A political spectrum is a system of classifying different political positions upon one or more geometric axes that symbolize independent political dimensions. Most long-standing spectra include a wing and left wing, which originally referred to seating arrangements in the French parliament after the Revolution. According to the simplest left–right axis and socialism are usually regarded internationally as being on the left, liberalism can mean different things in different contexts, sometimes on the left, sometimes on the right. Those with an intermediate outlook are classified as centrists or moderates, politics that rejects the conventional left–right spectrum is known as syncretic politics. Political scientists have noted that a single left–right axis is insufficient for describing the existing variation in political beliefs. As seen from the Speakers seat at the front of the Assembly, the aristocracy sat on the right, the defining point on the ideological spectrum was the Ancien Régime.
The Right thus implied support for aristocratic or royal interests, and the church, while The Left implied support for republicanism and civil liberties. Because the political franchise at the start of the revolution was relatively narrow, the original Left represented mainly the interests of the bourgeoisie and their political interests in the French Revolution lay with opposition to the aristocracy, and so they found themselves allied with the early capitalists. However, this did not mean that their interests lay with the laissez-faire policies of those representing them politically. As capitalist economies developed, the aristocracy became less relevant and were replaced by capitalist representatives. This evolution has often pulled parliamentary politicians away from laissez-faire economic policies, for almost a century, social scientists have considered the problem of how best to describe political variation. In 1950, Leonard W. Submitting the results to factor analysis and this system was derived empirically, rather than devising a political model on purely theoretical grounds and testing it, Fergusons research was exploratory.
As a result of method, care must be taken in the interpretation of Fergusons three factors, as factor analysis will output an abstract factor whether an objectively real factor exists or not. Although replication of the Nationalism factor was inconsistent, the finding of Religionism and Humanitarianism had a number of replications by Ferguson, shortly afterward, Hans Eysenck began researching political attitudes in Great Britain. He believed that there was something similar about the National Socialists on the one hand. Submitting this value questionnaire to the process of factor analysis used by Ferguson. Such analysis produces a factor whether or not it corresponds to a real-world phenomenon, Eysencks dimensions of R and T were found by factor analyses of values in Germany and Sweden and Japan. According to Eysenck, members of both ideologies were tough-minded, in this context, Eysenck carried out studies on nazism and communist groups, claiming to find members of both groups to be more dominant and more aggressive than control groups
A progressive tax is a tax in which the tax rate increases as the taxable amount increases. The term progressive refers to the way the tax rate progresses from low to high, the term can be applied to individual taxes or to a tax system as a whole, a year, multi-year, or lifetime. Progressive taxes are imposed in an attempt to reduce the tax incidence of people with an ability to pay. The opposite of a tax is a regressive tax, where the relative tax rate or burden decreases as an individuals ability to pay increases. The term is applied in reference to personal income taxes. It can apply to adjustments of the tax base by using tax exemptions, tax credits, Progressive taxation has been positively associated with happiness, the subjective well-being of nations and citizen satisfaction with public goods, such as education and transportation. In the early days of the Roman Republic, public taxes consisted of assessments on owned wealth, the tax rate under normal circumstances was 1% of property value, and could sometimes climb as high as 3% in situations such as war.
These taxes were levied against land and other estate, animals, personal items. By 167 BC, Rome no longer needed to levy a tax against its citizens in the Italian peninsula, due to the riches acquired from conquered provinces. The first modern income tax was introduced in Britain by Prime Minister William Pitt the Younger in his budget of December 1798, to pay for weapons and equipment for the French Revolutionary War. Pitts new graduated income tax began at a levy of 2 old pence in the pound on incomes over £60, Pitt hoped that the new income tax would raise £10 million, but actual receipts for 1799 totalled just over £6 million. Pitts income tax was levied from 1799 to 1802, when it was abolished by Henry Addington during the Peace of Amiens, Addington had taken over as prime minister in 1801, after Pitts resignation over Catholic Emancipation. The income tax was reintroduced by Addington in 1803 when hostilities recommenced, the United Kingdom income tax was reintroduced by Sir Robert Peel in the Income Tax Act 1842.
