was Pedro Fages in 1722; when California achieved statehood in 1850, Tulare County did not exist.
The land, now Tulare County was part of the huge County of Mariposa. In 1852, some pioneers settled in the area called Four Creeks; the area got its name from the many watershed creeks and rivers flowing from the Sierra Nevada Mountains. All the water resulted in a widespread swampy area with a magnificent oak forest; the industrious group of settlers petitioned the state legislature for county status and on July 10 of that same year, Tulare County became a reality. One of the first inhabitants of a fort built by the settlers was Nathaniel Vise. Nathaniel was responsible for surveying the new settlement. In November 1852, he wrote, "The town contains from 60–80 inhabitants, 30 of whom are children of school age; the town is located upon one of the subdivisions of the Kaweah River and is destined to be the county seat of Tulare." In 1853, that prediction became Visalia has remained the county seat since that time. Visalia is named for Nathaniel Vise's ancestral home, Kentucky. Early growth in Visalia can be attributed in part to the gold rush along the Kern River.
The gold fever brought many transient miners through Visalia along the way and when the lure of gold failed to materialize, many returned to Visalia to live their lives and raise families. In 1859 Visalia was added to John Butterfield's Overland Stage route from St. Louis, Missouri to San Francisco. A plaque commemorating the location can be found at 116 East Main Street. Included in the early crop of citizens were some notorious and nasty individuals who preyed upon the travelers along the Butterfield Stage route. Many saloons and hotels sprouted up around the stage stop downtown and commerce was brisk if a bit risky; the next memorable event was the arrival of the telegraph in 1860. Visalians could get timely information of the events taking place on the East Coast which would develop into the American Civil War. During the Civil War, many citizens of Visalia couldn't decide whether Visalia should stand on the side of the North or the South, so they had a Mini Civil War of their own on Main Street.
No one knows the outcome of the war, but it was concluded to the satisfaction of the participants and life returned to normal. The federal government, was not so convinced, reacting to concern about sedition, banned Visalia's pro-South Equal Rights Expositor newspaper and established a military garrison. Camp Babbitt was built in 1862 to stop overt Southern support as well as maintain law and order in the community. During these Civil War years, Visalia was incorporated; the second incorporation in 1874 moved Visalia into city status with a common council and an ex-officio Mayor and President. In 1893, the train bandits and murderers John Sontag and Chris Evans were apprehended, badly wounded, outside Visalia in what is called the Battle of Stone Corral. Sontag died three weeks in police custody in Fresno. In 1904, the Visalia Electric Railroad was incorporated. In October 1933, Visalia was the site of a fact-finding committee appointed by Governor James Rolph and charged with investigating labor violence in the San Joaquin cotton strike.
Labor activist Caroline Decker led hundreds of strikers in a march on the courthouse, led the questioning of strikers during the investigation. In the mid-1970s, the area was known for the serial burglaries of the as yet unidentified Visalia Ransacker. More Visalia served as a host city for the Amgen Tour of California in 2009 and 2010; the city is divided into neighborhoods, some of which were incorporated communities. There are several independent cities around Visalia that are popularly grouped with the city of Visalia, due to its immediate vicinity; the city is divided into the following areas: Downtown Visalia, North Visalia, The Eastside, Southwest Visalia, the Industrial Area and the Westside. Visalia has a rich architectural history including many extant buildings dating to the mid-late 1800s. Throughout the town center are many historic brick structures, including the Bank of Italy and the Art Deco/Beaux-Arts Visalia Town Center Post Office, both of which are registered with the National Register of Historic Places.
In addition to many other historic buildings and Victorian houses, Visalia is home to a distinctive Fox Theatre, restored by a community group known as "Friends of the Fox" and serves as a live venue for music and stage performances. Visalia is irregularly shaped and covers a total area of 36.3 square miles, of which 36.3 square miles is land
Fresno is a city in California, United States, the county seat of Fresno County. It covers about 112 square miles in the center of the San Joaquin Valley, the southern portion of California's Central Valley. Named for the abundant ash trees lining the San Joaquin River, Fresno was founded in 1872 as a railway station of the Central Pacific Railroad before it was incorporated in 1885; the city has since become an economic hub of Fresno County and the San Joaquin Valley, with much of the surrounding areas in the Metropolitan Fresno region predominantly tied to large-scale agricultural production. The population of Fresno grew from a 1960 census population of 134,000 to a 2000 census population of 428,000. With a census-estimated 2017 population of 527,438, Fresno is the fifth-most populous city in California, the most populous city in the Central Valley, the most populous inland city in California, the 34th-most populous city in the nation. Fresno is near the geographical center of California.
