Pratt & Whitney Canada JT15D
The Pratt & Whitney Canada JT15D is a small turbofan engine built by Pratt & Whitney Canada. It was introduced in 1971 at 2,200 lbf thrust, has since undergone a series of upgrades to just over 3,000 lbf thrust in the latest versions, it is the primary powerplant for a wide variety of smaller jet aircraft, notably business jets. The JT15D is rare among modern turbofans in that it uses a centrifugal compressor as its main high-pressure system; this was a common feature of early jet engines, but was replaced by axial compressors in most roles due to its large frontal size. In the turbofan role most of the jet thrust is generated by the cold air blown past the engine, the internal "jet" portion is quite small. In this role the high single-stage compression of the centrifugal design has advantages, the main reason most small turbofans don't use them is that they are developments of previous turbojet designs. In the JT15D the fan blows about 70% of the air into the bypass duct, producing most of the overall thrust.
On JT15D-4 models and above there is a small "booster" axial stage just behind the fan, running at the same speed as the fan and directing the remaining 30% of the airflow into the engine core. This air is further compressed by the centrifugal stage, burned in a reverse-flow annular combustor; the hot gases flow through a "high-pressure" turbine that drives the centrifugal stage, two more turbines driving the fan and booster. The engine was first run in August 1967 before being test flown on a Avro Canada CF-100 Canuck in an underslung external test pod. JT15D-1 The first model was introduced to power the Cessna Citation I known as the Fanjet 500. Deliveries started in 1972, on 1,417 -1s were delivered. JT15D-1A JT15D-1B JT15D-4 Introduced in 1973, improving thrust to 2,500 lbf; the -4 was the primary engine for the Cessna Citation II, went on to find use on the Mitsubishi Diamond 1A, Aerospatiale Corvette and SIAI-Marchetti S.211. 2,195 engines of the -4 series were delivered. JT15D-4A JT15D-4B JT15D-4C JT15D-4D JT15D-5 Certified in 1983.
The first versions delivered 2,900 lbf and were used on the Beechjet 400A and Cessna T-47A. Several minor versions were introduced, the -5A for the Cessna Citation V, while the -5B powered the Beechcraft T-1A Jayhawk, the -5C the DASA Ranger 2000 and S-211A. JT15D-5A JT15D-5B JT15D-5C JT15D-5D Certified in 1993, increased thrust again, this time to 3,045 lbf; the -5 D is used on the Cessna Cessna Citation Ultra. JT15D-5F Aérospatiale Corvette Alenia Aermacchi M-311 Boeing Bird of Prey Beechcraft Beechjet 400 Cessna Citation I Cessna Citation II Cessna Citation V/Ultra Hawker 400 Honda MH02 Mitsubishi MU-300 Diamond Northrop Grumman X-47A Pegasus Raytheon T-1 Jayhawk Rockwell Ranger 2000 Scaled Composites 401 SIAI Marchetti S.211/Aermacchi S-211 Sport Jet II Type: Turbofan Length: 60.5 inches Diameter: 27 inches Dry weight: 630 pounds Compressor: Axial flow LP, centrifugal flow HP Maximum thrust: 3,050 pounds Specific fuel consumption: 0.562 lb/ at max, 0.552 lb/ at cruise Thrust-to-weight ratio: 4.58/1 PWC JT15D Product Overview page
Cessna Citation V
The Cessna Citation V is a business jet built by Cessna, stretched from the Citation II. A prototype flew in August 1987, it was certified on December 9, 1988 and delivered from April 1987, 774 were delivered until 2011; the upgraded Citation Ultra was announced in September 1993, the Citation Encore upgraded with PW535 turbofans was announced in 1998, before the improved Encore+. Its US Military designation is UC-35; the Citation V is a stretched Citation II/SP, allowing a standard eight seats, with more powerful Pratt & Whitney Canada JT15D5A turbofans. The Model 560 variants are the fastest and farthest flying jets with the type certificate of the original Citation 500; the passenger cabin is 17.3 ft long, 4.9 by 4.8 ft wide and high with a dropped aisle, has seven windows on each side and accommodates a four-seat club plus three chairs and a closed, belted lavatory. A preproduction prototype flew in early 1986 and the first engineering prototype made its maiden flight in August 1987; the Citation V was announced at the NBAA convention that year, US certification was granted on December 9, 1988 and 262 were delivered between April 1987 and mid 1994.
The 1988 Citation V was followed in 1994 by the Citation Ultra with more thrust, the Citation Encore in 2001 the Citation Encore+ in 2007 through early 2010. By 2018, Citation V/Ultra were priced at $1.1-1.6 million. The upgraded Citation V Ultra was announced in September 1993 and FAA certification was granted in June 1994, it features more powerful Honeywell Primus 1000 EFIS avionics. Deliveries amounted to 279. In 1994, the Ultra was named Flying magazine's "Best Business Jet" and it was produced until 1999. Both the Citation V and Ultra hold 5814 pounds of fuel; the Citation Ultra Encore was announced at the 1998 NBAA convention, upgraded with new PW535 engines, plus trailing link main undercarriage, more fuel capacity, updated interior and improved systems. Its maximum cruise altitude is FL 450. Deliveries amounted to 168; the Encore was certified in April 2000 with first delivery in late September 2000. The upgraded Citation Encore+ was offered from 2007 through early 2010. Deliveries amounted to 65.