Peel, as a Conservative, had opposed income tax in the 1841 general election, the new income tax, based on Addingtons model, was imposed on incomes above £150. Although this measure was intended to be temporary, it soon became a fixture of the British taxation system. A committee was formed in 1851 under Joseph Hume to investigate the matter, despite the vociferous objection, William Gladstone, Chancellor of the Exchequer from 1852, kept the progressive income tax, and extended it to cover the costs of the Crimean War. By the 1860s, the tax had become a grudgingly accepted element of the English fiscal system. In the United States, the first progressive income tax was established by the Revenue Act of 1862 and this was signed into law by President Abraham Lincoln and repealed the flat tax, which had been brought in under the Revenue Act of 1861
As an adjective, the word reactionary describes points of view and policies meant to restore the status quo ante. The French Revolution gave the English language three politically descriptive words denoting anti-progressive politics, reactionary and right, Reactionary derives from the French word réactionnaire and conservative from conservateur, identifying monarchist parliamentarians opposed to the revolution. In this French usage, reactionary denotes a movement towards the reversal of a tendency or state. The Oxford English Dictionary cites the first English language usage in 1799 in a translation of Lazare Carnots letter on the Coup of 18 Fructidor, in France, supporters of traditional rule by direct heirs of the House of Bourbon dynasty were labelled the legitimist reaction. In the Third Republic, the monarchists were the reactionary faction, in Protestant Christian societies, reactionary has described those supporting tradition against modernity. Those labelled as reactionary favoured the aristocracy instead of the middle class, the Thermidorian Reaction was a movement within the revolution against perceived excesses of the Jacobins.
On 27 July 1794, Maximilien Robespierres Reign of Terror was brought to an end, the overthrow of Robespierre signalled the reassertion of the French National Convention over the Committee of Public Safety. The Jacobins were suppressed, the prisons were emptied and the Committee was shorn of its powers and this instance of reaction was surpassed by a movement that developed in France when, after the second fall of Napoleon, the Bourbon Restoration or reinstatement of the Bourbon dynasty, ensued. This time it was to be a monarchy, with an elected lower house of parliament. The Franchise was restricted to men over the age of forty, King Louis XVIII was worried that he would still suffer an intractable parliament. He was delighted with the ultra-royalists, or Ultras, whom the election returned, declaring that he had found a chambre introuvable, literally and it was the Declaration of Saint-Ouen that prepared the way for the Restoration. Everything new had to be expressed as a revival of something old that had lapsed and had been forgotten.
This was the used for diminished aristocrats to get themselves a bigger piece of the pie. In the 18th century, those gentry whose fortunes and prestige had diminished to the level of peasants would search diligently for every ancient feudal statute that might give them something, the ban, for example, meant that all peasants had to grind their grain in their lords mill. Therefore, these came to the French States-General of 1789 fully prepared to press for the expansion of such practices in all provinces. They were horrified when, for example, the French Revolution permitted common citizens to go hunting and it is this which clearly distinguishes a reactionary from a conservative. The conservative would have accepted many improvements brought about by the revolution, use of the word reactionary in days as a political slur is thus often rhetorical, since there is nothing directly comparable with the Chambre Introuvable in the history of other countries. In the revolutions aftermath, France was continually wracked with the quarrels between the right-wing legitimists and left-wing revolutionaries, since then, Frances political spectrum has featured similar divisions
All other parties are either outlawed or allowed to take only a limited and controlled participation in elections. One-party states explain themselves through various methods, most often, proponents of a one-party state argue that the existence of separate parties runs counter to national unity. Others argue that the one party is the vanguard of the people, the Soviet government argued that multiple parties represented the class struggle, which was absent in Soviet society, and so the Soviet Union only had one party, the Communist Party. Some one-party states only outlaw opposition parties, while allowing allied parties to exist as part of a permanent coalition such as a popular front. However, these parties are largely or completely subservient to the ruling party, examples of this are the Peoples Republic of China under the United Front, or the National Front in former East Germany. Others may allow non-party members to run for seats, as was the case with Taiwans Tangwai movement in the 1970s and 1980s.
