Central Sulawesi

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Central Sulawesi
Sulawesi Tengah
Mountains, rice fields and pile houses near Palu
Mountains, rice fields and pile houses near Palu
Official seal of Central Sulawesi
Motto: Maliu Ntinuvu (Palu)
(Unites All The Elements and The Potential that Exists)
Location of Central Sulawesi in Indonesia
Location of Central Sulawesi in Indonesia
Coordinates: 1°00′S 121°00′E / 1.000°S 121.000°E / -1.000; 121.000Coordinates: 1°00′S 121°00′E / 1.000°S 121.000°E / -1.000; 121.000
Country Indonesia
Capital Palu
 • Governor Drs. H. Longki Djanggola, M.Si (Gerindra)
 • Vice Governor Vacant
 • Total 61,841.29 km2 (23,877.06 sq mi)
Population (2014)
 • Total 2,839,290
 • Density 46/km2 (120/sq mi)
 • Ethnic groups Buton (23%)
Kaili (20%)
Bugis (19%)
Tolaki (16%)
Muna (15%)
Gorontaloan (7%)
 • Religion Islam (76.6%)
Protestantism (17.3%)
Roman Catholicism (3.2%)
Hinduism (2.7%)
Buddhism (0.16%)
 • Languages Indonesian (official)
Time zone WITA (UTC+8)
Vehicle registration DN
HDI Steady 0.664 (Medium)
HDI rank 25th (2014)

Central Sulawesi (Indonesian: Sulawesi Tengah) is a province of Indonesia located at the centre of the island of Sulawesi. Its capital and largest city is Palu. The 2010 census recorded a population of 2,633,420 for the province, while the latest official estimate (for January 2014) is 2,839,290.

Established in 1964, Central Sulawesi has an area of 61,841.29 km2 (23,877 sq mi).[1] It is bordered by the provinces of Gorontalo to the north, West Sulawesi, South Sulawesi and South East Sulawesi to the south, by Maluku to the east, and by the Makassar Strait to the west.


Megalithic stone in Central Sulawesi

There are over 400 granite megaliths in the area of the Lore Lindu National Park, of which around 30 represent human forms. They vary in size from a few centimetres to approximately 4.5 metres (15 ft). The original purpose of the megaliths is unknown.[2] Other megaliths in the area are large stone pots (Kalamba) accompanied by stone lids (Tutu'na). Various archaeological studies have dated the carvings from between 3000 BC to 1300 AD.[3]

Central Sulawesi Province has many caves, seven of which have ancient pictures and, based on 2011 research by a joint Indonesian and Australian team, the pictures are known to have been drawn at least 40,000 years ago (about the same age as pictures found in the Caves of Monte Castillo, Spain which are known as the oldest ancient pictures in Europe).[4]

Some of the oldest bronze objects are discovered in Central Sulawesi. The Makassar Axe is a 1st century AD bronze axes probably used as a valuable object in a ceremony. The Kulawi tribe of Central Sulawesi still practice the exchange of heirloom bronze object e.g. the taiganja, whose basic form has been discovered throughout the eastern part of Indonesia.

Islam reached the region in the 17th century, shortly after the Islamic avowal of Gowa, the powerful kingdom at the south part of the Sulawesi island. The Dutch colonial rule was established in the 18th century and began the protestantic missionary of the population. About a quarter of them are now Protestant, which is the highest percentage of the Indonesien archipelago. After the Japanese occupation in the Second World War, the region belonged to the Province North Sulawesi and separated in 1964 to the new formed Province Central Sulawesi.

Between 1999 and 2001 the region has been plagued by inter-religious violence between Muslims and Christians, where over 1,000 people were killed.[5] The Malino II Accord was thus made in 2001. However, riots erupted again in September 2006 on the Christian dominated areas of Central Sulawesi, after the execution by firing squad of three Roman Catholics convicted of leading Christian militants during the violence of the early first decade of the 21st century.[6] The riots appeared to be aimed at government authorities, not Muslims.[6]

Administrative divisions[edit]

Central Sulawesi is divided into twelve regencies (kabupaten) and one city (kota), which are listed below with their populations at the 2010 Census and according to the latest (for January 2014) estimates.

