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Central dogma of molecular biology

The central dogma of molecular biology is an explanation of the flow of genetic information within a biological system. It is stated as "DNA makes RNA and RNA makes protein," although this is not its original meaning, it was first stated by Francis Crick in 1957 published in 1958: and re-stated in a Nature paper published in 1970: A second version of the central dogma is popular but incorrect. This is the simplistic DNA → RNA → protein pathway published by James Watson in the first edition of The Molecular Biology of the Gene. Watson's version differs from Crick's because Watson describes a two-step process as the central dogma. While the dogma, as stated by Crick, remains valid today, Watson's version does not; the dogma is a framework for understanding the transfer of sequence information between information-carrying biopolymers, in the most common or general case, in living organisms. There are 3 major classes of such biopolymers: DNA and RNA, protein. There are 3 × 3 = 9 conceivable direct transfers of information.

The dogma classes these into 3 groups of 3: three general transfers, three special transfers, three unknown transfers. The general transfers describe the normal flow of biological information: DNA can be copied to DNA, DNA information can be copied into mRNA, proteins can be synthesized using the information in mRNA as a template; the special transfers describe: RNA being copied from RNA, DNA being synthesised using an RNA template, proteins being synthesised directly from a DNA template without the use of mRNA. The unknown transfers describe: a protein being copied from a protein, synthesis of RNA using the primary structure of a protein as a template, DNA synthesis using the primary structure of a protein as a template - these are not thought to occur; the biopolymers that comprise DNA, RNA and peptides are linear polymers. The sequence of their monomers encodes information; the transfers of information described by the central dogma ideally are faithful, deterministic transfers, wherein one biopolymer's sequence is used as a template for the construction of another biopolymer with a sequence, dependent on the original biopolymer's sequence.

In the sense that DNA replication must occur if genetic material is to be provided for the progeny of any cell, whether somatic or reproductive, the copying from DNA to DNA arguably is the fundamental step in the central dogma. A complex group of proteins called the replisome performs the replication of the information from the parent strand to the complementary daughter strand; the replisome comprises: a helicase that unwinds the superhelix as well as the double-stranded DNA helix to create a replication fork SSB protein that binds open the double-stranded DNA to prevent it from reassociating RNA primase that adds a complementary RNA primer to each template strand as a starting point for replication DNA polymerase III that reads the existing template chain from its 3' end to its 5' end and adds new complementary nucleotides from the 5' end to the 3' end of the daughter chain DNA polymerase I that removes the RNA primers and replaces them with DNA DNA ligase that joins the two Okazaki fragments with phosphodiester bonds to produce a continuous chainThis process takes place during S phase of the cell cycle.

Transcription is the process by which the information contained in a section of DNA is replicated in the form of a newly assembled piece of messenger RNA. Enzymes facilitating the process include RNA transcription factors. In eukaryotic cells the primary transcript is pre-mRNA. Pre-mRNA must be processed for translation to proceed. Processing includes the addition of a 5' cap and a poly-A tail to the pre-mRNA chain, followed by splicing. Alternative splicing occurs when appropriate, increasing the diversity of the proteins that any single mRNA can produce; the product of the entire transcription process is a mature mRNA chain. The mature mRNA finds its way to a ribosome. In prokaryotic cells, which have no nuclear compartment, the processes of transcription and translation may be linked together without clear separation. In eukaryotic cells, the site of transcription is separated from the site of translation, so the mRNA must be transported out of the nucleus into the cytoplasm, where it can be bound by ribosomes.

