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Sulawesi

Sulawesi known as Celebes, is one of the four Greater Sunda Islands. It is governed by Indonesia; the world's eleventh-largest island, it is situated east of Borneo, west of the Maluku Islands, south of Mindanao and the Sulu Archipelago. Within Indonesia, only Sumatra and Papua are larger in territory, only Java and Sumatra have larger populations; the landmass of Sulawesi includes four peninsulas: the northern Minahasa Peninsula. Three gulfs separate these peninsulas: the Gulf of Tomini between the northern Minahasa and East peninsulas; the Strait of Makassar runs along the western side of the island and separates the island from Borneo. The name Sulawesi comes from the words sula and besi and may refer to the historical export of iron from the rich Lake Matano iron deposits; the name came into common use in English following Indonesian independence. The name Celebes was given to the island by Portuguese explorers. While its direct translation is unclear, it may be considered a Portuguese rendering of the native name "Sulawesi".

Sulawesi is the world's eleventh-largest island, covering an area of 174,600 km2. The central part of the island is ruggedly mountainous, such that the island's peninsulas have traditionally been remote from each other, with better connections by sea than by road; the three bays that divide Sulawesi's peninsulas are, from north to south, the Tomini, the Tolo and the Boni. These separate the Minahassa or Northern Peninsula, the East Peninsula, the Southeast Peninsula and the South Peninsula; the Strait of Makassar runs along the western side of the island. The island is surrounded by Borneo to the west, by the Philippines to the north, by Maluku to the east, by Flores and Timor to the south; the Selayar Islands make up a peninsula stretching southwards from Southwest Sulawesi into the Flores Sea are administratively part of Sulawesi. The Sangihe Islands and Talaud Islands stretch northward from the northeastern tip of Sulawesi, while Buton Island and its neighbours lie off its southeast peninsula, the Togian Islands are in the Gulf of Tomini, Peleng Island and Banggai Islands form a cluster between Sulawesi and Maluku.

All the above-mentioned islands, many smaller ones are administratively part of Sulawesi's six provinces. The island slopes up from the shores of the deep seas surrounding the island to a high non-volcanic, mountainous interior. Active volcanoes are found in the northern Minahassa Peninsula, stretching north to the Sangihe Islands; the northern peninsula contains several active volcanoes such as Mount Lokon, Mount Awu and Karangetang. According to plate reconstructions, the island is believed to have been formed by the collision of terranes from the Asian Plate and from the Australian Plate, with island arcs in the Pacific; because of its several tectonic origins, various faults scar the land and as a result the island is prone to earthquakes. Sulawesi, in contrast to most of the other islands in the biogeographical region of Wallacea, is not oceanic, but a composite island at the centre of the Asia-Australia collision zone. Parts of the island were attached to either the Asian or Australian continental margin and became separated from these areas by vicariant processes.

In the west, the opening of the Makassar Strait separated West Sulawesi from Sundaland in the Eocene c. 45 Mya. In the east, the traditional view of collisions of multiple micro-continental fragments sliced from New Guinea with an active volcanic margin in West Sulawesi at different times since the Early Miocene c. 20 Mya has been replaced by the hypothesis that extensional fragmentation has followed a single Miocene collision of West Sulawesi with the Sula Spur, the western end of an ancient folded belt of Variscan origin in the Late Paleozoic. Before October 2014, the settlement of South Sulawesi by modern humans had been dated to c. 30,000 BC on the basis of radiocarbon dates obtained from rock shelters in Maros. No earlier evidence of human occupation had at that point been found, but the island certainly formed part of the land bridge used for the settlement of Australia and New Guinea by at least 40,000 BC. There is no evidence of Homo erectus having reached Sulawesi. Following Peter Bellwood's model of a southward migration of Austronesian-speaking farmers, radiocarbon dates from caves in Maros suggest a date in the mid-second millennium BC for the arrival of a group from east Borneo speaking a Proto-South Sulawesi language.

Initial settlement was around the mouth of the Sa'dan river, on the northwest coast of the peninsula, although the south coast has been suggested. Subsequent migrations across the mountainous landscape resulted in the geographical isolation of PSS speakers and the evolution of their languages into the eight families of the South Sulawesi language group. If each group can be said to have a homeland, that of the Bugis – today the most numerous group – was around lakes Témpé and Sidénréng in the Walennaé depression. Here for some 2,000 years lived the linguistic group. Despite the fact that today they are linked

Cult (book)

Cult: Leadership & Business Strategy: Ruthlessly Redefined is a management book written by "management guru" Arindam Chaudhuri and strategy professor A. Sandeep; the book was launched by Guy Kawasaki, former Chief Evangelist at Apple Inc. and current member, Board of Trustees at the Wikimedia Foundation, in December 2011 at an event in London attended by political and business leaders, reached the top 10 business bestsellers list in India. The book deals with lessons for CEOs in running transnational corporations; the book is divided into two parts. The first part addresses leadership issues; the second part addresses business strategy issues that CEOs of large corporations have to face. Guy Kawasaki commented on the book, "I have read the book and Steve Jobs would love this book, he would; this book is in the same quality of Malcolm Gladwell, Geoffrey Moore & Clayton Christensen." Marshall Goldsmith said Cult provides "a view on vision you won’t find anywhere." Http://indiatoday.intoday.in/story/the-cult-by-arindam-chaudhuri-and-a.-sandeep-fdi-wal-mart/1/164086.html

Niccolò da Uzzano

Niccolò da Uzzano was an Italian politician, the Gonfaloniere of Justice in the government of Florence Florence's Palazzo Capponi alle Rovinate was built on his behalf in the first half of the fifteenth century by Lorenzo di Bicci, who always carried out Niccolò's wishes, including those for frescoes and a painting for the Church of Saint Lucia dei Magnoli, which though documented are now lost. Rinaldo degli Albizzi, a Florentine politician, against the political rise of Cosimo de' Medici the Elder was held in check by Niccolò da Uzzano as long as he lived. Niccolò's family took its name from the Castle of Uzzano in Greve in Chianti. In the Bargello Museum in Florence, there is a polychrome terracotta bust of Niccolò, attributed to Donatello, dated to around 1432