Name Area (km2) Population
Census 2000
Census 2010
Estimate 2014
Capital HDI[7]
2014 Estimates
Palu (city) 395.06 269,083 335,297 362,621 Palu 0.791 (High)
Banggai Regency 271,725 323,872 348,715 Luwuk 0.671 (Medium)
Banggai Islands Regency 141,175 171,685 184,933 Salakan 0.623 (Medium)
Banggai Laut Regency included in
Banggai Islands
included in
Banggai Islands
included in
Banggai Islands
Banggai 0.621 (Medium)
Buol Regency 98,005 132,381 142,589 Buol 0.654 (Medium)
Donggala Regency 10,472 732,126 277,236 299,143 Banawa 0.635 (Medium)
Morowali Regency 160,797 206,189 222,317 Bungku 0.679 (Medium)
North Morowali Regency included in
included in
included in
Kolonodale 0.658 (Medium)
Parigi Moutong Regency 6,232 * 413,645 445,652 Parigi 0.622 (Medium)
Poso Regency 232,765 209,252 225,449 Poso 0.676 (Medium)
Sigi Regency 5,196 * 214,700 231,700 Sigi Biromaru 0.646 (Medium)
Tojo Una-Una Regency # 137,880 148,494 Ampana 0.611 (Medium)
Toli-Toli Regency 173,525 211,283 227,677 Toli-Toli 0.619 (Medium)
Total Province 61,841 2,175,993 2,633,420 2,839,290 Palu 0.664 (Medium)
* The 2000 Census populations for Parigi Moutong Regency and Sigi Regency are included in the figure for Donggala Regency.
# The 2000 Census population for Tojo Una-Una Regency is included in the figure for Poso Regency.

Palu is the provincial capital and the province's largest city. Other towns include Ampana, Banggai, Bungku, Buol, Donggala, Kolonodale, Luwuk, Parigi, Poso, and Toli-toli.


The decennial 2010 census recorded a population of 2,633,420 for the province, of which 1,349,225 are male and 1,284,195 are female. The population grew an average of 1.94% annually from the previous census.[8] There is some sort of religion interaction problems in this area[9] Most of the population are Muslims (76,6%).


Average annual population growth between 1990 and 2000 was 2.57% and 1.96% from 2000 to 2010.

Historical population
Year Pop. ±%
1971 913,662 —    
1980 1,289,635 +41.2%
1990 1,711,327 +32.7%
1995 1,938,071 +13.2%
2000 2,218,435 +14.5%
2010 2,635,009 +18.8%
2014 2,839,290 +7.8%
Source: Badan Pusat Statistik 2010 and 2014


Religion in Central Sulawesi (2010 census)[10]
religion percent
Roman Catholicism
Not Asked
Not Stated


Seaweed production[edit]

Morowali Regency, Central Sulawesi, is projected to be the biggest seaweed producer in Indonesia for the near future. The seaweed farming types are glaciria.[11] In 2010, Central Sulawesi produced nearly 800,000 tons of seaweed.[12]


Lore Lindu National Park[edit]

  • Lore Lindu National Park is in the highlands south of Palu,
  • Tanjung karang Beach Donggala
  • Pusat Laut (Pusentasi) Towale Donggala
  • Pantai Kaluku Limboro Donggala
  • Togean Island Ampana
  • Kadidiri Island Ampana
  • Talise Beach Palu
  • Enu Beach
  • Wera Waterfall Donggala
  • Pasoso Island Balaesang Donggala
  • Marowali National Park
  • Air terjun sakita Marowali
  • Air terjun Buleleng Marowali
  • Pulau Sambori Marowali
  • Teluk Lalong Luwuk
  • Niagara Cup Luwuk
  • Pantai Kilo 5 Luwuk
  • Bukit Keles Luwuk
  • Air terjun Paumarang Luwuk
  • Air terjun Salodik Luwuk
  • Pulau Dua Kabupaten Banggai
  • Molino Tontonan Kabupaten Banggai
  • Air Terjun Tembang Kabupaten Banggai
  • Danau Alani Kabupaten Banggai
  • Danau Tendetung Kabupaten Banggai

See also[edit]

  • Lindu, a group of four indigenous communities