Catherine Mary McKenna is a Canadian Liberal politician, elected to represent the riding of Ottawa Centre in the House of Commons of Canada in the 2015 federal election. She was appointed as Minister of Environment and Climate Change in the Cabinet, headed by Justin Trudeau, on November 4, 2015, she holds a master's degree from the London School of Economics and a law degree from McGill University. McKenna holds a master's degree from the London School of Economics where she studied International Relations, a law degree from McGill University, she holds an undergraduate degree from the University of Toronto. After graduating from École élémentaire catholique Notre-Dame and Saint Mary Catholic Secondary School in Hamilton, Ontario, McKenna attended the University of Toronto and studied French and International Relations. After graduating from the University of Toronto, she filmed a documentary in Asia, "Real Travels: 60 days in Indonesia." McKenna completed a master's degree in International Relations at the London School of Economics and a law degree at McGill.
While studying at the University of Toronto, McKenna was captain of the national champion varsity swim team. She continues to compete with the National Capital YMCA Masters Swim Team. McKenna is trained as social justice lawyer. In 2005, McKenna co-founded Canadian Lawyers Abroad - Avocats canadiens à l’étranger, now called Level, a University of Ottawa-based charity that helps Canadian law students and law firms do pro bono legal work in developing countries. McKenna was a senior negotiator with the United Nations peacekeeping mission in East Timor which culminated in the Timor Sea Treaty providing for the joint exploitation of petroleum resources in a part of the Timor Sea, she is a lecturer at the University of Toronto's Munk School of Global Affairs. McKenna has practised law at leading firms in Indonesia, focusing on international trade, competition and constitutional issues. In 2002, she joined Stikeman Elliott LLP, working in the areas of competition and constitutional law. During this time she was senior counsel on the Right Honourable Antonio Lamer's review of Canada's military justice system.
McKenna has taught at the University of Toronto's Munk School of Global Affairs and was a board member at the Trudeau Centre for Peace and Conflict Studies. McKenna was, before entering politics, the Executive Director of Level, a charity that she cofounded. Level is described as a catalyst for social change, they believe that uniting the power of people and law will lead to a more equitable and just society. McKenna is known for her Dare to Dream program that mentors and inspires Aboriginal students through justice education and outreach activities by Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal lawyers; the program has now expanded to Calgary and Ottawa. In the 2015 federal election, McKenna defeated longtime New Democratic Party Member of Parliament Paul Dewar in the riding of Ottawa Centre. McKenna said. McKenna was elected with 43% of the votes compared to Dewar's 38%. McKenna had campaigned on issues such as reforming the National Capital Commission, funding for a new main branch of the Ottawa Public Library, opposing the proposed Memorial to the Victims of Communism.
McKenna is one of 50 women elected to the Liberal caucus. McKenna was appointed Minister of Environment and Climate Change in Justin Trudeau's first cabinet on November 4, 2015. One of her first appearances as Minister of Environment and Climate Change was at the 2015 United Nations Climate Change Conference in Paris. In December 2016, McKenna led a clean-technology sector business delegation with Canadian and Chinese companies in China. Additionally, she served as the international executive vice-chair of the China Council for International Cooperation on Environment and Development and co-chaired the council's annual general meeting with China's Minister of Environmental Protection, Minister Chen Jining. McKenna has described her "Climate Change Barbie" label as a sexist insult; the label was coined following media remarks such as “consider the gendered impacts of climate change on women and children” and comments confusing carbon dioxide with carbon monoxide. The citizens coining the term judged these comments to be vague and ill informed to the point of fulfilling a sexist barbie stereotype.