Within their own countries, dominant parties ruling over one-party states are referred to simply as the Party. One-party systems often arise from decolonization because one party has had a dominant role in liberation or in independence struggles. One-party states are often, but not always, considered to be authoritarian or totalitarian, not all authoritarian or totalitarian states operate based on one-party rule. Some, especially absolute monarchies and certain military dictatorships, have all political parties illegal. The term communist state is used in the West to apply to states in which the ruling party subscribes to a form of Marxism–Leninism. While the role of the Communist Party is enshrined in the constitution, no party is permitted to campaign or run candidates for election, the party was conceived by the original Black American settlers and their descendants who referred to themselves as Americo-Liberians. Initially, its ideology was influenced by that of the Whig Party in the United States.
Over time it developed into a powerful Masonic Order that ruled every aspect of Liberian society for well over a century until it was overthrown in 1980, while the True Whig Party still exists today, its influence has substantially declined
A minimum wage is the lowest remuneration that employers must legally pay their workers. Equivalently, it is the floor below which workers may not sell their labor. Although minimum wage laws are in effect in many jurisdictions, differences of opinion exist about the benefits, supporters of the minimum wage say it increases the standard of living of workers, reduces poverty, reduces inequality, boosts morale and forces businesses to be more efficient. Modern minimum wage laws trace their origin to the Ordinance of Labourers, King Edward III, who was a wealthy landowner, was dependent, like his lords, on serfs to work the land. In the autumn of 1348, the Black Plague reached England, the severe shortage of labor caused wages to soar and encouraged King Edward III to set a wage ceiling. Subsequent amendments to the ordinance, such as the Statute of Labourers, while the laws governing wages initially set a ceiling on compensation, they were eventually used to set a living wage. An amendment to the Statute of Labourers in 1389 effectively fixed wages to the price of food, as time passed, the Justice of the Peace, who was charged with setting the maximum wage, began to set formal minimum wages.
The practice was eventually formalized with the passage of the Act Fixing a Minimum Wage in 1604 by King James I for workers in the textile industry. By the early 19th century, the Statutes of Labourers was repealed as increasingly capitalistic England embraced laissez-faire policies which disfavored regulations of wages, the subsequent 19th century saw significant labor unrest affect many industrial nations. As trade unions were decriminalized during the century, attempts to control wages through collective agreement were made, this meant that a uniform minimum wage was not possible. It was not until the 1890s that the first modern attempts to regulate minimum wages were seen in New Zealand. The movement for a wage was initially focused on stopping sweatshop labor. The sweatshops employed large numbers of women and young workers, paying them what were considered to be substandard wages, the sweatshop owners were thought to have unfair bargaining power over their employees, and a minimum wage was proposed as a means to make them pay fairly.
Over time, the changed to helping people, especially families. The first modern national minimum wage law was enacted by the government of New Zealand in 1894, followed by Australia in 1896, in the United States, statutory minimum wages were first introduced nationally in 1938, and they were reintroduced and expanded in the United Kingdom in 1998. There is now legislation or binding collective bargaining regarding minimum wage in more than 90 percent of all countries, in the European Union,22 member states out of 28 currently have national minimum wages. Currently the American federal minimum wage rests at seven dollars, twenty-five cents per hour, some states do not recognize the minimum wage law such as Louisiana and Tennessee. Other states operate below the minimum wage such as Georgia
Far-right politics are right-wing politics further on the right of the left-right spectrum than the standard political right. Far-right politics often involve a focus on tradition, real or imagined, as opposed to policies, right-wing populism, a political ideology often combines laissez-faire, nationalism and anti-elitism is often described as far-right. Right-wing populism often involves appeals to common man and opposition to immigration, far-right politics include but are not limited to aspects of authoritarianism, anti-communism, and nativism. Claims that superior people should proportionally have greater rights than people are sometimes associated with the far right. The far right has historically favoured an elitist society based on its belief in the legitimacy of the rule of a supposed superior minority over the inferior masses. However, right-wing populist ideologies which are described by commentators as far-right often use appeals to the common man as opposed to the appeals of the elites.