The ribosome reads the mRNA triplet codons beginning with an AUG, or initiator methionine codon downstream of the ribosome binding site. Complexes of initiation factors and elongation factors bring aminoacylated transfer RNAs into the ribosome-mRNA complex, matching the codon in the mRNA to the anti-codon on the tRNA; each tRNA bears the appropriate amino acid residue to add to the polypeptide chain being synthesised. As the amino acids get linked into the growing peptide chain, the chain begins folding into the correct conformation. Translation ends with a stop codon which may be UGA, or UAG triplet; the mRNA does not contain all the information for specifying the nature of the mature protein. The nascent polypeptide chain released from the ribosome requires additional processing before the final product emerges. For one thing, the correct folding process is vitally important. For most proteins it requires other chaperon

Iron County Courthouse (Crystal Falls, Michigan)

The Iron County Courthouse is a government building located at the west end of Superior Avenue in Crystal Falls, Michigan. It was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1975 and designated a Michigan State Historic Site in 1974. Iron County was established in 1885. At the time of Iron County's creation, Iron River the only incorporated village in the county, was designated the county seat. However, a bitter dispute over the location of county buildings erupted between the geographically disparate east side, centered on Crystal Falls, the west side, centered on Iron River. At one point county records were spirited away from the temporary courthouse in Iron River by men from Crystal Falls, it was decided to hold a county-wide referendum on the issue. The vote was held in 1888 to decide the location of the county seat. In 1889, the question was again put before voters, this time Crystal Falls was selected by a margin of nearly 100 votes, which settled the question. Bonds were issued for $30,000 to fund courthouse construction, architect J. C.

Clancy of Antigo, Wisconsin was engagesd to design the courthouse. It was constructed in 1890-92 by Louis A. Webber of Menasha, who bid $26,470. However, Webber was unable to complete the work, the county hired another contractor to complete the courthouse, entailing a revised total cost of about $40,000; the clocktower and statures representing Law and Justice were added in 1910. A wing containing offices was added to the courthouse in 1955. In 2003-04 another wing was added to the building; the project included a meticulous restoration of the original courthouse by sandblasting and repairing the brickwork. The Iron County Courthouse is a 2-1/2 story Richardsonian Romanesque building sitting on a hilltop overlooking Crystal Falls' business street, it is built with reddish brown brick walls with stone trim atop a rubble masonry foundation. The front facade has a conical tower on one corner and a square wooden tower topped by a belfry with hexagonal cupola on the other. A rock-face granite central archway contains the main entrance, approached via a stairway.

Above the archway are the impressive 17-feet-high zinc statues representing Law and Justice. Inside is a polished oak circuit courtroom, it has an octagonal ceiling covered with decorative pressed metal and a large chandelier with muses and dragons set into the center

Augustin Tr├ębuchon

Augustin-Joseph Victorin Trébuchon was the last French soldier killed during World War I. He was shot 15 minutes before the Armistice came into effect, at 10.45am on 11 November 1918. The French Army, embarrassed to have sent men into battle after the armistice with the Germans had been signed, recorded the date of his death as earlier by one day. Augustin Trébuchon was born at Montchabrier on 30 May 1878, with sisters, his mother died when his father nine years later. He had been in the army since the war began in 1914, he was a communal shepherd and played accordion at village marriages before volunteering for the army on 4 August 1914. He joined the 415th Infantry Regiment as a messenger, he had served in the second battle of the Marne and at Verdun and the Somme before arriving in the Ardennes at the end of the war. He had twice been wounded, including a severe wound to his left arm caused by an exploding artillery shell. Upon his promotion to the rank of Soldat de Première Classe in September 1918 it was said that he was "a good soldier having always achieved his duty, of remarkable calm, setting the best example to his young comrades."Trébuchon, as a messenger, knew an agreement had been signed before the rest of his unit.

At Vrigne-sur-Meuse, in the Ardennes, the 163rd Infantry Division was ordered to attack an élite German unit, the Hannetons. General Henri Gouraud told his men to cross the Meuse and to attack "as fast as possible, by whatever means and regardless of cost", it has been speculated that the attack was to end any possible hesitations by German negotiators at Compiègne, that Maréchal Foch believed the Germans were reluctant to sign and so ordered Général Philippe Pétain to press on across the Meuse. Trébuchon was halfway between Charleville-Mézières. Rain was falling and the Meuse was flooding, its width was put at 70m. The temperature was well below freezing. Warfare had destroyed bridges across the river and sappers worked by night and in fog to build a plank footbridge across a lock. There had been no reconnaissance of the other bank because bad weather had kept the spotter plane on the ground. Around 700 men crossed the river a little after 8 am; some fell in the river and the first deaths were by drowning.