In November 2018, in response to Ontario provincial government 2018 decision to cancel all climate action projects supported through the federal Low Carbon Economy Fund, McKenna announced that the Government of Canada would work directly with businesses to re-invest the $420-million remaining in the province’s Low Carbon Economy Fund. Born and raised in Hamilton, she is the eldest of four children of Dr. John McKenna, an Irish dentist and his Quebec-born wife Pat McKenna, who still live in the southwest part of Hamilton. On August 14, 1999, McKenna married entrepreneur and writer Scott Gilmore, with whom she has lived since 2002 in The Glebe, Ottawa, they have one son. The actor Patrick Gilmore is Catherine's brother-in-law. McKenna is the past Vice-President of the Glebe Community Association and has served as a board member of the Elizabeth Fry Society of Ottawa and the Good Morning Creative Arts and Preschool. Official Website 2015 Campaign website
Joseph Merrill Currier
Joseph Merrill Currier was a Canadian member of parliament and businessman. He was born in North Troy, Vermont in 1820 and moved to Canada in 1837, where he began work in the timber trade. In the late 1850s and early 1860s, he set up a sawmill and gristmill operation at Manotick, Ontario with Moss Kent Dickinson, he operated his own lumber business in New Edinburgh from 1853 to the late 1860s and was a partner in the Wright and Currier Company with Alonzo Wright which operated a saw mill at Hull, Quebec. In 1868, Currier built a house at 24 Sussex Drive, for his third wife Hannah Wright, now used as the official residence for the Prime Minister of Canada. Currier named the house Welsh for place of rest. Currier became a member of the city council for Ottawa in the 1860s. In 1863, he was elected as a representative for Ottawa in the Legislative Assembly of the Province of Canada, he supported Confederation and continued to represent Ottawa in the Parliament of Canada until 1882. During that period, he was forced to resign on April 16, 1877 because his firms had done business with the government of Canada.
From 1872 to 1877, he was president of the Citizen Printing and Publishing Company which produced the Ottawa Daily Citizen. He was president of two railway companies in the Ottawa area, the Ottawa and Gatineau Valley Railway and the Ontario and Quebec Railway, he was connected with many other companies in the construction and insurance industries. He began encountering financial problems in the 1870s and, in 1878, when the saw mill in Hull burned, he was bankrupt, he was appointed postmaster of Ottawa in May 1882. He is buried in Beechwood Cemetery. Currier had three wives: Christina Wilson whom he married in 1846 and who died in 1858, he brought her to Manotick a month later. While viewing the machinery in the mill, Ann's dress became caught in a shaft and she was thrown against a wooden post, she died from the impact to her head. Currier is said to have never visited Manotick again and he cut his ties to the business there in 1863, selling his shares of the mill to Dickinson. According to local legend, Ann's ghost continues to haunt Watson's Mill in Manotick.
Halpenny, Francess G, ed.. "Joseph Merrill Currier". Dictionary of Canadian Biography. XI. University of Toronto Press. Joseph Merrill Currier – Parliament of Canada biography
Dundonald Park is in Centretown, Ontario. It occupies a city block, with Somerset Street West to the north, Bay Street to the west, MacLaren Street to the south, Lyon Street to the east, it was named after Douglas Cochrane, 12th Earl of Dundonald, the last British officer to command the Canadian militia. In June 2003, the City of Ottawa and in April 2004, the Canadian federal government put up memorial plaques in Dundonald Park commemorating the Soviet defector, Igor Gouzenko, it was from this park that Royal Canadian Mounted Police agents monitored Gouzenko's apartment across the street on the night men from the Soviet embassy came looking for Gouzenko. The memorial plaques are the result of four years of effort by history enthusiast Andrew Kavchak, who first came across Gouzenko's case, decided that "the first major international event of the Cold War" deserved a memorial. Dundonald Park community group on Facebook
Ottawa Curling Club
The Ottawa Curling Club is an historic curling club located on O'Connor Street in the Centretown neighbourhood of Ottawa, Canada. It is the oldest curling club in Ottawa, established in 1851 by Allan Gilmour as the Bytown Curling Club; the Club first played on the Rideau Canal until 1858. It subsequently moved to different locations around the city until settling at its current location on O'Connor in 1916. In 1931 the Club was expanded to the current capacity of 5 curling sheets. Artificial ice was installed at that time. In 1998 and 1999, former club member John Morris won the Junior Men's World Curling Championship; the Ottawa Curling Club is one of two clubs in Downtown Ottawa, the other is the Rideau Curling Club, which maintains a rivalry with the Ottawa. The By Town Curling Club was established in 1851 under the presidency of lumber businessman Allan Gilmour, its earliest facility was a rudimentary shed located near Lisgar Street adjoining the Rideau Canal. Canal water was used to construct the single ice sheet.
