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Cerberus

In Greek mythology, Cerberus referred to as the hound of Hades, is a multi-headed dog that guards the gates of the Underworld to prevent the dead from leaving. Cerberus was the offspring of the monsters Echidna and Typhon, is described as having three heads, a serpent for a tail, snakes protruding from multiple parts of his body. Cerberus is known for his capture by Heracles, one of Heracles' twelve labours. Descriptions of Cerberus vary, including the number of his heads. Cerberus was three-headed, though not always. Cerberus had several multi-headed relatives, his father was the multi snake-headed Typhon, Cerberus was the brother of three other multi-headed monsters, the multi-snake-headed Lernaean Hydra. And, like these close relatives, Cerberus was, with only the rare iconographic exception, multi-headed. In the earliest description of Cerberus, Hesiod's Theogony, Cerberus has fifty heads, while Pindar gave him one hundred heads; however writers universally give Cerberus three heads. An exception is the Latin poet Horace's Cerberus which has a single dog head, one hundred snake heads.

Trying to reconcile these competing traditions, Apollodorus's Cerberus has three dog heads and the heads of "all sorts of snakes" along his back, while the Byzantine poet John Tzetzes gives Cerberus fifty heads, three of which were dog heads, the rest being the "heads of other beasts of all sorts". In art Cerberus is most depicted with two dog heads, never more than three, but with only one. On one of the two earliest depictions, a Corinthian cup from Argos, now lost, Cerberus was shown as a normal single-headed dog; the first appearance of a three-headed Cerberus occurs on a mid-sixth-century BC Laconian cup. Horace's many snake-headed Cerberus followed a long tradition of Cerberus being part snake; this is already implied as early as in Hesiod's Theogony, where Cerberus' mother is the half-snake Echidna, his father the snake-headed Typhon. In art Cerberus is shown as being part snake, for example the lost Corinthian cup showed snakes protruding from Cerberus' body, while the mid sixth-century BC Laconian cup gives Cerberus a snake for a tail.

In the literary record, the first certain indication of Cerberus' serpentine nature comes from the rationalized account of Hecataeus of Miletus, who makes Cerberus a large poisonous snake. Plato refers to Cerberus' composite nature, Euphorion of Chalcis describes Cerberus as having multiple snake tails, in connection to his serpentine nature, associates Cerberus with the creation of the poisonous aconite plant. Virgil has snakes writhe around Cerberus' neck, Ovid's Cerberus has a venomous mouth, necks "vile with snakes", "hair inwoven with the threatening snake", while Seneca gives Cerberus a mane consisting of snakes, a single snake tail. Cerberus was given various other traits. According to Euripides, Cerberus not only had three heads but three bodies, according to Virgil he had multiple backs. Cerberus ate raw flesh, had eyes which flashed fire, a three-tongued mouth, acute hearing. Cerberus' only mythology concerns his capture by Heracles; as early as Homer we learn that Heracles was sent by Eurystheus, the king of Tiryns, to bring back Cerberus from Hades the king of the underworld.

According to Apollodorus, this was the final labour imposed on Heracles. In a fragment from a lost play Pirithous, Heracles says that, although Eurystheus commanded him to bring back Cerberus, it was not from any desire to see Cerberus, but only because Eurystheus thought that the task was impossible. Heracles was aided in his mission by his being an initiate of the Eleusinian Mysteries. Euripides has his initiation being "lucky" for Heracles in capturing Cerberus, and both Diodorus Siculus and Apollodorus say that Heracles was initiated into the Mysteries, in preparation for his descent into the underworld. According to Diodorus, Heracles went to Athens, where Musaeus, the son of Orpheus, was in charge of the initiation rites, while according to Apollodorus, he went to Eumolpus at Eleusis. Heracles had the help of Hermes, the usual guide of the underworld, as well as Athena. In the Odyssey, Homer has Athena as his guides, and Hermes and Athena are shown with Heracles on vase paintings depicting Cerberus' capture.

