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Central Pacific Railroad

The Central Pacific Railroad was a rail company chartered by U. S. Congress in 1862 to build a railroad eastwards from Sacramento, California, to complete the western part of the "First Transcontinental Railroad" in North America. Incorporated in 1861, CPRR ceased operation in 1885 when it was acquired by Southern Pacific Railroad as a leased line. Following the completion of the Pacific Railroad Surveys in 1855, several national proposals to build a transcontinental railroad failed because of the energy consumed by political disputes over slavery. With the secession of the South in 1861, the modernizers in the Republican Party controlled the US Congress, they passed legislation in 1862 authorizing the central rail route with financing in the form of land grants and government railroad bond, which were all repaid with interest. The government and the railroads both shared in the increased value of the land grants, which the railroads developed; the construction of the railroad secured for the government the economical "safe and speedy transportation of the mails, munitions of war, public stores."

Planned by Theodore Judah, the Central Pacific Railroad was authorized by Congress in 1862. It was incorporated in 1861 by Judah and "The Big Four": Sacramento, California businessmen Leland Stanford, Collis Huntington, Charles Crocker, Mark Hopkins. Stanford was elected president, Huntington vice-president in charge of fund raising and purchasing, Hopkins treasurer. Crocker was in charge of construction, which began in 1863 when the first rails were laid in Sacramento. Construction proceeded in earnest in 1865 when James Harvey Strobridge, the head of the construction work force, hired the first Cantonese emigrant workers at Crocker's suggestion; the construction crew grew to include 12,000 Chinese laborers by 1868, when they constituted eighty percent of the entire work force. The "Golden spike", connecting the western railroad to the Union Pacific Railroad at Promontory, was hammered on May 10, 1869. Coast-to-coast train travel in eight days became possible, replacing months-long sea voyages and lengthy, hazardous travel by wagon trains.

In 1885 the Central Pacific Railroad was acquired by the Southern Pacific Company as a leased line. Technically the CPRR remained a corporate entity until 1959, when it was formally merged into Southern Pacific; the original right-of-way is now controlled by the Union Pacific, which bought Southern Pacific in 1996. The Union Pacific-Central Pacific main line followed the historic Overland Route from Omaha, Nebraska to San Francisco Bay. Chinese labor was the most vital source for constructing the railroad. Fifty Cantonese emigrant workers were hired by the Central Pacific Railroad in February 1865 on a trial basis, soon more and more Cantonese emigrants were hired. Working conditions were harsh, Chinese were compensated less than their white counterparts. Chinese laborers were paid thirty-one dollars each month, while white workers were paid the same, they were given room and board. Construction of the road was financed by 30-year, 6% U. S. government bonds authorized by Sec. 5 of the Pacific Railroad Act of 1862.

They were issued at the rate of $16,000 per mile of tracked grade completed west of the designated base of the Sierra Nevada range near Roseville, CA where California state geologist Josiah Whitney had determined were the geologic start of the Sierras' foothills. Sec. 11 of the Act provided that the issuance of bonds "shall be treble the number per mile" for tracked grade completed over and within the two mountain ranges, "doubled" per mile of completed grade laid between the two mountain ranges. The U. S. Government Bonds, which constituted a lien upon the railroads and all their fixtures, were repaid in full by the company as and when they became due. Sec. 10 of the 1864 amending Pacific Railroad Act additionally authorized the company to issue its own "First Mortgage Bonds" in total amounts up to that of the bonds issued by the United States. Such company-issued securities had priority over the original Government Bonds. Sec. 3 of the 1862 Act granted the railroads 10 square miles of public land for every mile laid, except where railroads ran through cities and crossed rivers.

This grant was apportioned in 5 sections on alternating sides of the railroad, with each section measuring 0.2 miles by 10 miles. These grants were doubled to 20 square miles per mile of grade by the 1864 Act. Although the Pacific Railroad benefited the Bay Area, the City and County of San Francisco obstructed financing it during the early years of 1863–1865; when Stanford was Governor of California, the Legislature passed on April 22, 1863, "An Act to Authorize the Board of Supervisors of the City and County of San Francisco to take and subscribe One Million Dollars to the Capital Stock of the Western Pacific Rail Road Company and the Central Pacific Rail Road Company of California and to provide for the payment of the same and other matters relating thereto". On May 19, 1863, the electors of the City and County of San Francisco passed this bond by a vote of 6,329 to 3,116, in a controversial Special Election; the City and Coun