The club constructed a new rink on Albert Street east of O'Connor in 1867, expanding play to two sheets. In 1878, the club spent $510 to move the building structure to a property near Wellington Street west of Kent on the former Vittoria Street, today federal property in the Supreme Court district; the rink structure was replaced by a brick building which opened in December 1906. In 1914, the club lost the land due to a significant federal government expropriation; the club's present location was opened on December 1916 when premises on O'Connor Street were provided through a gift by James Manuel, a wealthy local businessman and club president. In 1927, the club was threatened with eviction by Toronto General Trust which represented Manuel's estate at that time; the club maintained that the terms of agreement with Manuel that it had rightful control of the property as long as the facilities were maintained for curling. In the following year, the courts ruled that the club had no formal claim to the property due to the club's unincorporated status at that time, combined with the lack of a written will or agreement regarding Manuel's wishes.
The club therefore was required to purchase the property from the estate. Formal incorporation of the Ottawa Curling Club Limited was completed in 1929. Artificial ice and expansion from four to five sheets followed in 1931. 1851-1895: Col. Allan Gilmour 1895-1914: John Manuel 1914-1917: James Manuel 1918-1921: William Manuel 1922-1936: George F. Henderson, KC 1936-1942: Hugh Carson 1942-1950: Darcy Finn 1950-1952: Olin Beach 1952-1955: W. E. Hodgins 1955-1958: Ted Moffat 1958-1961: B. Brocklesby 1961-1963: Howard Grills 1964-1966: Alan Brown 1966-1968: Gordie Perry 1968-1970: Harold Scrim 1970-1972: Bill Davis 1972-1974: E. Macdonald 1974-1976: Don MacKinnon 1976-1978: Dick Rich 1978-1980: Dave Smith 1980-1982: Stan Grover 1982-1984: Ted Root 1984-1986: Pat Craig 1986-1988: Bob York 1988-1990: Rod Matheson 1990-1992: Sandra Chisholm 1992-1994: Brad Shinn 1994-1996: Steve Mitchell 1996-1998: Eric Johannsen 1998-2000: Barbara Brown 2000-2002: Terry Clark 2002-2004: Gord Perry 2004-2006: Gayle Greene 2006-2008: Gord Critch 2008-2012: Geoff Colley 2012-2014: Michael Loewen 2014-2016: Tom Sinclair 2016–2018: Matthew Kellett 2018-present: Eddie Chow The Ottawa Curling Club has a number of different curling leagues that participate at the club.
Some are club leagues. Official leagues at the club are the Monday Ladder, Business Women, Getting Started/Learn to Curl, Open Cash, Business Men, Saturday Men, Sunday Open, Daytime League, Little rocks/bantam and the University/College League; the cash league which runs Wednesday evenings is the league with the highest calibre of curling. Some of the top curlers in the world curl in the cash league at the Ottawa Curling Club. Winners of games receive money; the league is open, so there are both men's and women's teams. Curlers in the OCC Cash league include Lauren Horton, Lynn Kreviazuk, Cheryl Kreviazuk, David Mathers, Lee Merklinger, Andrea Sinclair, Erin Morrissey, Karen Sagle, Jean-Michel Ménard, Jenn Hanna, Mark Homan. For the 2006-07 season, the Ottawa Curling Club introduced a league on Sunday nights for students in the Ottawa area to participate. At the time, no university in the city had a curling team, so this league was created to facilitate interest in curling from students in Ottawa.
At the end of the year, the first championship was played between Carleton University and the University of Ottawa with Carleton winning 6-4. The club championship is held annually, it is a playoff round featuring the top teams from each of the leagues at the club. Jenn Hanna - 2005 Scott Tournament of Hearts runner-up Earle Morris - 1985 Ontario men's champion.