By most accounts, Heracles made his descent into the underworld through an entrance at Tainaron, the most famous of the various Greek entrances to the underworld. The place is first mentioned in connection with the Cerberus story in the rationalized account of Hecataeus of Miletus, Euripides and Apolodorus, all have Heracles descend into the underworld there; however Xenophon reports that Heracles was said to have descended at the Acherusian Chersonese near Heraclea Pontica, on the Black Sea, a place more associated with Heracles' exit from the underworld. Heraclea, founded c. 560 BC took its name from the association of its site with Heracles' Cerberian exploit. While in the underworld, Heracles met the heroes Theseus and Pirithous, where the two companions were being held prisoner by Hades for attempting to carry off Hades' wife Persephone. Along with bringing back Cerberus, Heracles managed to rescue Theseus, in some versions Pirithous

William Martin Leake

William Martin Leake was an English military man, diplomat, antiquarian and Fellow of the Royal Society. He was born in London to Mary Calvert Leake. After completing his education at the Royal Military Academy, Woolwich, he was commissioned a 2nd Lieutenant in the Royal Regiment of Artillery in 1794. Having spent four years in the West Indies as lieutenant of marine artillery, he was promoted to captain, was sent in 1799 by the government to Constantinople to train the forces of the Ottoman Empire in the use of artillery; the British Empire had decided to support the Ottoman in its defence against Napoleonic France. A journey through Asia Minor in 1800 to join the British fleet at Cyprus inspired him with an interest in antiquarian topography. In 1801, after travelling across the desert with the Turkish army to Egypt, he was, on the expulsion of the French, employed in surveying the Nile valley as far as the cataracts. Shortly after his arrival in England he was sent out to survey the coast of Albania and the Morea, with the view of assisting the Turks against attacks of the French from Italy, of this he took advantage to form a valuable collection of coins and inscriptions and to explore ancient sites.

In 1807, war having broken out between Turkey and England, he was made prisoner at Salonica. In 1810 he was granted a yearly sum of £600 for his services in Turkey. In 1815 he retired from the army, in which he held the rank of colonel, devoting the remainder of his life to topographical and antiquarian studies, he was admitted a Fellow of the Royal Society on 13 April 1815. He died in Steyning, Sussex on 6 January 1860; the marbles collected by him in Greece were presented to the British Museum. He was elected a Fellow of the Royal Geographical Society, received the honorary DCL at Oxford, was a member of the Berlin Academy of Sciences and correspondent of the Institute of France, he published: The topography of Athens: With some remarks on its antiquities Journal of a tour in Asia Minor,: with comparative remarks on the ancient and modern geography of that country Travels in the Morea: With a map and plans, a supplement, Peloponnesiaca Travels in Northern Greece Numismata Hellenica, followed by a supplement in 1859.

His Topography of Athens, the first attempt at a systematic treatment, long remained an authority. This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Leake, William Martin". Encyclopædia Britannica. 16. Cambridge University Press. P. 329. Marsden, John Howard. A brief memoir of the life and writings of the late Lieutenant-Colonel William Martin Leake. London: Printed by Whittingham and Wilkins for private circulation only; the Architect for 7 October 1876 Ernst Curtius in the Preussische Jahrbücher JE Sandys, Hist. of Classical Scholarship, iii. p. 442. J. M. Wagstaff, Colonel Leake in Laconia, in J. M. Sanders, ΦΙΛΟΛΑΚΩΝ. Lakonian studies in honour of Hector Catling. Athens, 277-83. J. M. Wagstaff and the topographers; the case of Colonel Leake, in S. E. Alcock, J. F. Cherry, J. Elsner, Pausanias. Travel and memory in Roman Greece. Oxford, 190–206. J. M. Wagstaff, Colonel Leake. Traveller and scholar. In S. Searight and M. Wagstaff, Travellers in the Levant. Voyagers and visionaries.