The fog cleared at 10.30am and the French could see the Germans installed a little higher than them, a few hundred metres away. The French were spread over three kilometres between a railway line; the Germans opened fire with machine guns. The French sent up a spotter plane now that the fog had lifted and the artillery on the other bank could open fire without fear of killing their own side. Darkness fell again at 6pm and the battle continued until news of the armistice arrived; the last of the 91 French soldiers to die was Trébuchon, "with a red hole in his right side" a figure of speech as this expression comes from Arthur Rimbaud's famous poem "Le Dormeur du Val". He was 40, he fell near the railway line with his message still in his hand. It read "Rassemblement à 11h 30 pour le ravitaillement - "Muster at 11.30 for food." The armistice followed and the French withdrew without honouring their dead. Trébuchon is buried in grave 13 at the cemetery at Vrigne-Meuse. Trébuchon remained unrecognised until a retired breeder, René Fuselier, began inquiring in 1998 into the identity of the last poilu to die.

He said: "With the computer facilities that we have today, it was easy to find out about him and others of the past."The date on his memorial at Malzieu-Forain and in the village records is 10 November 1918. The Germans had asked for an armistice on 9 November and it came into effect on 11 November. Nobody knows who ordered the death date to be changed, but it is said to be so for all French soldiers who died on 11 November. Speculation that the army was ashamed of sending men into battle knowing the armistice had been agreed grew when the 115th Infantry Regiment was not invited to the victory parade through Paris on 14 July 1919. Trébuchon is named on the village memorial as Victorin—his second given name—rather than Augustin. A street at Vrigne-Meuse, where he died and where he is buried with 17 colleagues in the cemetery, has been named after him. George Edwin Ellison, the last British soldier killed in World War I, at 9:30 a.m. 11 November George Lawrence Price, the last Canadian and Commonwealth soldier killed in World War I, 10:58 a.m. 11 November.

Henry Gunther, the last American soldier killed in World War I, at 10:59 a.m. 11 November. John Parr, the first British Army soldier killed, 1914 Jules Andre Peugeot, the first French Army soldier killed, 1914 Albert Mayer, the first Imperial German Army soldier killed, 1914 Augustin Trébuchon at Find a Grave

So Proudly We Hail!

So Proudly We Hail! is a 1943 American war film directed and produced by Mark Sandrich and starring Claudette Colbert, Paulette Goddard –, nominated for an Academy Award for Best Supporting Actress for her performance – and Veronica Lake. Featuring George Reeves, it was produced and released by Paramount Pictures; the film follows a group of military nurses sent to the Philippines during the early days of World War II. The movie was based on a book written by Lieutenant Colonel Juanita Hipps, a World War II nurse – one of the "Angels of Bataan" – who served in Bataan and Corregidor during the time when McArthur withdrew to Australia which led to the surrender of US and Philippine troops to Japanese forces; those prisoners of war were subjected to the infamous Bataan Death March. The film was based, in part, on Hipps' memoir I Served on Bataan; the story covers many day-to-day events and contrasts the brutality of war against the sometimes futile efforts of the nurses to provide medical aid and comfort.

Each of the nurses has a present love story with a soldier. Flashback narration and a sequence where the nurses and injured soldiers are stranded in Malinta Tunnel pinned down by aircraft fire are two notable aspects of the film; the movie was timely, released just 13 months after the end of the Battle of the Philippines, with focus on allied efforts at Bataan and Corregidor as well as MacArthur's dramatic escape from the Philippines. Although the love-story plot line is the primary thrust of the film, the difficulties and emotional toll of war are shown; the film was titled Hands of Mercy. It was announced in July 1942 with Allan Scott to write director March Sandrich. In August 1942, the title was changed to So Proudly We Hail; the same month Claudette Colbert was announced for the lead. Cry Havoc, a play about nurses on the Bataan peninsula, had been much criticized for its inaccuracies so Paramount took extra care with the film to get approval from the War Department and military and nursing advisers.