Ontario is one of the 13 provinces and territories of Canada and is located in east-central Canada. It is Canada's most populous province accounting for 38.3 percent of the country's population, is the second-largest province in total area. Ontario is fourth-largest jurisdiction in total area when the territories of the Northwest Territories and Nunavut are included, it is home to the nation's capital city and the nation's most populous city, Ontario's provincial capital. Ontario is bordered by the province of Manitoba to the west, Hudson Bay and James Bay to the north, Quebec to the east and northeast, to the south by the U. S. states of Minnesota, Ohio and New York. All of Ontario's 2,700 km border with the United States follows inland waterways: from the west at Lake of the Woods, eastward along the major rivers and lakes of the Great Lakes/Saint Lawrence River drainage system; these are the Rainy River, the Pigeon River, Lake Superior, the St. Marys River, Lake Huron, the St. Clair River, Lake St. Clair, the Detroit River, Lake Erie, the Niagara River, Lake Ontario and along the St. Lawrence River from Kingston, Ontario, to the Quebec boundary just east of Cornwall, Ontario.
There is only about 1 km of land border made up of portages including Height of Land Portage on the Minnesota border. Ontario is sometimes conceptually divided into Northern Ontario and Southern Ontario; the great majority of Ontario's population and arable land is in the south. In contrast, the larger, northern part of Ontario is sparsely populated with cold winters and heavy forestation; the province is named after Lake Ontario, a term thought to be derived from Ontarí:io, a Huron word meaning "great lake", or skanadario, which means "beautiful water" in the Iroquoian languages. Ontario has about 250,000 freshwater lakes; the province consists of three main geographical regions: The thinly populated Canadian Shield in the northwestern and central portions, which comprises over half the land area of Ontario. Although this area does not support agriculture, it is rich in minerals and in part covered by the Central and Midwestern Canadian Shield forests, studded with lakes and rivers. Northern Ontario is subdivided into two sub-regions: Northeastern Ontario.
The unpopulated Hudson Bay Lowlands in the extreme north and northeast swampy and sparsely forested. Southern Ontario, further sub-divided into four regions. Despite the absence of any mountainous terrain in the province, there are large areas of uplands within the Canadian Shield which traverses the province from northwest to southeast and above the Niagara Escarpment which crosses the south; the highest point is Ishpatina Ridge at 693 metres above sea level in Temagami, Northeastern Ontario. In the south, elevations of over 500 m are surpassed near Collingwood, above the Blue Mountains in the Dundalk Highlands and in hilltops near the Madawaska River in Renfrew County; the Carolinian forest zone covers most of the southwestern region of the province. The temperate and fertile Great Lakes-Saint Lawrence Valley in the south is part of the Eastern Great Lakes lowland forests ecoregion where the forest has now been replaced by agriculture and urban development. A well-known geographic feature is part of the Niagara Escarpment.
The Saint Lawrence Seaway allows navigation to and from the Atlantic Ocean as far inland as Thunder Bay in Northwestern Ontario. Northern Ontario occupies 87 percent of the surface area of the province. Point Pelee is a peninsula of Lake Erie in southwestern Ontario, the southernmost extent of Canada's mainland. Pelee Island and Middle Island in Lake Erie extend farther. All are south of 42°N – farther south than the northern border of California; the climate of Ontario varies by location. It is affected by three air sources: cold, arctic air from the north; the effects of these major air masses on temperature and precipitation depend on latitude, proximity to major bodies of water and to a small extent, terrain relief. In general, most of Ontario's climate is classified as humid continental. Ontario has three main climatic regions; the surrounding Great Lakes influence the climatic region of southern Ontario. During the fall and winter months, heat stored from the lakes is released, moderating the climate near the shores of the lakes.