Durham, 3–15. CL Witmore, On multiple fields. Between the material world and media: Two cases from the Peloponnesus, Archaeological Dialogues, 11, 133–164. Link CL Witmore and TV Buttrey, William Martin Leake: a contemporary of P. O. Brøndsted in Greece and in London, in P. O. Brøndsted – A Danish Classicist in his European context. Rasmussen, B. B. Jensen, J. S. Lund, J. and Märcher Historisk-filosofiske Skrifter 31, 15–34. Travels in Northern Greece by William Martin Leake, online book. Includes Biography and Bibliography

Danish Centre for Design Research

The Danish Centre for Design Research was an organization under the Danish Ministry of Higher Education and Science, established in 2004 with the purpose of promoting design research and design research environments at the schools of design and architecture in Denmark. The Centre was active from 2004 through 2012 as an umbrella organization for design research activities at the Aarhus School of Architecture, the Kolding School of Design and The Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts, Schools of Architecture and Conservation; the Danish Centre for Design Research promoted Danish design research by distributing funds from a government budget allocation for research, organizing research seminars and conferences, offering PhD courses. The Centre published the research journal Artifact and the webzine Mind Design, which presented research findings and articles on developments in the field of design; the Danish Centre for Design Research developed Webmuseum.dk, which documents and conveys web design history.

In 2005, the Danish Centre for Design Research launched a master’s program in design in cooperation with The Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts, School of Architecture. The Danish Centre for Design Research and the design research at the design schools were evaluated by an international panel in 2010. After the evaluation, the centre continued its activities for another two years; the centre was closed by the end of 2012 with reference to the positive design research evaluation in 2010, which documented that the centre had achieved its purpose. The centre's tasks were reassigned to the schools of design. Website of the Centre for Design Research

Gotham City

Gotham City, or Gotham, is a fictional city appearing in American comic books published by DC Comics, best known as the home of Batman. The city was first identified as Batman's place of residence in Batman #4 and has since been the primary setting for stories featuring the character. Gotham City is traditionally depicted as being located in the U. S. state of New Jersey. Over the years, Gotham's look and atmosphere has been influenced by cities such as New York City and Chicago. Locations used as inspiration or filming locations for Gotham City in the live-action Batman films and television series have included New York City, New Jersey, Vancouver, Pittsburgh, Los Angeles and Hong Kong. Writer Bill Finger, on the naming of the city and the reason for changing Batman's locale from New York City to a fictional city, said, "Originally I was going to call Gotham City'Civic City.' I tried'Capital City,' then'Coast City.' I flipped through the New York City phone book and spotted the name'Gotham Jewelers' and said,'That's it,' Gotham City.

We didn't call it New York because we wanted anybody in any city to identify with it.""Gotham" has been a nickname for New York City that first became popular in the nineteenth century. Irving took the name from the village of Gotham, England: a place inhabited, according to folklore, by fools. Gotham City, like other cities in the DC Universe, has varied in its portrayals over the decades, but the city's location is traditionally depicted as being in the state of New Jersey. In Amazing World of DC Comics #14, publisher Mark Gruenwald discusses the history of the Justice League and indicates that Gotham City is located in New Jersey. In the World's Greatest Super Heroes comic strip, a map is shown placing Gotham City in New Jersey and Metropolis in Delaware. World's Finest Comics #259 confirms that Gotham is in New Jersey. New Adventures of Superboy #22 and the 1990 Atlas of the DC Universe both show maps of Gotham City in New Jersey and Metropolis in the state of Delaware. Detective Comics # 503 includes several references suggesting.

A location on the Jersey Shore is described as "twenty miles north of Gotham". Within the same issue and Batgirl drive from a "secret New Jersey airfield" to Gotham City and drive on the "Hudson County Highway". Batman: Shadow of the Bat, Annual #1 further establishes that Gotham City is in New Jersey. Sal E. Jordan's driver's license in the comic shows his address as "72 Faxcol Dr Gotham City, NJ 12345"; the 2016 film Suicide Squad reveals Gotham City to be in the state of New Jersey within the DC Extended Universe. Gotham City is the home of Batman, just as Metropolis is home to Superman, the two heroes work together in both cities. In comic book depictions, the exact distance between Gotham and Metropolis has varied over the years, with the cities being within driving distance of each other; the two cities are sometimes portrayed as twin cities on opposite sides of the Delaware Bay, with Gotham in New Jersey and Metropolis in Delaware. The Atlas of the DC Universe from the 1990s places Metropolis in Delaware and Gotham City in New Jersey.