2012 New Brunswick Liberal Association leadership election

The New Brunswick Liberal Association held a leadership election on October 27, 2012 to replace outgoing leader Shawn Graham with a new leader to lead the party into the 2014 election. Graham was elected at the last leadership convention held in 2002 over Jack MacDougall. Graham announced he would not continue as leader the evening of September 27, 2010, after losing the provincial election earlier that day and formally resigned on November 9, 2010; the following individuals were mentioned in media reports as potential candidates, subsequently declared their candidacy: Background: Former candidate in Moncton East in the 2006 election. Date campaign launched: January 25, 2012 Campaign website: www.briangallantnb.ca/english/ SupportersMLAs: Hédard Albert, MLA for Caraquet. Federal politicians: Dominic LeBlanc, MP for Beausejour. Date campaign launched: January 5, 2012 Campaign website: mikemurphynb1.com SupportersMLAs: Chris Collins, MLA for Moncton East. J. Burke, former MLA for Fredericton North.

Other information Background Former mayor of the town of Belledune. Date campaign launched: November 26, 2011 Campaign website: SupportersMPs: MLAs: Roland Haché, MLA for Nigadoo-Chaleur Other prominent individuals:Other information Victor Boudreau, MLA for Shediac-Cap-Pelé since 2004. Boudreau was elected interim leader of the Liberals on November 10, 2010 and said he would not seek the permanent leadership. Greg Byrne, MLA for Fredericton-Fort Nashwaak from 1995 to 1999 and MLA for Fredericton-Lincoln from 2006 to 2010. Byrne joined the opposition office as Boudreau's chief of staff. Kelly Lamrock, MLA for Fredericton-Fort Nashwaak from 2003 to 2010. Lamrock explored a candidacy and was reported as a candidate in the media, but did not run and endorsed Murphy. Dominic LeBlanc, MP for Beauséjour since 2000. LeBlanc is campaign co-chairperson for Brian Gallant's leadership campaign. Robert Dysart, partner at the law firm Stewart McKelvey and president of the Moncton West Liberal Association. Donald Arseneault, MLA for Dalhousie-Restigouche East since 2003.

Arsenault announced he would not be a candidate for the leadership in early November, 2011. Mary Schryer, MLA for Quispamsis from 2006 to 2010. Roger Melanson, MLA for Dieppe Centre-Lewisville since 2010. Melanson announced on his Facebook page on Jan 2012 that he would not pursue the leadership. Https://web.archive.org/web/20110706183504/http://letoilekent.jminforme.ca/actualite/article/1369946

March to Fuzz

March to Fuzz is a two-disc compilation album by grunge band Mudhoney. It was released in January 2000 by Sub Pop Records. Disc 1 is a collection of the band's most popular songs, such as "Here Comes Sickness" and "Sweet Young Thing Ain't Sweet No More." Disc 2 is a collection of rare tracks, b-sides such as "Butterfly Stroke," and covers such as "The Money Will Roll Right In." The booklet that comes with the digipak album features an introduction by Bruce Pavitt, "Corporate Associate." The remainder of the booklet includes comments by Mark Arm and Steve Turner about each of the 52 songs. All tracks written by Mudhoney. Disc 1 - Best Of "In'n' Out of Grace" "Suck You Dry" "I Have to Laugh" "Sweet Young Thing Ain't Sweet No More" "Who You Driving Now?" "You Got It" "Judgement, Retribution & Thyme" "Into the Drink" "A Thousand Forms of Mind" "Generation Genocide" "If I Think" "Here Comes Sickness" "Let It Slide" "Touch Me I'm Sick" "This Gift" "Good Enough" "Blinding Sun" "Into Your Shtik" "Beneath the Valley of the Underdog" "When Tomorrow Hits" "Make It Now Again" "Hate the Police" Disc 2 - Rarities "Hey Sailor" "Twenty Four" "Baby Help Me Forget" "Revolution" "You Stupid Asshole" "Who Is Who" "Stab Your Back" "Pump It Up" "The Money Will Roll Right In" "Fix Me" "Dehumanized" "She's Just 15" "Baby O Baby" "Over the Top" "You Give Me the Creeps" "March to Fuzz" "Ounce of Deception" "Paperback Life" "Bushpusher Man" "Fuzzbuster" "Overblown" "Run Shithead Run" "King Sandbox" "Tonight I Think I'm Gonna Go Downtown" "Holden" "Not Going Down That Road Again" "Brand New Face" "Drinking for Two" "Butterfly Stroke" "Editions of You"