This gives some parts of southern Ontario milder winters than mid-continental areas at lower latitudes. Parts of Southwestern Ontario have a moderate humid continental climate, similar to that of the inland Mid-Atlantic states and the Great Lakes portion of the Midwestern United States; the region has warm to cold winters. Annual precipitation is well distributed throughout the year. Most of this region lies in the lee of the Great Lakes. In December 2010, the snowbelt set a new record when it was h
Ottawa City Council
The Ottawa City Council is the governing body of the City of Ottawa, Canada. It is composed of the mayor; the mayor is elected at large. Council members are elected to four year terms with the last election being on October 22, 2018; the council meets at Ottawa City Hall in downtown Ottawa. Much of the council's work is done in the standing committees made up sub-groups of councillors; the decisions made in these committees are voted upon. Agriculture and Rural Affairs Committee Community and Protective Services Committee Debenture Committee Environment Committee Finance and Economic Development Committee Audit Sub-Committee Governance Renewal Sub-Committee Information Technology Sub-Committee Member Services Sub-Committee Planning Committee Built Heritage Sub-Committee Transit Commission Transportation Committee Accessibility Arts, Culture and Recreation Environmental Stewardship French Language Services Services Jim Watson – Mayor Stephen Blais – Cumberland Ward Riley Brockington – River Ward Rick Chiarelli – College Ward Jean Cloutier – Alta Vista Ward George Darouze – Osgoode Ward Diane Deans – Gloucester-Southgate Ward Laura Dudas - Innes Ward Keith Egli – Knoxdale-Merivale Ward Eli El-Chantiry – West Carleton-March Ward Mathieu Fleury – Rideau-Vanier Ward Glen Gower - Stittsville Ward Jan Harder – Barrhaven Ward Allan Hubley – Kanata South Ward Theresa Kavanagh - Bay Ward Jeff Leiper – Kitchissippi Ward Matthew Luloff – Orléans Ward Catherine McKenney – Somerset Ward Carol Anne Meehan – Gloucester-South Nepean Ward Shawn Menard - Capital Ward Scott Moffatt – Rideau-Goulbourn Ward Tobi Nussbaum – Rideau-Rockcliffe Ward Jenna Sudds - Kanata North Ward Tim Tierney – Beacon Hill-Cyrville Ward Jim Watson – Mayor Stephen Blais – Cumberland Ward Riley Brockington – River Ward Rick Chiarelli – College Ward David Chernushenko – Capital Ward Jean Cloutier – Alta Vista Ward George Darouze – Osgoode Ward Diane Deans – Gloucester-Southgate Ward Keith Egli – Knoxdale-Merivale Ward Eli El-Chantiry – West Carleton-March Ward Mathieu Fleury – Rideau-Vanier Ward Jan Harder – Barrhaven Ward Allan Hubley – Kanata South Ward Jeff Leiper – Kitchissippi Ward Catherine McKenney – Somerset Ward Jody Mitic – Innes Ward Scott Moffatt – Rideau-Goulbourn Ward Bob Monette – Orléans Ward Tobi Nussbaum – Rideau-Rockcliffe Ward Shad Qadri – Stittsville Ward Michael Qaqish – Gloucester-South Nepean Ward Mark Taylor – Bay Ward Tim Tierney – Beacon Hill-Cyrville Ward Marianne Wilkinson – Kanata North Ward Jim Watson – Mayor Stephen Blais – Cumberland Ward Rainer Bloess – Innes Ward Rick Chiarelli – College Ward David Chernushenko – Capital Ward Peter D. Clark – Rideau-Rockcliffe Ward Diane Deans – Gloucester-Southgate Ward Steve Desroches – Gloucester-South Nepean Ward Keith Egli – Knoxdale-Merivale Ward Eli El-Chantiry – West Carleton-March Ward Mathieu Fleury – Rideau-Vanier Ward Jan Harder – Barrhaven Ward Katherine Hobbs – Kitchissippi Ward Diane Holmes – Somerset Ward Allan Hubley – Kanata South Ward Peter Hume – Alta Vista Ward Maria McRae – River Ward Scott Moffatt – Rideau-Goulbourn Ward Bob Monette – Orléans Ward Shad Qadri – Stittsville