Far-right politics sometimes involves anti-immigration and anti-integration stances towards groups that are deemed inferior, far right politics is associated with Othering. According to Christina Liang, this field is especially peculiar about its terminology. Each label carries with it a specific understanding of family of political parties as well as a particular set of assumptions regarding their origins. In an extensive survey of the literature, academic Cas Mudde found 26 definitions of right-wing extremism that contained 57 different ideological features, there is debate about how appropriate the labels fascist or neo-Fascist are. Mudde lists nativism and populism as core elements of populist radical right political parties, in the United States, the term hard right and Alt-right have been used to describe groups such as the Tea Party movement and the Patriot movement. The term has used to describe ideologies such as Paleoconservatism, Dominion Theology. The German political scientist Klaus von Beyme describes three phases in the development of far-right parties in Western Europe after World War II.
From 1945 to the mid-1950s, far-right parties were marginalised, and their ideologies were discredited due to the recent existence and defeat of Nazism. Thus in the immediately following World War II, the main objective of far-right parties was survival. From the mid-1950s to the 1970s, the so-called populist protest phase emerged with sporadic electoral success, the most common demand-side theories are the social breakdown thesis, the relative deprivation thesis, the modernisation losers thesis and the ethnic competition thesis. The rise of political parties has been viewed as a rejection of post-materialist values on the part of some voters. This theory which is known as the reverse post-material thesis blames both left-wing and progressive parties for embracing a post-material agenda that alienates traditional working class voters, another study argues that individuals who join far-right parties determine whether those parties develop into major political players or whether they remain marginalized
In this period, social democrats embraced a mixed economy based on the predominance of private property, with only a minority of essential utilities and public services under public ownership. By 1868–1869, Marxism had become the official theoretical basis of the first social democratic party established in Europe, in this period, social democracy became associated with reformist socialism. The origins of social democracy have been traced to the 1860s, with the rise of the first major party in Europe. 1864 saw the founding of the International Workingmens Association, known as the First International, another issue in the First International was the role of reformism. Although Lassalle was not a Marxist, he was influenced by the theories of Marx and Engels, however unlike Marxs and Engelss The Communist Manifesto, Lassalle promoted class struggle in a more moderate form. While Marx viewed the state negatively as an instrument of class rule that should only exist temporarily upon the rise to power of the proletariat and dismantled, Lassalle accepted the state.
Lassalle viewed the state as a means through which workers could enhance their interests, Lassalles strategy was primarily electoral and reformist, with Lassalleans contending that the working class needed a political party that fought above all for universal adult male suffrage. The ADAVs party newspaper was called Der Sozialdemokrat and Engels responded to the title Sozialdemocrat with distaste, Engels once writing, But what a title, Sozialdemokrat. Why dont they simply call it The Proletarian. Marx agreed with Engels that Sozialdemokrat was a bad title, there was a Marxist faction within the ADAV represented by Wilhelm Liebknecht who became one of the editors of the Die Sozialdemokrat. Friction in the ADAV arose over Lassalles policy of an approach to Bismarck that had assumed incorrectly that Bismarck in turn would be friendly towards them. This approach was opposed by the partys Marxists, including Liebknecht, opposition in the ADAV to Lassalles friendly approach to Bismarcks government resulted in Liebknecht resigning from his position as editor of Die Sozialdemokrat and leaving the ADAV in 1865.