It lies 220 miles north of Los Angeles, 170 miles south of the state capital, 185 miles southeast of San Francisco. Yosemite National Park is about 60 miles to the north, Kings Canyon National Park is 60 miles to the east, Sequoia National Park is 75 miles to the southeast; the original inhabitants of the San Joaquin Valley region were the Yokuts people and Miwok people, who engaged in trading with other Californian tribes of Native Americans including coastal peoples such as the Chumash of the Central California coast, with whom they are thought to have traded plant and animal products. The first European to enter the San Joaquin Valley was Pedro Fages in 1772; the county of Fresno was formed in 1856 after the California Gold Rush. It was named for the abundant ash trees lining the San Joaquin River; the county was much larger than it is today as part of Tulare County, comprising its current area plus all of what became Madera County and parts of what are now San Benito, Kings and Mono counties.
Millerton on the banks of the free-flowing San Joaquin River and close to Fort Miller, became the county seat after becoming a focal point for settlers. Other early county settlements included Firebaugh's Ferry and Elkhorn Springs; the San Joaquin River flooded on December 1867, inundating Millerton. Some residents rebuilt, others moved. Flooding destroyed the town of Scottsburg on the nearby Kings River that winter. Rebuilt on higher ground, Scottsburg was renamed Centerville. In 1867, Anthony "McQueen" Easterby purchased land bounded by the present Chestnut, Belmont and California avenues, that today is called the Sunnyside district. Unable to grow wheat for lack of water, he hired sheep man Moses J. Church in 1871 to create an irrigation system. Building new canals and purchasing existing ditches, Church formed the Fresno Canal and Irrigation Company, a predecessor of the Fresno Irrigation District. In 1872, the Central Pacific Railroad established a station near Easterby's—by now a hugely productive wheat farm—for its new Southern Pacific line.
Soon there was a store around the station and the store grew into the town of Fresno Station called Fresno. Many Millerton residents, drawn by the convenience of the railroad and worried about flooding, moved to the new community. Fresno became an incorporated city in 1885. By 1931 the Fresno Traction Company operated 47 streetcars over 49 miles of track. In 1877, William Helm made Fresno his home with a five-acre tract of land at the corner of Fresno and R streets. Helm was the largest individual sheep grower in Fresno County. In carrying his wool to market at Stockton, he used three wagons, each drawn by ten mules, spent twelve days in making the round trip. Two years after the station was established, county residents voted to move the county seat from Millerton to Fresno; when the Friant Dam was completed in 1944, the site of Millerton became inundated by the waters of Millerton Lake. In extreme droughts, when the reservoir shrinks, ruins of the original county seat can still be observed. In the nineteenth century, with so much wooden construction and in the absence of sophisticated firefighting resources, fires ravaged American frontier towns.
The greatest of Fresno's early-day fires, in 1882, destroyed an entire block of the city. Another devastating blaze struck in 1883. In 1909, Fresno's first and oldest synagogue, Temple Beth Israel, was founded. Fresno entered the ranks of the 100 most populous cities in the United States in 1960 with a population of 134,000. Thirty years in the 1990 census, it moved up to 47th place with 354,000, in the census of 2000, it achieved 37th place with 428,000; the Fresno Municipal Sanitary Landfill was the first modern landfill in the United States, incorporated several important innovations to waste disposal, including trenching and the daily covering of trash with dirt. It was opened in 1937 and closed in 1987. Today, it has the unusual distinction of being a National Historic Landmark as well as a Superfund site. Before World War II, Fresno had many ethnic neighborhoods, including Little Armenia, German Town, Little Italy, Chinatown. In 1940, the Census Bureau reported Fresno's population as 94.0% white, 3.3% black and 2.7% Asian..