Ward Mark Taylor – Bay Ward Tim Tierney – Beacon Hill-Cyrville Ward Doug Thompson – Osgoode Ward Marianne Wilkinson – Kanata North Ward Larry O'Brien, Mayor Georges Bédard – Rideau-Vanier Ward Michel Bellemare – Beacon Hill-Cyrville Ward Rainer Bloess – Innes Ward Glenn Brooks – Rideau-Goulbourn Ward Rick Chiarelli – College Ward Alex Cullen – Bay Ward Diane Deans – Gloucester-Southgate Ward Steve Desroches – Gloucester-South Nepean Ward Clive Doucet – Capital Ward Eli El-Chantiry – West Carleton-March Ward Peggy Feltmate – Kanata South Ward Jan Harder – Barrhaven Ward Diane Holmes – Somerset Ward Peter Hume – Alta Vista Ward Gord Hunter – Knoxdale-Merivale Ward Rob Jellett – Cumberland Ward Christine Leadman – Kitchissippi Ward Jacques Legendre – Rideau-Rockcliffe Ward Maria McRae – River Ward Bob Monette – Orléans Ward Shad Qadri – Stittsville-Kanata West Ward Doug Thompson – Osgoode Ward Marianne Wilkinson – Kanata North Ward Bob Chiarelli, Mayor Georges Bédard – Rideau-Vanier Ward Michel Bellemare – Beacon Hill-Cyrville Ward Rainer Bloess – Innes Ward Glenn Brooks – Rideau-Goulbourn Ward Rick Chiarelli – Baseline Ward Alex Cullen – Bay Ward Diane Deans – Gloucester-Southgate Ward Clive Doucet – Capital Ward Eli El-Chantiry – West Carleton Ward Peggy Feltmate – Kanata Ward Jan Harder – Bell-South Nepean Ward Diane Holmes – Somerset Ward Peter Hume – Alta Vista Ward Gord Hunter – Knoxdale-Merivale Ward Rob Jellett – Cumberland Ward Herb Kreling – Orléans Ward Jacques Legendre – Rideau-Rockcliffe Ward Shawn Little – Kitchissippi Ward Maria McRae – River Ward Bob Monette – Orléans Ward Janet Stavinga – Goulbourn Ward Doug Thompson – Osgoode Ward Bob Chiarelli, Mayor Elisabeth Arnold, Somerset Michel Bellemare, Beacon Hill-Cyrville Rainer Bloess, Innes Glenn Brooks, Rideau Rick Chiarelli, Baseline Alex Cullen, Bay Diane Deans, Gloucester-Southgate Clive Doucet, Capital Dwight Eastman, West Carleton Jan Harder, Bell South-Nepean Peter Hume, Alta Vista Gord Hunter, Knoxdale-Merivale Herb Kreling, Orléans Jacques Legendre, Rideau Rockliffe Shawn Little, Kitchissippi Phil McNeely, Cumberland Madeleine Meilleur, Rideau-Vanier Alex Munter, Kanata Janet Stavinga, Goulbourn Wendy Stewart, River Doug Thompson, Osgoode Jim Watson, Mayor Elisabeth Arnold, Somerset Inez Berg, Capital Jim Bickford, Mooney's Bay Ward Richard Cannings, Rideau Diane Deans, Southgate Ward Stéphane Émard-Chabot, Bruyère-Strathcona Ward Allan Higdon, Alta Vista-Canterbury Ward Karin Howard, Mooney's Bay Ward (1997 - February
Conservative Party of Canada (1867–1942)
The Conservative Party of Canada has gone by a variety of names over the years since Canadian Confederation. Known as the "Liberal-Conservative Party", it dropped "Liberal" from its name in 1873, although many of its candidates continued to use this name; as a result of World War I and the Conscription Crisis of 1917, the party joined with pro-conscription Liberals to become the "Unionist Party", led by Robert Borden from 1917 to 1920, the "National Liberal and Conservative Party" until 1922. It reverted to "Liberal-Conservative Party" until 1938, when it became the "National Conservative Party", it ran in the 1940 election as "National Government" though it was in opposition. The party was always referred to as the "Conservative Party" or Tories; the roots of the party are in the pre-Confederation coalition government of 1854 comprising the Parti bleu of George-Étienne Cartier, along with Ontario Liberals and Conservatives led by Sir John A. Macdonald, it was out of this coalition that the Liberal-Conservative Party was formed and it was this period that formed the basis for Confederation in 1867.
