Social democracy is a political and economic philosophy that supports economic and social interventions to promote social justice within the framework of a liberal democratic polity and a capitalist-oriented economy. The protocols and norms used to accomplish this involve a commitment to representative and participatory democracy, measures for income redistribution, regulation of the economy in the general interest and social welfare provisions. Due to longstanding governance by social democratic parties during the post-war consensus and their influence on socioeconomic policy in the Nordic countries, social democracy became associated with the Nordic model and Keynesianism within political circles in the late 20th century, it has been seen by some political commentators as a synonym for modern socialism and as overlapping with democratic socialism. While having socialism as a long-term goal, social democracy aims to create the conditions for capitalism to lead to greater democratic and solidaristic outcomes.
It is characterized by a commitment to policies aimed at curbing inequality, eliminating oppression of underprivileged groups and eradicating poverty as well as support for universally accessible public services like care for the elderly, child care, health care and workers' compensation. It has strong connections with the labour movement and trade unions, being supportive of collective bargaining rights for workers and measures to extend decision-making beyond politics into the economic sphere in the form of co-determination for employees and stakeholders. Social democracy originated as an ideology within the socialist and labour movements, whose goal at different times has been a social revolution to move away from capitalism to a post-capitalist economy such as socialism, a peaceful revolution as in the case of evolutionary socialism, or the establishment and support of a welfare state, its origins lie in the 1860s as a revolutionary socialism associated with orthodox Marxism. Starting in the 1890s, there was a dispute between committed revolutionary social democrats such as Rosa Luxemburg and reformist social democrats as well as Marxist revisionists such as Eduard Bernstein, who supported a more gradual approach grounded in liberal democracy, with Karl Kautsky representing a centrist position.
By the 1920s, social democracy became the dominant political tendency along with communism within the international socialist movement. By the 1920s, social democracy had spread worldwide and transitioned towards advocating an evolutionary and peaceful change from capitalism to socialism using established political processes. In the late 1910s, socialist parties committed to revolutionary socialism renamed themselves communist parties, causing a split in the socialist movement between these supporting the October Revolution and those opposing it. Social democrats who were opposed to the Bolsheviks renamed themselves as democratic socialists in order to highlight their differences from communists and in the 1920s from Marxist–Leninists, disagreeing with them on topics such as their opposition to liberal democracy whilst sharing common ideological roots. In the early post-war era in Western Europe, social democrats rejected the Stalinist political and economic model current in the Soviet Union, committing themselves either to an alternative path to socialism or to a compromise between capitalism and socialism.
During the post-war period, social democrats embraced a mixed-market economy based on the predominance of private property, with only a minority of essential utilities and public services being under public ownership. As a policy regime, social democracy became associated with Keynesian economics, state interventionism and the welfare state as a way to avoid capitalism's typical crises and avert or prevent mass unemployment, without abolishing factor markets, private property and wage labour. With the rise of popularity for neoliberalism and the New Right by the 1980s, many social democratic parties incorporated the centrist Third Way ideology, aiming to fuse economic liberalism with social democratic welfare policies. By the 2010s, social democratic parties that accepted triangulation and the neoliberal shift in policies such as austerity, free trade and welfare reforms such as workfare experienced a drastic decline as the Third Way had fallen out of favour in a phenomenon known as Pasokification.
Scholars have linked the decline of social democratic parties to the declining number of industrial workers, greater economic prosperity of voters and a tendency for these parties to shift from the left to the center on economic issues, alienating their former base of supporters and voters. This decline has been matched by increased support for more left-wing and populist parties as well as Left and Green social democratic parties that rejected neoliberal and Third Way policies. During the late 19th century and the early 20th century, social democracy was a broad labour movement within socialism that aimed to replace private ownership with social ownership of the means of production and exchange, taking influence from both Marxism and the supporters of Ferdinand Lassalle. By 1868–1869, the socialism associated with Karl Marx had become the official theoretical basis of the first social democratic party established in Europe, the Social Democratic Workers' Party of Germany. By the early 20th century, the German social democratic politician Eduard Bernstein rejected the ideas in orthodox Marxism that proposed specific historical progression and revolution as a means to achieve social equality, advancing the position that socialism should be grounded in ethical and moral arguments for social justice and egalitarianism that are to be achieved through gradual legislative reform.
Ilham Isa oglu Madatov serving as Rector of Azerbaijan Tourism and Management University. Ilham Madatov was born on November 1952, in Yevlakh, Azerbaijan. Ilham Madatov finished secondary school №4 with gold medal in Yevlakh City, in 1970, he graduated from the Faculty of Orientalism as an interpreter of the Arabic language from the Azerbaijan State University in 1976. From July 1974 until July 1975, he worked as the translator of Arabic and Russian in Arab Republic of Egypt under the auspices the Ministry of Special Construction of the USSR. From August 1976 until October 1976, Ilham Madatov worked as a teacher at secondary school in Varvara village of Yevlakh Region. In 1976 -1980, he held several managerial positions such as organizer, head of department and secretary within the Yevlakh City Komsomol Committee. From 1980 until 1984, he was sent to Libya as an Arabic - Russian translator by the Ministry of Defense of the USSR. From 1984 to 1988, Madatov worked as a consultant and department head in Yevlakh City Communist Party Committee.