During 1942, Pinedale, in what is now North Fresno, was the site of the Pinedale Assembly Center, an interim facility for the relocation of Fresno area Japanese Americans to internment camps. The Fresno Fairgrounds were utilized as an assembly center. Row crops and orchards gave way to urban development in the perio
Madera County, California
Madera County the County of Madera, is a county at the geographic center of the U. S. state of California. As of the 2010 census, the population was 150,865; the county seat is Madera. Madera County comprises the Madera, CA Metropolitan Statistical Area, included in the Fresno-Madera, CA Combined Statistical Area, it is located in the central Sierra Nevada. The southeasternmost part of Yosemite National Park is located in the county's northeast. Madera County was formed in 1893 from Fresno County during a special election held in Fresno on May 16, 1893. Citizens residing in the area, to become Madera County voted 1,179 to 358 for separation from Fresno County and the establishment of Madera County. Madera is the Spanish term for wood; the county derives its name from the town of Madera, named when the California Lumber Company built a log flume to carry lumber to the Central Pacific Railroad there in 1876. The Madera County Sheriff's Department employed the first woman in California to die in the line of duty as a sworn law enforcement officer—Tulare native Lucille Helm.
For 15 years, the Madera housewife and mother of four worked on call as a "matron" assisting with female transfers. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 2,153 square miles, of which 2,137 square miles is land and 16 square miles is water. Madera County is part of the Madera AVA wine region. Devils Postpile National Monument Inyo National Forest Sierra National Forest Yosemite National Park The 2010 United States Census reported that Madera County had a population of 150,865; the racial makeup of Madera County was 94,456 White, 5,629 African American, 4,136 Native American, 2,802 Asian, 162 Pacific Islander, 37,380 from other races, 6,300 from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 80,992 persons; as of the census of 2000, there are 123,109 people in the county, organized into 36,155 households, 28,598 families. The population density is 58 people per square mile. There are 40,387 housing units at an average density of 19 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county is 62.2% White, 4.1% Black or African American, 2.6% Native American, 1.3% Asian, 0.2% Pacific Islander, 24.4% from other races, 5.2% from two or more races.
44.3 % of the population are Latino of any race. 8.0% were of German, 5.9% English, 5.4% American and 5.3% Irish ancestry according to Census 2000. 63.6% spoke English and 33.7% Spanish as their first language. There are 36,155 households out of which 40.2% have children under the age of 18 living with them, 60.9% are married couples living together, 12.2% have a female householder with no husband present, 20.9% are non-families. 16.5% of all households are made up of individuals and 7.7% have someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size is 3.18 and the average family size is 3.52. In the county, the population is spread out with 29.6% under the age of 18, 9.9% from 18 to 24, 29.1% from 25 to 44, 20.4% from 45 to 64, 11.0% who are 65 years of age or older. The median age is 33 years. For every 100 females there are 91.8 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there are 86.0 males. The median income for a household in the county is $36,286, the median income for a family is $39,226.
Males have a median income of $33,658 versus $24,415 for females. The per capita income for the county is $14,682. 21.4% of the population and 15.9% of families are below the poverty line. Out of the total population, 28.6% of those under the age of 18 and 9.0% of those 65 and older are living below the poverty line. Madera County is covered by the State Center Community College District centered on Fresno City College in Fresno. Other districts with terrirtory within Madera County include the West Hills Community College District and the Merced Community College District; the Government of Madera County is mandated by the California Constitution to have a five member Board of Supervisors with elected four year staggered terms. The Board of Supervisors and County Administrator and staff provide for voter registration and elections, law enforcement, vital records, property records, tax collection, public health and social services for the entire county.. It is the local government for all unincorporated areas.
Other elected offices include the Sheriff, District Attorney, Assessor-Recorder, Auditor-Controller/Treasurer-Tax Collector, Clerk/Registrar of Voters. The sheriff's department and staff provide court protection, jail administration, coroner service for all of Madera County with its total population of 156,000 residents; the sheriff provides police patrol and detective services to the unincorporated areas of the county which contains 70,000 residents, or 45% of Madera County's total population. The Sheriff's main station and offices are at Madera. There are two sheriff's substations: Oakhurst, population 3,000, Coarsegold, population 2,000, both on highway 41 to Yosemite National Park in the Sierras; the municipal police departments within Madera County are Madera, the county seat, population 62,000, Chowchilla, 19,600. Madera is a Republican county in Presidential and congressional elections; the last Democrat to win a majority in the county was Jimmy Carter in 1976. Madera is split between the 4th and 16th congressional districts, represented by Tom McClintock and Jim Costa, respectively.
