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Century of Progress

A Century of Progress International Exposition known as The Chicago World's Fair, was a World's Fair held in the city of Chicago, United States from 1933 to 1934. The fair, registered under the Bureau International des Expositions, celebrated the city's centennial; the theme of the fair was technological innovation, its motto was "Science Finds, Industry Applies, Man Adapts", giving out a message that science and American life were wedded. Its architectural symbol was the Sky Ride, a transporter bridge perpendicular to the shore on which one could ride from one side of the fair to the other. One description of the fair noted that the world, "then still mired in the malaise of the Great Depression, could glimpse a happier not-too-distant future, all driven by innovation in science and technology." Fair visitors saw the latest wonders in rail travel, automobiles and cigarette-smoking robots. The exposition "emphasized technology and progress, a utopia, or perfect world, founded on democracy and manufacturing."

A Century of Progress was organized as an Illinois nonprofit corporation in January 1928 for the purpose of planning and hosting a World's Fair in Chicago in 1934. City officials designated three and a half miles of newly reclaimed land along the shore of Lake Michigan between 12th and 39th streets on the Near South Side for the fairgrounds. Held on a 427 acres portion of Burnham Park, the $37,500,000 exposition was formally opened on May 27, 1933, by US Postmaster General James Farley at a four hour ceremony at Soldier Field; the fair's opening night began with a nod to the heavens. Lights were automatically activated; the star was chosen as its light had started its journey at about the time of the previous Chicago world's fair—the World's Columbian Exposition—in 1893. The rays were focused on photoelectric cells in a series of astronomical observatories and transformed into electrical energy, transmitted to Chicago; the fair buildings were multi-colored, to create a "Rainbow City" as compared to the "White City" of Chicago's earlier World's Columbian Exposition.

The buildings followed Moderne architecture in contrast to the neoclassical themes used at the 1893 fair. One famous feature of the fair were the performances of fan dancer Sally Rand. Other popular exhibits were the various auto manufacturers, the Midway, a recreation of important scenes from Chicago's history; the fair contained exhibits that would seem shocking to modern audiences, including offensive portrayals of African-Americans, a "Midget City" complete with "sixty Lilliputians", an exhibition of incubators containing real babies. The fair included an exhibit on the history of Chicago. In the planning stages, several African-American groups from the city's newly growing population campaigned for Jean Baptiste Point du Sable to be honored at the fair. At the time, few Chicagoans had heard of Point du Sable, the fair's organizers presented the 1803 construction of Fort Dearborn as the city's historical beginning; the campaign was successful, a replica of Point du Sable's cabin was presented as part of the "background of the history of Chicago".

Admiral Byrd's polar expedition ship the City of New York was visited by President Franklin D. Roosevelt when he came to the fair on October 2, 1933; the City was on show for the full length of the exhibition. One of the highlights of the 1933 World's Fair was the arrival of the German airship Graf Zeppelin on October 26, 1933. After circling Lake Michigan near the exposition for two hours, Commander Hugo Eckener landed the 776-foot airship at the nearby Curtiss-Wright Airport in Glenview, it remained on the ground for twenty-five minutes took off ahead of an approaching weather front bound for Akron, Ohio. The "dream cars" which American automobile manufacturers exhibited at the fair included Cadillac's introduction of its V-16 limousine, but it was Packard. One interesting and enduring exhibit was the 1933 Homes of Tomorrow Exhibition that demonstrated modern home convenience and creative practical new building materials and techniques with twelve model homes sponsored by several corporations affiliated with home decor and construction.

Marine artist Hilda Goldblatt Gorenstein painted twelve murals for the Navy's exhibit in the Federal Building for the fair. The frieze was composed of twelve murals depicting the influence of sea power on America, beginning with the settlement of Jamestown, Virginia in 1607 when sea power first reached America and carrying through World War I; the first Major League Baseball All-Star Game was held at Comiskey Park in conjunction with the fair. In May 1934, the Union Pacific Railroad exhibited its first streamlined train, the M-10000, the Chicago and Quincy Railroad its famous Zephyr which, on May 26, made a record-breaking dawn-to-dusk run from Denver, Colorado, to Chicago in 13 hours and 5 minutes, called the "Dawn-to-Dusk Dash". To cap its record-breaking speed run, the Zephyr arrived on-stage at the fair's "Wings of a Century" transportation pageant; the two trains launched an era of industrial streamlining. Both trains went into successful revenue service, the Union Pacific's