MacDonald Carey and Joel McCrea were meant to star at one stage. Paulette Goddard had the script rewritten so her role was as prominent as Colbert's. George Reeves was borrowed from producer Harry Sherman. Sonny Tufts made his debut in the movie. Diabolique magazine wrote that "Lake’s breakdown scene shows her limitations but overall it’s a splendidly effective performance, with a spectacular on-screen death – she should have played more death scenes in her career, she had a good track record in that department." The film is recognized by American Film Institute in these lists: 2006: AFI's 100 Years...100 Cheers – Nominated So Proudly We Hail was adapted for The Lux Radio Theatre on November 1, 1943 with Colbert and Lake reprising their original roles. The film was nominated for four Academy Awards: Best Supporting Actress Best Cinematography Best Visual Effects Best Original Screenplay So Proudly We Hail! on IMDb So Proudly We Hail! at AllMovie So Proudly We Hail! at the TCM Movie Database So Proudly We Hail! at the American Film Institute Catalog So Proudly We Hail! at Box Office Mojo

Wallace Bruce Matthews Carruthers

Major Wallace Bruce Matthews Carruthers was a Canadian soldier and the founder of the Canadian Signalling Corps. Born in Kingston, Bruce Carruthers graduated from the Royal Military College of Canada in 1883. Upon graduation from RMC he served in the 21st Hussars for four years before returning to Canada, he served in the 14th Battalion of Rifles until 1899 when he resigned his commission in order to take part in the South African War. He served as a sergeant in the 2nd Battalion of The Royal Canadian Regiment. and took part in the Battle of Paardeberg. Carruthers returned to South Africa for further service as a lieutenant in the 2nd Regiment, Canadian Mounted Rifles. On March 31, 1902 he was involved in the action at Harts River where he was leading some 21 men of 3rd and 4th Troops'E' Squadron to screen the main body of Cookson's Column as they prepared a defensive position. Faced with several hundred charging Boers and no cover, Lieutenant Carruthers dismounted his men to meet the attack.

They fought until out of ammunition by which time 17 had been killed or wounded, including Carruthers. As a result of his service he was awarded the Queen's South Africa Medal with five clasps: Paardeberg, Johannesburg, Cape Colony, SA 1902. Based on his experiences in South Africa and his recognition of the importance of communications he lobbied for the establishment of a signal corps upon his return to Canada, he was successful and on October 24, 1903 the first independently organized signal corps in the British Empire was formed. Carruthers was appointed Inspector of Signalling of the young Corps and, when reorganization in 1906, was appointed the Assistant Adjutant-General for Signalling. Major Carruthers died at the age of 47 on October 21, 1910, from tuberculosis contracted during his service in South Africa, he was given a huge military funeral at Chalmers Presbyterian Church and was buried in the Cataraqui Cemetery


A ratti is a traditional Indian unit of measurement for mass. Based on the nominal weight of a ratti seed, it measured 1.8 or 1.75 grains. It has now been standardized as 0.1215 gram. 1 tola = 12 masha or 11.664 gram 1 tank = 4 mashas or 3.888 gram 1 masha = 8 ratti or 0.972 gram 1 Ratti goldsmith = 121.5 mg 1 Pakki Ratti = 1.5 x Sunari Ratti = 1.5 x 121.5 mg = 182.25 mg = 0.91 CaratA Satamana was interpreted as hundred rattis, used as a standard weight of silver coins of ancient India between 600–200 BCE. Being the same weight as a Babylonian shekel it was minted in Gandhara in the northwest Indian subcontinent for trade with West Asia. Rasa shastra Cunningham, Coins of Ancient India: From the Earliest Times Down to the Seventh Century A. D. London: B. Quaritch Mukherjee, B. N. "Money and Social Changes in India", in Saiyid Zaheer Husain Jafri, Recording the Progress of Indian History: Symposia Papers of the Indian History Congress, 1992-2010, Primus Books, pp. 411–, ISBN 978-93-80607-28-3