Netley Marsh is a village and civil parish in Hampshire, close to the town of Totton. It lies within the New Forest District, the New Forest National Park, it is the alleged site of the battle between an invading Anglo Saxon army, under Cerdic and a British army under Natanleod in the year 508. Netley Marsh lies to the west of Southampton; the village is on the A336 road from Cadnam to Totton. The parish is bounded by Bartley Water in the south, River Blackwater in the north; the village of Woodlands is in the south of the parish, the hamlets of Hillstreet and Ower are to the north. The M27 motorway runs through this parish, taking the route of the Roman road from Nursling to Cadnam. Since 1971, the village has been host to the annual Netley Marsh Steam and Craft Show, a three-day event dedicated to demonstrations of steam powered vehicles and traction engines held in July of each year. Netley Marsh is the base for the international development charity Tools for Self Reliance, which refurbishes and ships old tools and sewing machines to Africa.
Netley Marsh is identified with the "Natanleaga" described in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle under the year 508, where it is reported that the Anglo-Saxon kings Cerdic and Cynric "killed a certain British king named Natanleod, five-thousand men with him – after whom the land as far as Cerdic's ford was named Natanleaga". Whatever the truth concerning the battle, it is unlikely that there was a king called Natanleod – he was invented to explain the place-name Natanleaga. In fact the place-name is derived from the Old English elements naet and leah, meaning "wet wood". Netley is next recorded as "Nateleg" in 1248; the name "Netley Marsh" appears as such on maps from 1759. The church, dedicated to Saint Matthew, was built around 1855, consists of a nave and chancel with a bell turret on west side of the chancel. To the west of the village the Hampshire Reformatory School opened in 1855, it was built for the purpose of reclaiming juvenile offenders, had accommodation for 60 boys. It was closed in 1908.
The civil parish of Netley Marsh was one of the parishes formed from the ancient parish of Eling in 1894. The village suffered some damage during World War II, when one day in 1942 an enemy plane dropped bombs on the church and along Woodlands Road, causing the deaths of three people. One mile north of Netley Marsh is the ancient site of Tatchbury. There is an Iron Age Hill fort here called Tatchbury Mount, it has been built over by hospital buildings but the outline of the fort can still be seen. Next to the hill fort is the ancient manor of Tatchbury, its history dates from the 10th century when a hide and a half of land in Tatchbury and Slackstead was given to Hyde Abbey on its foundation in 903 by Edward the Elder. The Domesday Book refers to another half hide being given to the Abbey sometime after 1066 by Edsi the Sheriff; the abbot and convent evidently held the manor in demesne from the 12th to the 13th century, a rent from Litchfield and Tatchbury was included in the estates of the Abbey at the time of the Dissolution.
Another estate in Tatchbury is recorded in the 13th century which may have been the nucleus of the manor, held in 1316 by Elias Baldet, of which John Romsey died seised in 1494, holding it of the warden of Winchester College. The Oviatt family held the manor for much of the 17th and 18th century, before passing to the Wake family who held it until the late 19th century. Tatchbury Manor House today is a brick Victorian building, but which incorporates part of the old 13th century manor house. Netley Marsh Parish Council Netley Marsh Weather Netley Marsh Steam and Craft Show
The patriarchs of the Bible, when narrowly defined, are Abraham, his son Isaac, Isaac's son Jacob named Israel, the ancestor of the Israelites. These three figures are referred to collectively as the patriarchs, the period in which they lived is known as the patriarchal age, they play significant roles in Hebrew scripture during and following their lifetimes. They are used as a significant marker by God in revelations and promises, continue to play important roles in the Abrahamic faiths. More the term patriarchs can be used to refer to the twenty male ancestor-figures between Adam and Abraham; the first ten of these are called the Antediluvian patriarchs. Judaism and Islam hold that the patriarchs, along with their primary wives, known as the matriarchs – Sarah and Leah – are entombed at the Cave of Machpelah in Hebron, a site held holy by the three religions. Only Rachel, Jacob's favorite wife, is said to be buried separately at what is known as Rachel's Tomb, near Bethlehem, at the site where she is believed to have died in childbirth.