Soviet order of battle for the Battle of Stalingrad

. The Soviet order of battle for the Battle of Stalingrad details the major combat units that fought in the Battle of Stalingrad; this shows the beginning of Operation Uranus. Army General G. K. Zhukov Colonel-General of Artillery N. N. Voronov Colonel-General A. M. Vasilevsky The Stalingrad Front, under the command of Colonel General Andrey Yeryomenko, assisted by Political Officer Nikita Khrushchev, included the following units: 8th Air Army 28th Army Rifle Divisions: 34th Guards, 248th Special Brigades: 52nd, 152nd, 159th Tank Brigades: 6th Guards Front Reserve: 330th Rifle Division, 85th Tank Bde 51st Army Rifle Divisions: 15th Guards, 91st, 126th, 302nd Special Brigades: 38th Tank Brigades: 254th Armoured formations added for Operation Uranus: 4th Mechanised Corps, 4th Cavalry Corps 57th Army Rifle Divisions: 169th, 422nd Special Brigades: 143rd Tank Brigades: 90th, 235th Armoured formations added for Operation Uranus: 13th Mechanized Corps 62nd Army Rifle Divisions: 13th Guards, 37th Guards, 39th Guards, 45th, 95th, 112th, 138th, 193rd, 196th, 244th, 284th, 308th, 10th NKVD Naval Infantry Brigades: 92nd Special Brigades: 42nd, 115th, 124th, 149th, 160th Tank Brigades: 84th, 137th, 189th 64th Army Rifle Divisions: 36th Guards, 29th, 38th, 157th, 204th Naval Infantry Brigades: 154th Special Brigades: 66th, 93rd, 96th, 97th Tank Brigades: 13th, 56th Colonel General Konstantin Rokossovsky's Don Front included the following units: 24th Army Rifle Divisions: 49th, 84th, 120th, 173rd, 233rd, 260th, 273rd Tank Brigades: 10th 65th Army Rifle Divisions: 4th Guards, 27th Guards, 40th Guards, 23rd, 24th, 252nd, 258th, 304th, 321st Tank Brigades: 121st 66th Army Rifle Divisions: 64th, 99th, 116th, 226th, 299th, 343rd Tank Brigades: 58th 16th Air Army The Southwestern Front, commanded by Army General Nikolai Vatutin, included the following units: 1st Guards Army Rifle Divisions: 1st, 153rd, 197th, 203rd, 266th, 278th Front Reserve: 1st Guards Mechanised Corps 5th Tank Army Rifle Divisions: 14th Guards, 47th Guards, 50th Guards, 119th, 159th, 346th Armoured formations added for Operation Uranus: 1st Tank Corps, 26th Tank Corps, 8th Cavalry Corps 21st Army Rifle Divisions: 63rd, 76th, 96th, 277th, 293rd, 333rd Tank Regiments: 4th Guards, 1st, 2nd Armoured formations added for Operation Uranus: 4th Tank Corps, 3rd Guards Cavalry Corps 2nd Air Army 17th Air Army Beevor, Antony.

Stalingrad. Viking, London. ISBN 978-0-14-103240-5

Warning: Parental Advisory

Warning: Parental Advisory is a 2002 television film created by VH1 and directed by Mark Waters. The film follows the story of Dee Snider, John Denver, Frank Zappa, testifying before Congress against lyrics labeling laws; the film focuses on the formation of the Parents Music Resource Center and its impact on music during 1985. It stars Jason Priestley, Mariel Hemingway as Tipper Gore, Griffin Dunne as Zappa, Dee Snider as himself; the introductory speech that Snider gave in the film before testifying is the same speech he gave in 1985. Griffin Dunne as Frank Zappa Dee Snider as himself Jason Priestley as Charlie Burner Mariel Hemingway as Tipper Gore Tim Guinee as John Denver Deborah Yates as Pamela Stone Deborah Jolly as Shirley Lois Chiles as Susan Baker Lee Burns as Andrew Norris John S. Davies as Dave Gorman Jim Beatty as Al Gore Richard Dillard as Senator Sam Gail Cronauer as Sen. Paula Hawkins Joe Berryman as Donald Bean David Born as James Baker Dina Waters as Receptionist Tom Prior as Senator Sam's Aide Alex Harder as Pizza Guy Anthony Marble as Record Store Clerk William Caploe as Dom Michael Crabtree as Sen. Danforth Eleese Lester as PMRC Receptionist Tony Richards as Press Club Reporter Cherry Petty as Curtis's Assistant Dwight Adair as Frank Zappa's Manager Parental Advisory Warning: Parental Advisory on IMDb