Though the SDAP was not officially Marxist, it was the first major organization to be led by Marxists and Marx. The party adopted stances similar to those adopted by Marx at the First International, there was intense rivalry and antagonism between the SDAP and the ADAV, with the SDAP being highly hostile to the Prussian government while the ADAV pursued a reformist and more cooperative approach. In spite of such militant rhetoric to appeal to the working class, in 1875 Marx attacked the Gotha Program that became the program of Social Democratic Party of Germany in the same year in his Critique of the Gotha Program. Marx was not optimistic that Germany at the time was not open to a means to achieve socialism. In addition he noticed a change over the relations between the two classes. The Reform Acts of 1867 and 1884 make an approach to universal suffrage. The Fabian Society was founded as a group from the Fellowship of the New Life due to opposition within that group to socialism
A two-party system is a party system where two major political parties dominate the government. One of the two parties typically holds a majority in the legislature and is referred to as the majority or governing party while the other is the minority or opposition party. Around the world, the term has different senses, in such arrangements, two-party systems are thought to result from various factors like winner takes all election rules. The reasons why a country with free elections will evolve into a two-party system have been debated, a leading theory, referred to as Duvergers law, states that two parties are a natural result of a winner-take-all voting system. There is general agreement that the United States has a two-party system, historically, in the First Party System, only Alexander Hamiltons Federalist Party and Thomas Jeffersons Democratic-Republican Party were significant political parties. Toward the end of the First Party System, the Republicans dominated a one-party system, under the Second Party System, the Democratic-Republican Party split during the election of 1824 into Adams Men and Jacksons Men.
In 1828, the modern Democratic Party formed in support of Andrew Jackson, the National Republicans were formed in support of John Quincy Adams. After the National Republicans collapsed, the Whig Party and the Free Soil Party quickly formed and collapsed, in 1854, the modern Republican Party formed from a loose coalition of former Whigs, Free Soilers and other anti-slavery activists. Abraham Lincoln became the first Republican president in 1860, during the Third Party System, the Republican Party was the dominant political faction, but the Democrats held a strong, loyal coalition in the Solid South. During the Fourth Party System, the Republicans remained the dominant Presidential party, although Democrats Grover Cleveland, in 1932, at the onset of the Fifth Party System, Democrats took firm control of national politics with the landslide victories of Franklin D. Roosevelt in four consecutive elections. Other than the two terms of Republican Dwight Eisenhower from 1953 to 1961, Democrats retained firm control of the Presidency until the mid-1960s.
In the election of 2012, only 4% separated the popular vote between Barack Obama and Mitt Romney, although Obama won the vote by a landslide. Throughout every American party system, no party has won a Presidential election or majorities in either house of Congress. Despite that, third parties and third party candidates have gained traction, in the election of 1912, Theodore Roosevelt won 27% of the popular vote and 88 electoral votes running as a Progressive. In the 1992 Presidential election, Ross Perot won 19% of the popular vote, sometimes these systems are described as two-party systems but they are usually referred to as multi-party systems. There is not always a sharp boundary between a two-party system and a multi-party system, Democrats in the United States and the Conservative Party vs. the Labour Party in the United Kingdom. Other parties in these countries may have seen candidates elected to local or subnational office, historian John Hicks claims that the United States has never possessed for any considerable period of time the two party system in its pure and undefiled form.
In some governments, certain chambers may resemble a two-party system, for example, the politics of Australia are largely two-party for the Australian House of Representatives, which is elected by instant-runoff voting, known within Australia as preferential voting
Europe is a continent that comprises the westernmost part of Eurasia. Europe is bordered by the Arctic Ocean to the north, the Atlantic Ocean to the west, yet the non-oceanic borders of Europe—a concept dating back to classical antiquity—are arbitrary. Europe covers about 10,180,000 square kilometres, or 2% of the Earths surface, Europe is divided into about fifty sovereign states of which the Russian Federation is the largest and most populous, spanning 39% of the continent and comprising 15% of its population. Europe had a population of about 740 million as of 2015. Further from the sea, seasonal differences are more noticeable than close to the coast, Europe, in particular ancient Greece, was the birthplace of Western civilization. The fall of the Western Roman Empire, during the period, marked the end of ancient history. Renaissance humanism, exploration and science led to the modern era, from the Age of Discovery onwards, Europe played a predominant role in global affairs. Between the 16th and 20th centuries, European powers controlled at times the Americas, most of Africa, Oceania.