The lifetimes given for the patriarchs in the Masoretic Text of the Book of Genesis are: Adam 930 years, Seth 912, Enos 905, Kenan 910, Mahalalel 895, Jared 962, Enoch 365, Methuselah 969, Lamech 777, Noah 950. The lifespans given have surprising chronological implications. "The long lives ascribed to the patriarchs cause remarkable duplications. Adam lived to see the birth of the ninth member of the genealogy. Noah outlived Abram's grandfather and died in Abram's sixtieth year. Shem, Noah's son outlived Abram, he was still alive when Esau and Jacob were born!" Explanation of color-codes: Lifespans recorded in the Septuagint: Black and gray Lifespans recorded in the Syriac Peshitta: Gold and yellow Lifespans recorded in the Masoretic text: Crimson and vermilion The Matriarchs known as "the four mothers", who were married to the biblical patriarchs: Sarah, the wife of Abraham Rebekah, the wife of Isaac Leah and Rachel, the wives of Jacob Chronology of the Bible Dark Mirrors of Heaven: Timeline of the Patriarchs
Anglo-Saxon settlement of Britain
The Anglo-Saxon settlement of Britain describes the process which changed the language and culture of most of what became England from Romano-British to Germanic. The Germanic-speakers in Britain, themselves of diverse origins developed a common cultural identity as Anglo-Saxons; this process occurred from the mid-fifth to early seventh centuries, following the end of Roman rule in Britain around the year 410. The settlement was followed by the establishment of Anglo-Saxon kingdoms in the south and east of Britain followed by the rest of modern England; the available evidence includes the scanty contemporary and near-contemporary written record, archaeological and genetic information. The few literary sources tell of hostility between natives, they describe violence, destruction and the flight of the Romano-British population. Moreover, there is little clear evidence for the influence of British Celtic or British Latin on Old English; these factors have suggested a large-scale invasion by various Germanic peoples.
In this view, held by the majority of historians until the mid to late twentieth century, much of what is now England was cleared of its prior inhabitants. If this traditional viewpoint were to be correct, the genes of the English people would have been overwhelmingly inherited from Germanic migrants. However, another view the most held today, is that the migrants were fewer centred on a warrior elite; this hypothesis suggests that the incomers, having achieved a position of political and social dominance, initiated a process of acculturation by the natives to their language and material culture, intermarried with them to a significant degree. Archaeologists have found that settlement patterns and land-use show no clear break with the Romano-British past, though there are marked changes in material culture; this view predicts that the ancestry of the people of Anglo-Saxon and modern England would be derived from the native Romano-British. The uncertain results of genetic studies have tended to support both a predominant amount of native British Celtic ancestry, as well as a significant continental contribution resulting from Germanic immigration.
So, if these incomers established themselves as a social elite, this could have allowed them enhanced reproductive success. In this case, the prevalent genes of Anglo-Saxon England could have been derived from moderate numbers of Germanic migrants; this theory, originating in a population genetics study, has proven controversial, has been critically received by a number of scholars. By 400, the Roman provinces in Britain were a peripheral part of the Roman Empire lost to rebellion or invasion, but until always recovered; that cycle of loss and recapture collapsed over the next decade. Around 410, although Roman power remained a force to be reckoned with for a further three generations across much of Gaul, Britain slipped beyond direct imperial control into a phase, termed "sub-Roman"; the history of this period has traditionally been a narrative of fall. However, evidence from Verulamium suggests that urban-type rebuilding, featuring piped water, was continuing late on in the 5th century, if not beyond.
At Silchester, there are signs of sub-Roman occupation down to around 500, at Wroxeter new baths have been identified as of Roman-type. The writing of Patrick and Gildas demonstrates the survival in Britain of Latin literacy and Roman education and law within elite society and Christianity, throughout the bulk of the 5th and 6th centuries. There are signs in Gildas' works that the economy was thriving without Roman taxation, as he complains of luxuria and self-indulgence. In the mid 5th century, Anglo-Saxons begin to appear in an still functionally Romanised Britain. Surveying the historical sources for signs of the Anglo-Saxon settlement, the people, assumes that the words Angles, Saxons or Anglo-Saxon have the same meaning in all the sources. Assigning ethnic labels such as "Anglo-Saxon" is fraught with difficulties and the term itself only began to be used in the 8th century to distinguish "Germanic" groups in Britain from those on the continent; the Chronica Gallica of 452 records for the year 441: "The British provinces, which to this time had suffered various defeats and misfortunes, are reduced to Saxon rule."