Macdonald became the leader of the Conservative Party and formed the first national government in 1867. The party brought together ultramontane Quebec Catholics, pro-tariff businessmen, United Empire Loyalist Tories and Orangemen. One major accomplishment of Macdonald's first government was the creation of the Canadian Pacific Railway which led to the Pacific Scandal that brought down the government in 1873; the Conservatives under Macdonald returned to power in 1878 by opposing the Liberal Party's policy of free trade or reciprocity with the United States and promoting, the National Policy which sought to promote business and develop industry with high tariff protectionist measures as well as settle and develop the west. The principal difference between the Conservatives and the Liberals in this period and well into the twentieth century was that Conservatives were in favour of imperial preference and strong political and legal links with Britain while Liberals promoted free trade and continentalism and greater independence from Britain.
Macdonald died in 1891 and, without his leadership, the Conservative coalition began to unravel under the pressure of sectarian tensions between Catholic French Canadians and British imperialists who tended to be anti-French and anti-Catholic. The government's mis-handling of the grievances that aroused the Red River Rebellion and the North-West Rebellion, its hanging of their leader Louis Riel), the Manitoba Schools Question exacerbated tensions within the Conservative Party and suppressed much of the support among Quebecois for the Conservative party, a problem only smoothed over by the 1980s. Free trade between Canada and the U. S. was the major issue of the 1911 election. Sir Wilfrid Laurier's Liberals, in favour of increased trade with the U. S. were swept from power. Robert Borden led a new Tory administration that emphasised a revitalised National Policy and continued strong links to Britain. Borden had built a base in Quebec by allying with anti-Laurier Quebec nationalists, but, in government, tensions between Quebec nationalists and English Canadian imperialists made any grand coalition untenable.
World War I created a further strain as most Quebecers were unenthusiastic about Canadian involvement in what they saw as a foreign, British, while Borden's supporters, most living in English Canada, supported Canada's war effort and its policy of conscription of men for the war. The attempt to turn the Conservatives into a hegemonic party by merging with Liberal-Unionists failed as most Liberals either joined the new Progressive Party of Canada or rejoined the Liberals under its new leader William Lyon Mackenzie King. One critical issue in this split was free trade - farmers were hostile to Tory tariff policy and free trade was a key issue in the creation of the Progressives while the Conscription Crisis destroyed any remaining Conservative base in Quebec for generations leaving the Tories with less support than they had before the Union government. Borden's successor, Arthur Meighen formally attempted to make the Unionist coalition permanent by creating the "National Liberal and Conservative Party" but most Liberals ended up returning to their old party and some Conservatives balked at what they saw as an attempt to destroy the Conservative Party.
John Hampden Burnham, MP for Peterborough West, quit the government caucus to sit as an Independent Conservative and resigned his seat in order to contest it in a by-election on his position. Meighen's party was defeated by the Liberals in the election of 1921 coming in third behind the Progressives. At March 1922 caucus meeting the party voted to revert to its original name of the Liberal-Conservative Party; the Liberals were reduced to a minority government in the 1925 election. The Conservatives won a plurality of seats in the House of Commons, but King was able to stay in power with the support of the Progressives and form a minority government. King's government was defeated in a vote in the House of Commons within months and Prime Minister King asked Governor-General Byng to call a new election but Byng refused and asked Meighen to form a government. Meighen's government was defeated three days after taking office by a vote in the Commons, leaving no choice but a new election; the general election produced a Liberal victory.