New York City has garnered the nickname Metropolis to describe the city in the daytime in popular culture, contrasting with Gotham, sometimes used to describe New York City at night. During the Bronze Age of Comic Books, the Metro-Narrows Bridge was depicted as the main route connecting the twin cities of Metropolis and Gotham City, it has been described as being the longest suspension bridge in the world. A map appeared in The New Adventures of Superboy #22, that showed Smallville within driving distance of both Metropolis and Gotham City. A map of the United States in The Secret Files & Origins Guide to the DC Universe 2000 #1 depicts Metropolis and Gotham City as being somewhere in the Tri-state Area alongside Blüdhaven. Within the DC Extended Universe, the 2016 film Batman v Superman: Dawn of Justice depicts Gotham City as being located across a bay from Metropolis. In Swamp Thing #53, Alan Moore wrote a fictional history for Gotham City that other writers have followed. According to Moore's tale, a Norwegian mercenary, Captain Jon Logerquist, founded Gotham City in 1635 and the British took it over—a story that parallels the founding of New York by the Dutch and takeover by the British.

During the American Revolutionary War, Gotham City was the site of a major battle. This was detailed in Rick Veitch's Swamp Thing #85 featuring Tomahawk. Rumours held it to be the site of various occult rites; the 2011 comic book series Batman: Gates of Gotham details a history of Gotham City in which Alan Wayne, Theodore Cobblepot, Edward Elliot, are considered the founding fathers of Gotham. In 1881, they constructed three bridges called the Gates of Gotham, each bearing one of their last names. Edward Elliot became jealous of the Wayne family's popularity and wealth during this period, jealousy that would spread to his great-great-grandson, Thomas Elliot or Hush; the occult origins of Gotham are further delved into by Peter Milligan's 1990 story arc "Dark Knight, Dark City", which reveals that some of the American Founding Fathers are involved in summoning a bat-

Alexander Podrabinek

Alexander Pinkhosovich Podrabinek is a Soviet dissident and commentator. During the Soviet period he was a human rights activist, being exiled imprisoned in a corrective-labour colony, for publication of his book Punitive Medicine in Russian and in English. In 1987, while still forced to live outside Moscow in internal banishment, Podrabinek became the founder and editor-in-chief of the Express Chronicle weekly newspaper. In the 1990s he ran the Prima information agency. Over the past ten years he has worked, for the Novaya gazeta newspaper, the Yezhednevny Zhurnal website and the Russian Services of Radio France Internationale and Radio Liberty. Alexander Podrabinek was born on 8 August 1953 in Elektrostal, a large provincial town in the Moscow Region to which his parents moved from Moscow in the early 1950s, to avoid the campaign against rootless cosmopolitans, i.e. Jews, he and his younger brother Kirill were brought up there by their Jewish father Pinkhos after his Russian wife died. At secondary school, aged ten, they joined the Young Pioneers, but Alexander and Kirill did not apply to join the Komsomol, the only two non-members in their respective classes: the only explanation the school administration could find was that they were either Baptists or open enemies of the regime.

Alexander enrolled in the Department of Pharmacology of a medical institute in 1970 and worked as an assistant in a biology laboratory at Moscow State University of Medicine and Dentistry. From 1971 to 1974 Alexander studied at a college for medical auxiliary staff and received certification as a paramedic, he went on to work in the Moscow ambulance service. For political reasons, Podrabinek was denied entrance to medical school, and, at the age of 20, began working for the ambulance service instead. At an early age, Podrabinek became acquainted with dissident circles in Moscow and began to take part in their activities. After reading the notes that dissident poet Vladimir Gershuni's smuggled out of the Oryol Special Psychiatric hospital, Alexander became interested in the political abuse of psychiatry in the USSR. Soon he was a contributing editor to the Chronicle of Current Events, covering psychiatric issues. In January 1977, he travelled to Siberia as a courier for the Social Fund, delivering money to the needy families of political prisoners, held in the camps or forced to live in exile.