The Chronicle was written some distance from Britain. There is uncertainty about precise dates for fifth-century events before 446. This, does not undermine the position of the Gallic Chronicles as a important contemporary source, which suggests that Bede's date for'the arrival of the Saxons' was mistaken. In the Chronicle, Britain is grouped with four other Roman territories which came under'Germanic' dominion around the same time, the list being intended as an explanation of the end of the Roman empire in the west; the four share a similar history, as they were all given into the "power of the barbarians" by Roman authority: three were deliberately settled with German federates and though the Vandals took Africa by force their dominion was confirmed by treaty. Procopius states that Britain was settled by three races: the Angiloi and Britons, each ruled by its own king; each race was so prolific that it sent large numbers of individuals every year to the Franks, who planted them in unpopulated regions of its territory.
Writing in the mid-sixth century, he states that after the overthrow of Constantine III in 411, "the Romans never succeeded in recovering Britain, but it remained from that time under tyrants." In
The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle is a collection of annals in Old English chronicling the history of the Anglo-Saxons. The original manuscript of the Chronicle was created late in the 9th century in Wessex, during the reign of Alfred the Great. Multiple copies were made of that one original and distributed to monasteries across England, where they were independently updated. In one case, the Chronicle was still being updated in 1154. Nine manuscripts survive in whole or in part, though not all are of equal historical value and none of them is the original version; the oldest seems to have been started towards the end of Alfred's reign, while the most recent was written at Peterborough Abbey after a fire at that monastery in 1116. All of the material in the Chronicle is in the form of annals, by year; these manuscripts collectively are known as the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. The Chronicle is not unbiased: there are occasions when comparison with other medieval sources makes it clear that the scribes who wrote it omitted events or told one-sided versions of stories.
Taken as a whole, the Chronicle is the single most important historical source for the period in England between the departure of the Romans and the decades following the Norman conquest. Much of the information given in the Chronicle is not recorded elsewhere. In addition, the manuscripts are important sources for the history of the English language. Seven of the nine surviving manuscripts and fragments now reside in the British Library; the remaining two are in the Bodleian Library at Oxford and the Parker Library of Corpus Christi College, Cambridge. All of the surviving manuscripts are copies, so it is not known for certain where or when the first version of the Chronicle was composed, it is agreed that the original version – sometimes known as the Early English Annals – was written in the late 9th century by a scribe in Wessex. Frank Stenton argued from internal evidence that it was first compiled for a secular, but not royal, patron. After the original Chronicle was compiled, copies were distributed to various monasteries.
Additional copies were made, for further distribution or to replace lost manuscripts, some copies were updated independently of each other. Some of these copies are those that have survived; the earliest extant manuscript, the Parker Chronicle, was written by a single scribe up to the year 891. The scribe wrote DCCCXCII, in the margin of the next line; this appears to place the composition of the chronicle at no than 892. It is known, it is difficult to fix the date of composition, but it is thought that the chronicles were composed during the reign of Alfred the Great, as Alfred deliberately tried to revive learning and culture during his reign, encouraged the use of English as a written language. The Chronicle, as well as the distribution of copies to other centres of learning, may be a consequence of the changes Alfred introduced. Of the nine surviving manuscripts, seven are written in Old English. One, known as the Bilingual Canterbury Epitome, is in Old English with a translation of each annal into Latin.
Another, the Peterborough Chronicle, is in Old English except for the last entry, in early Middle English. The oldest is known as the Winchester Chronicle or the Parker Chronicle, is written in the Mercian dialect until 1070 Latin to 1075. Six of the manuscripts were printed in an 1861 edition for the Rolls Series by Benjamin Thorpe with the text laid out in columns labelled A to F, he included the few readable remnants of a burned seventh manuscript, which he referred to as destroyed in a fire at Ashburnham House in 1731. Following this convention, the two additional manuscripts are called and; the known surviving manuscripts are listed below. The manuscripts are all thought to derive from a common original, but the connections between the texts are more complex than simple inheritance via copying; the diagram at right gives an overview of the relationships between the manuscripts. The following is a summary of the relationships. Was a copy of, made in Winchester between 1001 and 1013. was used in the compilation of at Abingdon, in the mid-11th century.