From 1988 to 1991, he studied the World Politics and International Relations at Moscow Social Sciences Academy in Russia and in 1991, he completed that course. Ilham Madatov holds Ph. D. of Historical Sciences since 1991. From 1991 until 1995, he was Deputy Head of the Executive Power of the Yevlakh City. From 1995 until 2017, Madatov was Head of the International Relation Department of the Ministry of Youth and Sport of the Republic of Azerbaijan. From 2005 until 2011 Ilham Madatov was Bureau Member of Sport Development Committee of the Council of Europe, he is the Member of National Olympic Committee of Azerbaijan since 2001. Three times he was the Chef de Mission of Azerbaijan Olympic Team in the Summer Olympic Games in Beijing 2008 XXIX, London 2012 XXX, Rio 2016 XXXI. Ilham Madatov was the Coordinator for the organizing the 18th Council of Europe Conference of Ministers responsible for Sport, held in Baku. Madatov was Secretary of the Organizing Committee of Baku – 2015 1st European Games.
He was Secretary of Paralympic Olympic Games 2016 in Baku. Ilham Madatov was appointed the rector of Azerbaijan Tourism and Management University in 2017 by the declaration of the President of the Republic of Azerbaijan. Married, has two children and four grandchildren, he was awarded with the “Taraggi” medal for contributing of the development of Azerbaijani sports and the effective functioning of the civil service in 2009. On the occasion of the 20th anniversary of the establishment of the National Olympic Committee of the Republic of Azerbaijan and services for development of sport, he was awarded with the 3rd degree order of “Vetene Xidmete gore” in 2012. Annual Meetings and Seminars of the Committee of the Sports Development of the Council of Europe Meetings of the Council of Europe Inter-Governmental Youth Committee Conferences of Ministers of Sport Ministers and Youth Ministers of the Council of Europe Annual Meetings of the Council of Europe Enlarged Partial Agreement on Sport International conferences of UNESCO's Physical Education and sports ministers and senior officials Conferences and meetings of the Organization of Islamic Cooperation on Sport and Youth General Assemblies and Workshops of the National Olympic Committees Association and the European Olympic Committees
George Alfred Carpenter was an English physician and paediatrician. Carpenter syndrome is named for him. Born at Lambeth, on 25 December 1859, he was son of John William Carpenter, M. D. and his wife Mary, daughter of George Butler, of New Shoreham, Sussex. Alfred John Carpenter of Croydon was his uncle. Carpenter received his early education at Epsom College, he was a medical student in London at St. Thomas's Hospital, where he won prizes, at Guy's Hospital, he was prosector to the Royal College of Surgeons, in 1885 became M. R. C. S. and L. S. A. In 1886 he graduated M. B. and in 1890 M. D. at London, having become M. R. C. P. London, in 1889. Carpenter at first was an alienist. After holding a residential appointment at The Coppice, Nottingham, a private asylum, he returned to London in 1885, began to specialise in children's diseases. Having served as house surgeon and chloroformist, he was elected physician to the Evelina Hospital, Southwark. At the time of his death, Carpenter was physician to the Queen's Hospital for Hackney.
He died at Coldharbour, Surrey, on 27 March 1910, was buried in Old Sanderstead churchyard. Two portraits in oils, one by William Nicholson, were in the possession of his family. Carpenter's work on diseases of children was voluminous. In 1896 he acted as English editor to Pediatrics, an Anglo-American journal, but the English edition did not last. In 1904 he founded, edited for the rest of his life, the British Journal of Children's Diseases. In 1900 Carpenter, with Arthur Ernest Sansom, Henry Ashby and others, founded the successful Society for the Study of Disease in Children, the first British society of its kind, he acted as one of its secretaries for three years, as editor of its Transactions for eight years, compiled eight volumes of Reports. When the society was incorporated in the Royal Society of Medicine in 1908, became the section for the study of disease in children, he was elected its president. Carpenter contributed papers to French medical journals, his major publications were on congenital malformations of the heart, the subject of his Wightman lecture delivered in 1909 before the section for the study of disease in children, Royal Society of Medicine, published in the British Journal of Children's Diseases in 1909.
In 1901 Carpenter published The Syphilis of Children in Every-day Practice. A short work, Golden Rules for Diseases of Infants and Children, published in 1901, reached a fourth and revised edition in 1911. Carpenter married on 21 April 1908 daughter of Henry, Baron d'Este. Attribution This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Lee, Sidney, ed.. "Carpenter, George Alfred". Dictionary of National Biography. 1. London: Smith, Elder & Co