With respect to the California State Assembly, the county is in the 5th Assembly District, represented by Republican Frank Bigelow. In the California State Senate, Madera is split between the 8th Se
Modesto the City of Modesto, is the county seat and largest city of Stanislaus County, United States. With a population of 201,165 at the 2010 census, it is the 18th largest city in the state of California and forms part of the Modesto–Merced combined statistical area; the Modesto Census County Division, which includes the cities of Ceres and Riverbank, had a population of 312,842 as of 2010. Modesto is located in the Central Valley, 90 miles north of Fresno, 40 miles north of Merced, California, 92 miles east of San Francisco, 68 miles south of the state capital of Sacramento, 66 miles west of Yosemite National Park, 24 miles south of Stockton. Modesto has been honored as a Tree City USA numerous times, it is surrounded by rich farmland. Led by milk, chickens and corn silage, the county grossed nearly $3.1 billion in agricultural production in 2011. The farm-to-table movement plays a central role in Modesto living as in the Central Valley. Filmmaker George Lucas, born in Modesto, graduated from Thomas Downey High School in 1962 and attended Modesto Junior College, immortalized the city in his award-winning 1973 film American Graffiti.
Although it was not shot in Modesto, the film portrayed the spirit of cruising and friendship on Modesto's 10th and 11th Streets in 1962, inspired a revival of interest in 1950s pop culture, including the TV show Happy Days and its spin-offs. The city's annual Architectural Festival honors Modesto's history as a testing ground for mid-century modern architecture during the 1940s and'50s. Modesto's mid-century buildings have been featured four times in Museum of Modern Art publications; the Gallup-Healthways Well-Being Index for 2011, which interviews 1,000 participants about their jobs, physical health, emotional state of mind and communities, ranked Modesto 126 out of the 190 cities surveyed. In December 2009, Forbes ranked Modesto 48th out of 100 among "Best Bang-for-the-Buck Cities". In this ranking, Modesto ranked 8th in housing affordability and travel time but ranked 86th in job forecast growth and 99th in foreclosures. Modesto is the home of Gallo Family Winery, the largest owned winery in the world.
The City of Modesto was a stop on the railroad connecting Sacramento to Los Angeles. When Modesto was founded in 1870, it was to be named Ralston after financier William C. Ralston. Ralston's modesty prompted him to ask that another name be found, the town was named Modesto in recognition of his modesty. Modesto's population was over 1,000 residents in 1884. With fields of grain, a nearby Tuolumne River for grain barges, railroad traffic, the town grew. Irrigation water came from dams installed in the foothills, irrigated fields of vegetables and fruit and nut trees flourished. By 1900, Modesto's population was over 4,500. During World War II, the area provided canned goods, powdered milk, eggs for the US armed forces and Allied forces. For the next few decades, Modesto's population grew about two percent per year to over 100,000 in 1980, over 200,000 in 2001; the city's official motto, "Water Wealth Contentment Health," is emblazoned on the downtown Modesto Arch, featured in local photographs and postcards.
The motto was selected in a contest held in 1911. Modesto's motto is sometimes spoofed as "The land gets the water, the bankers get the wealth, the cows get contentment, the farmers get the health." Modesto is known for the following tourist attractions and historical sites: McHenry Mansion – Built in the early 1880s by Robert McHenry, a local rancher and banker. The mansion is included on the National Register of Historic Places. Tours are given. McHenry Museum – Across the street from the McHenry Mansion, it is filled with tidbits from Modesto's history. George Lucas Plaza – American Graffiti-inspired bronze statue made in honor of Modesto filmmaker George Lucas, located at Five Points. Gallo Center for the Arts – Center for the performing arts opened in 2007 and is located in downtown Modesto at 1000 "I" Street. Downtown Modesto – Known for having a variety of restaurants and night life, including 3 weekly farmer's markets, it hosts a multi-venue Art Walk year-round on the third Thursday of the month, free to view with maps available.
The State Theatre – Dating back to the 1920s, it was renovated and serves as a local performance arts center and as a theater specializing in independent and foreign films. John Thurman Field – The stadium renovated several years ago, the home of the Modesto Nuts baseball team. Graceada Park neighborhood – An area of representative old homes with streets lined with large city-planted shade trees and a series of parks, a bandshell and other amenities; the name Graceada is based on two local residents that helped promote the idea of a park and Ada. The 1973 film American Graffiti, starring Ron Howard, Richard Dreyfuss, Cindy Williams, was set in 1962 Modesto; this is a list of historic places in California. The McHenry Mansion is a restored historic home located at I Streets; the McHenry family built the house in 1883. The mansion was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1978; the Hawke Castle is a historic residence built in 1929. It was influenced by the Norman architecture, i