However, the scribe for had access to another version, which has not survived. Includes material from Bede's Ecclesiastical History written by 731 and from a set of 8th-century Northumbrian annals and is thought to have been copied from a northern version that has not survived. Has material that appears to derive from the same sources as but does not include some additions that appear only in, such as the Mercian Register; this manuscript was composed at the monastery in Peterborough, some time after a fire th
Cædwalla of Wessex
Cædwalla was the King of Wessex from 685 until he abdicated in 688. His name is derived from the Welsh Cadwallon, he was exiled from Wessex as a youth and during this period gathered forces and attacked the South Saxons, killing their king, Æthelwealh, in what is now Sussex. Cædwalla was unable to hold the South Saxon territory and was driven out by Æthelwealh's ealdormen. In either 685 or 686, he became King of Wessex, he may have been involved in suppressing rival dynasties at this time, as an early source records that Wessex was ruled by underkings until Cædwalla. After his accession Cædwalla returned to Sussex and won the territory again, conquered the Isle of Wight, engaging in genocide, extinguishing the ruling dynasty there, forcing the population of the island at sword point to renounce their pagan beliefs for Christianity, he gained control of Surrey and the kingdom of Kent, in 686 he installed his brother, Mul, as king of Kent. Mul was burned in a Kentish revolt a year and Cædwalla returned ruling Kent directly for a period.
Cædwalla was wounded during the conquest of the Isle of Wight, for this reason he abdicated in 688 to travel to Rome for baptism. He reached Rome in April 689, was baptised by Pope Sergius I on the Saturday before Easter, dying ten days on 20 April 689, he was succeeded by Ine. A major source for West Saxon events is the Ecclesiastical History of the English People, written about 731 by Bede, a Northumbrian monk and chronicler. Bede received a good deal of information relating to Cædwalla from Bishop Daniel of Winchester; the contemporary Vita Sancti Wilfrithi or Life of St Wilfrid mentions Cædwalla. Another useful source is the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, a set of annals assembled in Wessex in the late 9th-century at the direction of King Alfred the Great. Associated with the Chronicle is a list of kings and their reigns, known as the West Saxon Genealogical Regnal List. There are six surviving charters, though some are of doubtful authenticity. Charters were documents drawn up to record grants of land by kings to their followers or to the church, provide some of the earliest documentary sources in England.
In the late 7th century, the West Saxons occupied an area in the west of southern England, though the exact boundaries are difficult to define. To their west was the native British kingdom of Dumnonia, in what is now Devon and Cornwall. To the north were the Mercians, whose king, had dominated southern England during his reign. In 674 he was succeeded by his brother, Æthelred, less militarily active than Wulfhere had been along the frontier with Wessex, though the West Saxons did not recover the territorial gains Wulfhere had made. To the southeast was the kingdom of the South Saxons, in what is now Sussex. Not all the locations named in the Chronicle can be identified, but it is apparent that the West Saxons were fighting in north Somerset, south Gloucestershire, north Wiltshire, against both British and Mercian opposition. To the west and south, evidence of the extent of West Saxon influence is provided by the fact that Cenwalh, who reigned from 642 to 673, is remembered as the first Saxon patron of Sherborne Abbey, in Dorset.
Evidently these monasteries were in West Saxon territory by then. Exeter, to the west, in Devon, was under West Saxon control by 680, since Boniface was educated there at about that time. Bede states that Cædwalla was a "daring young man of the royal house of the Gewissæ", gives his age at his death in 689 as about thirty, making the year of his birth about 659. "Gewisse", a tribal name, is used by Bede as an equivalent to "West Saxon": the West Saxon genealogies trace back to one "Gewis", an invented eponymous ancestor. According to the Chronicle, Cædwalla was the son of Coenberht, was descended via Ceawlin from Cerdic, the first of the Gewisse to land in England. However, it appears that the many difficulties and contradictions in the regnal list are caused by the efforts of scribes to demonstrate that each king on the list was descended from Cerdic, his name is an Anglicised form of the British name "Cadwallon". The first mention of Cædwalla is in the Life of St Wilfrid, in which he is described as an exiled nobleman in the forests of Chiltern and Andred.