The Industrial Revolution, which began in Great Britain at the end of the 18th century, gave rise to economic and social change in Western Europe. During the Cold War, Europe was divided along the Iron Curtain between NATO in the west and the Warsaw Pact in the east, until the revolutions of 1989 and fall of the Berlin Wall. In 1955, the Council of Europe was formed following a speech by Sir Winston Churchill and it includes all states except for Belarus and Vatican City. Further European integration by some states led to the formation of the European Union, the EU originated in Western Europe but has been expanding eastward since the fall of the Soviet Union in 1991. The European Anthem is Ode to Joy and states celebrate peace, in classical Greek mythology, Europa is the name of either a Phoenician princess or of a queen of Crete. The name contains the elements εὐρύς, broad and ὤψ eye, broad has been an epithet of Earth herself in the reconstructed Proto-Indo-European religion and the poetry devoted to it.
For the second part the divine attributes of grey-eyed Athena or ox-eyed Hera. The same naming motive according to cartographic convention appears in Greek Ανατολή, Martin Litchfield West stated that phonologically, the match between Europas name and any form of the Semitic word is very poor. Next to these there is a Proto-Indo-European root *h1regʷos, meaning darkness. Most major world languages use words derived from Eurṓpē or Europa to refer to the continent, in some Turkic languages the originally Persian name Frangistan is used casually in referring to much of Europe, besides official names such as Avrupa or Evropa
Social liberalism is a political ideology that believes individual liberty requires a level of social justice. Under social liberalism, the good of the community is viewed as harmonious with the freedom of the individual, Social liberal policies have been widely adopted in much of the capitalist world, particularly following World War II. Social liberal ideas and parties tend to be considered centrist or centre-left, a reaction against social liberalism in the late twentieth century, often called neoliberalism, led to monetarist economic policies and a reduction in government provision of services. However, governments continued to provide services and retained control over economic policy. In American political usage, the social liberalism describes progressive stances on socio-political issues like abortion, same-sex marriage or gun control. A social liberal in this sense may hold either liberal or conservative views on fiscal policy, some Victorian writers—including Charles Dickens, Thomas Carlyle, and Matthew Arnold—became early influential critics of social injustice.
John Stuart Mill contributed enormously to liberal thought by combining elements of liberalism with what eventually became known as the new liberalism. More positive and proactive measures were required to ensure that individual would have an equal opportunity of success. What they proposed is now called social liberalism, in their view, the poverty and ignorance in which many people lived made it impossible for freedom and individuality to flourish. New Liberals believed that conditions could be ameliorated only through collective action coordinated by a strong, welfare-oriented. What was new in these reforms was the assumption that the state could be a positive force. Was not how much the state left people alone, but whether he gave them the capacity to fill themselves as individuals, schulze-Delitzsch is known as the founding father of the German cooperative movement and is credited as the organiser of the worlds first credit unions. But their ideas found relatively few supporters among the liberal politicians, one of the first German authors to propose the term and concept of social liberalism was the historian and economist Ignaz Jastrow.
He published the manifesto Social-liberal, Tasks for Liberalism in Prussia in 1893 and this project was however rejected by Social Democrats and failed. Naumann called this a proletarian-bourgeois integral liberalism, the new group advocated, among other things, increased social welfare legislation, the right to strike, and profit-sharing in industry. Although the party was unable to win any seats and soon dissolved, the left-liberal German Democratic Party during the Weimar Republic included both classically and economically liberal and social-liberal currents. They explained that a division of labor caused greater opportunity and individualism. They argued that the individual had a debt to society, promoting progressive taxation to support public works, they wanted the state to coordinate rather than to manage, and they encouraged cooperative insurance schemes among individuals