On 5 January 1977, Podrabinek launched the Working Commission to Investigate the Use of Psychiatry for Political Purposes. The Commission at first had three other members, its consultant psychiatrist was A. A. Voloshanovich. Around the Commission formed a circle of supporters "without whom we could have done nothing," comments Podrabinek. "The volume of work was too great.". They visited psychiatric hospitals, wrote appeals to hospital doctors, published information on psychiatric abuse in their own information bulletins, in other samizdat publications like the Chronicle of Current Events. In 1977, Podrabinek published Punitive Medicine, the Russian edition of his book on the systematic abuse of psychiatry for political purposes in the USSR. In December 1977, the KGB approached Podrabinek's father Pinkhos, threatened to arrest and imprison both his sons if the three of them did not agree to emigrate to Israel, they discussed their predicament with other dissidents, notably Tatyana Velikanova, at the apartment of Andrei Sakharov.

Sakharov's wife, Yelena Bonner, urged the three to take the opportunity to leave the USSR. Alexander, supported by Velikanova, rejected the proposal and held a press conference at the home of Andrei Sakharov, publicly asserting his refusal to given in to such blackmail. On 15 August 1978, Alexander Podrabinek was convicted of "anti-Soviet slander", sentenced to five years' banishment or internal exile, was first transported to the Irkutsk Region, Siberia. After the English edition of Punitive Medicine appeared, Podrabinek was again charged with political offences — he was by exiled to Yakutia in the Soviet Far East — and at his trial in Ust-Nera on 6 January 1981, he was sentenced to three years in a local corrective-labour camp. In autumn 1986, prompted by Anatoly Marchenko's hunger strike in Chistopol Prison, veteran dissident Larisa Bogoraz, lawyer Sophia Kalistratova launched a campaign for the release of the Soviet Union's hundreds of political prisoners, they sent letters requesting a wide amnesty to the presidium of the USSR Supreme Soviet and to Mikhail Gorbachev, the new leader of the Soviet Communist Party.

There was no response. They began sending their two letters to prominent members of the artistic and technical intelligentsia: to writers and artists; the result was disheartening. With notable exceptions, e.g. the world-famous animé artist Yury Norstein few would put their name to such a document. In 1987, Podrabinek founded the weekly samizdat newspaper Express Chronicle, which appeared in Russian and English between 1987 and 2000; as the first uncensored media outlet in the USSR, with the Glasnost journal of Sergei Grigoryants, the Chronicle drew the interest of Western journalists in Moscow. The Chronicle circulated in a hundred major Soviet cities. In March 1989, Alexander participated in the founding of the

Tigre people

The Tigre people are an ethnic group indigenous to Eritrea. They inhabit the highlands of Eritrea and the Sudanese states of Kassala and Red Sea, they are related to the Tigrayans and Beja. The Tigre speak the Tigre language; the Tigre are a nomadic pastoralist community living in the northern and coastal highlands of Eritrea, as well as areas in eastern Sudan. 95.5% of the Tigre people adhere to Islam, but there are a small number of Christians among them as well. The first Tigre converts to Islam were those who lived on islands in the Red Sea and adopted Islam in the 7th century during the religion's earliest years. Mainland Tigre adopted Islam much on including as late as the 19th century; the Tigre are related to the Tigrayans of Eritrea, as well as the Beja. There are a number of Eritreans of Tigre origin living across the Middle East, North America, the United Kingdom and Australia; the Tigre language is an Afroasiatic language of the Semitic branch. Like Tigrinya, it is a member of the Ethiopian Semitic group, is similar to ancient Ge'ez.

There is no known written form of the language. The Eritrean government uses the Ge'ez writing system to publish documents in the Tigre language. Tigre is the lingua franca of the multi-ethnic lowlands of western and northern Eritrea, including the northern coast; as such 75% of the Western Lowlands Eritrean population speaks Tigre. Since around 1889, the Ge'ez script has been used to write the Tigre language. Tigre speakers used Arabic more as a lingua franca. Due to most Tigre speakers being Muslim, the language is written in the Arabic alphabet; the Tigre people and their area of inhabitation should not be confused with that of the Tigrayans, who live in Eritrea and northern Ethiopia and speak Tigrinya, a related Semitic language. Ibrahim Sultan Hamid Idris Awate People of Africa "T" Lusini, Gianfrancesco, ed.. History and language of the Tigre-speaking peoples: proceedings of the International Workshop, February 7-8, 2008. Università degli studi di Napoli "L'Orientale," Dipartimento di studi e ricerche su Africa e paesi arab.

ISBN 8895044681