It was not uncommon for a 7th-century king to have spent time in exile before gaining the throne. According to the Chronicle, it was in 685 that Cædwalla "began to contend for the kingdom". Despite his exile, he was able to put together enough military force to defeat and kill Æthelwealh, the king of Sussex, he was, soon expelled by Berthun and Andhun, Æthelwealh's ealdormen, "who administered the country from on" as kings. The Isle of Wight and the Meon valley in what is now eastern Hampshire had been placed under Æthelwealh's control by Wulfhere. Wulfhere's attack on Ashdown dated by the Chronicle to 661, may have happened later. If these events happened in the early 680s or not long before, Cædwalla's aggression against Æthelwealh would be explained
The Saxons were a Germanic people whose name was given in the early Middle Ages to a large country near the North Sea coast of what is now Germany. Earlier, in the late Roman Empire, the name was used to refer to Germanic inhabitants of what is now England, as a word something like the "Viking", as a term for raiders. In Merovingian times, continental Saxons were associated with the coast of what became Normandy. Though sometimes described as fighting inland, coming in conflict with the Franks and Thuringians, no clear homeland can be defined. There is a single classical reference to a smaller homeland of an early Saxon tribe, but it is disputed. According to this proposal, the Saxons' earliest area of settlement is believed to have been Northern Albingia; this general area is close to the probable homeland of the Angles. In contrast, the British "Saxons", today referred to in English as Anglo-Saxons, became a single nation bringing together Germanic peoples with the Romanized populations, establishing long-lasting post-Roman kingdoms equivalent to those formed by the Franks on the continent.
Their earliest weapons and clothing south of the Thames were based on late Roman military fashions, but immigrants north of the Thames showed a stronger North German influence. The term "Anglo-Saxon" came into use by the 8th century to distinguish English Saxons from continental Saxons, but the Saxons of Britain and those of Old Saxony continued to be referred to as'Saxons' in an indiscriminate manner in the languages of Britain and Ireland. However, while the English Saxons were no longer raiders, the political history of the continental Saxons is unclear until the time of the conflict between their semi-legendary hero Widukind and the Frankish emperor Charlemagne. While the continental Saxons are no longer a distinctive ethnic group or country, their name lives on in the names of several regions and states of Germany, including Lower Saxony, as well as the two states that make up Upper Saxony, known today as Saxony-Anhalt and Saxony; the latter have their names from dynastic history, not their ethnic history.
The Saxons may have derived their name from a kind of knife for which they were known. The seax has a lasting symbolic impact in the English counties of Essex and Middlesex, both of which feature three seaxes in their ceremonial emblem, their names, along with those of Sussex and Wessex, contain a remnant of the word "Saxon". The Elizabethan era play Edmund Ironside suggests the Saxon name derives from the Latin saxa: Their names discover what their natures are, More hard than stones, yet not stones indeed. In the Celtic languages, the words designating English nationality derive from the Latin word Saxones; the most prominent example, a loanword in English, is the Scottish word Sassenach, used by Scots- or Scottish English-speakers in the 21st century as a jocular term for an English person. The Oxford English Dictionary gives 1771 as the date of the earliest written use of the word in English, it derives from the Scottish Gaelic Sasannach. The Gaelic name for England is Sasann, Sasannach means "English" in reference to people and things, though not to the English Language, Beurla.
Sasanach, the Irish word for an Englishman, has the same derivation, as do the words used in Welsh to describe the English people and the language and things English in general: Saesneg and Seisnig. Cornish terms the English Sawsnek, from the same derivation. In the 16th century Cornish-speakers used the phrase Meea navidna cowza sawzneck to feign ignorance of the English language."England" in Scottish Gaelic is Sasann. Other examples include the Welsh Saesneg, Irish Sasana, Breton saoz, Cornish Sowson and Pow Sows for'Land of Saxons'; the label "Saxons" became attached to German settlers who migrated during the 13th century to southeastern Transylvania. From Transylvania, some of these Saxons migrated to neighbouring Moldavia, as the name of the town Sas-cut shows. Sascut lies in the part of Moldavia, today part of Romania. During Georg Friederich Händel's visit to Italy, much was made of his origins in Saxony; the Finns and Estonians have changed their usage of the root Saxon over the centuries to apply now to the whole country of Germany and the Germans.
The Finnish word sakset reflects the name of the old Saxon single-edged sword - seax - from which the name "Saxon" derives. In Estonian, saks means "a nobleman" or, colloquially, "a wealthy or powerful person"; the word survives as the surnames of Saß/Sass and Sachs. The Dutch female first name, Saskia meant "A Saxon woman". Following the downfall of Henry the Lion, the subsequent splitt
The public domain consists of all the creative works to which no exclusive intellectual property rights apply. Those rights may have been forfeited, expressly waived, or may be inapplicable; the works of William Shakespeare and Beethoven, most early silent films, are in the public domain either by virtue of their having been created before copyright existed, or by their copyright term having expired. Some works are not covered by copyright, are therefore in the public domain—among them the formulae of Newtonian physics, cooking recipes, all computer software created prior to 1974. Other works are dedicated by their authors to the public domain; the term public domain is not applied to situations where the creator of a work retains residual rights, in which case use of the work is referred to as "under license" or "with permission". As rights vary by country and jurisdiction, a work may be subject to rights in one country and be in the public domain in another; some rights depend on registrations on a country-by-country basis, the absence of registration in a particular country, if required, gives rise to public-domain status for a work in that country.
The term public domain may be interchangeably used with other imprecise or undefined terms such as the "public sphere" or "commons", including concepts such as the "commons of the mind", the "intellectual commons", the "information commons". Although the term "domain" did not come into use until the mid-18th century, the concept "can be traced back to the ancient Roman Law, as a preset system included in the property right system." The Romans had a large proprietary rights system where they defined "many things that cannot be owned" as res nullius, res communes, res publicae and res universitatis. The term res nullius was defined as things not yet appropriated; the term res communes was defined as "things that could be enjoyed by mankind, such as air and ocean." The term res publicae referred to things that were shared by all citizens, the term res universitatis meant things that were owned by the municipalities of Rome. When looking at it from a historical perspective, one could say the construction of the idea of "public domain" sprouted from the concepts of res communes, res publicae, res universitatis in early Roman law.
When the first early copyright law was first established in Britain with the Statute of Anne in 1710, public domain did not appear. However, similar concepts were developed by French jurists in the 18th century. Instead of "public domain", they used terms such as publici juris or propriété publique to describe works that were not covered by copyright law; the phrase "fall in the public domain" can be traced to mid-19th century France to describe the end of copyright term. The French poet Alfred de Vigny equated the expiration of copyright with a work falling "into the sink hole of public domain" and if the public domain receives any attention from intellectual property lawyers it is still treated as little more than that, left when intellectual property rights, such as copyright and trademarks, expire or are abandoned. In this historical context Paul Torremans describes copyright as a, "little coral reef of private right jutting up from the ocean of the public domain." Copyright law differs by country, the American legal scholar Pamela Samuelson has described the public domain as being "different sizes at different times in different countries".
Definitions of the boundaries of the public domain in relation to copyright, or intellectual property more regard the public domain as a negative space. According to James Boyle this definition underlines common usage of the term public domain and equates the public domain to public property and works in copyright to private property. However, the usage of the term public domain can be more granular, including for example uses of works in copyright permitted by copyright exceptions; such a definition regards work in copyright as private property subject to fair-use rights and limitation on ownership. A conceptual definition comes from Lange, who focused on what the public domain should be: "it should be a place of sanctuary for individual creative expression, a sanctuary conferring affirmative protection against the forces of private appropriation that threatened such expression". Patterson and Lindberg described the public domain not as a "territory", but rather as a concept: "here are certain materials – the air we breathe, rain, life, thoughts, ideas, numbers – not subject to private ownership.
The materials that compose our cultural heritage must be free for all living to use no less than matter necessary for biological survival." The term public domain may be interchangeably used with other imprecise or undefined terms such as the "public sphere" or "commons", including concepts such as the "commons of the mind", the "intellectual commons", the "information commons". A public-domain book is a book with no copyright, a book, created without a license, or a book where its copyrights expired or have been forfeited. In most countries the term of protection of copyright lasts until January first, 70 years after the death of the latest living author; the longest copyright term is in Mexico, which has life plus 100 years for all deaths since July 1928. A notable exception is the United States, where every book and tale published prior to 1924 is in the public domain.