It was certified by the FAA in December 2006. The Encore+ adds FADEC and Rockwell Collins Pro Line 21 avionics with a center MFD and both side PFDs, its weight increased by 200 lb and equipped, it can haul a 850–1,170 lb payload with full fuel. It can take off in 3,520 ft in ISA conditions, has good hot-and-high performance and climbs directly to FL 450 in 27 min, it has a 1,800 nmi range at 390 kn TAS, the CJ3+ speed but slower than a CJ4. It can fly with one pilot but most are operated with two. Fuel burn is 1,200 lb for the first hour 900–1,000 lb, it costs $1,800-1,900 per hour overall with December 2018 fuel prices and $325,000 for fixed expenses. Light checkups are due every 150 h, basic maintenance at 300 h or 24 months, comprehensive inspections at 1,200 h or 36 months, engine hot section inspections at 2,500 h with 5,000 h overhauls and simple inspections at 10,000 and 12,000 h and at 10,000 and 15,000 landings. An Encore+ is valued at $3.4-3.8 million in December 2018 and it benefits from Textron Aviation’s support.
The CJ3 has better fuel efficiency and runway performance but a shorter cabin, the Learjet 45XR cruises faster and hauls more but needs longer runways and burns more fuel, while the CJ4 has better payload/range but is more expensive. Softer landing trailing link main landing gear reduced fuel tank capacity to 5,440 pounds, 360 pounds less than the Ultra's, but it has more range; the wheel track was narrowed 3.7 feet for better ground easier crosswind landing. The wing leading edge is de-iced by Bleed air. Boundary layer energizers and a stall fence improve stall characteristics. Pressurization is digitally controlled and brake modulation is improved. Redesigned interior fittings and passenger seats provide more seated headroom. Passenger service units provide more airflow and temperature control. MTOW increases by 330 pounds to 16,630 pounds, to carry five passengers with full fuel, lengthening takeoff from the 3,180 feet needed by the Ultra; the improved PW535 high altitude thrust allow the Encore to climb cruise higher.
The UC-35A is the United States Army designation and UC-35C is the United States Marine Corps designation for the Citation Ultra, which replaced older versions of the C-12 Huron. Another version of the Model 560 is the OT-47B "Tracker", five of which were purchased by the Department of Defense for use in drug interdiction reconnaissance operations, based at Maxwell Air Force Base; the OT-47B utilizes the WF-360TL imaging system. The OT-47Bs have been operated on loan to the Colombian Air Peruvian Navy; the UC-35B is the Army designation and UC-35D is the Marine Corps designation for the Citation Encore. Citation V, growth variant of the Citation II/SP JT15D-5A Citation Ultra upgraded Citation V with JT15D-5D, EFIS instruments Citation Encore upgraded Citation Ultra with PW535A engines and improved trailing-link landing gear Citation Encore+ upgraded Encore includes FADEC and a redesigned avionics. UC-35A Army and Air Force transport version of the V Ultra. UC-35B Army transport version of the Encore UC-35C Marine Corps version of the V Ultra.
UC-35D Marine Corps version of the Encore. OT-47B "Tracker" The DoD purchased five OT-47B models for drug interdiction reconnaissance; the aircraft is operated by private individuals, fractionals, charter operators and aircraft management companies. ColombiaColombian Air Force PakistanPakistan Army — 1 × Citation V United St
Cessna Citation III
The Cessna Citation III is an American business jet with 2,350 nmi of range produced by Cessna and part of the Citation Family Announced at the October 1976 NBAA convention, it made its maiden flight on May 30, 1979, received its type certification on April 30, 1982 and was delivered between 1983 and 1992. The cheaper Citation VI was produced from 1991 to 1995 and the more powerful Citation VII was offered between 1992 and 2000, 360 of all variants were delivered. An all new design, it had a 312 sq ft swept wing for a 22,000 lb MTOW, a T-tail and two 3,650–4,080 lbf TFE731 turbofans, its fuselage cross section and cockpit were kept in the Citation X, Citation Excel and Citation Sovereign. In 1974, Cessna studied a long range model 700 stretch of its original Citation I powered by three JT15Ds called Citation III, with a 17,500 lb gross weight, an 8,000 lb empty weight and a 7,500 lb fuel capacity leaving 2,000 lb for the occupants, targeting 1978 deliveries; this would have gave it a transcontinental range.
Cessna announced the 10 to 15 passengers, $2.5 million Citation III at the Fall 1976 NBAA convention. Scheduled for 1980, the model presented had a cruciform tail and a cockpit similar to previous Citations; as the proposed three-engined Models 600 and 700 timing was inadequate, it would be powered by two TFE731 and would be lifted by a supercritical 35° swept wing. Its maximum cruise was targeted for 470kn, the long-range version had a 19,300lb gross weight and would cover 3,000 nmi; the programme was to cost up to $50 million to launch. In 1978, it had a specific cockpit and a T-tail, the wing had an area of 312ft² and an aspect ratio of 8.94, the ER version targeted a MTOW of 18,300 lb and an empty weight of 9,400 lb. Assembly of the first production aircraft began in January 1979 and the first prototype made its maiden flight in May; the second prototype first flew in April 1980. By July, certification was put back by six months and first deliveries were scheduled 11 months than planned. $40 million were spent on R&D and $25 million for certification, for a total spending of $150 million by first delivery including tooling.
By October, the two prototypes had logged 400 hours in 372 flights and FAR-25 certification was expected in April 1982 with first deliveries in October. The initial late 1982 production rate of one per month should grow to seven per month by 1985; the FAA approved its type certificate on April 30, 1982. The aircraft is flown by a crew of two and it can seat up to 13 passengers but a typical corporate interior will seat six to eight passengers, it was developed in seven years for $240 million. The first production model, owned by golfer Arnold Palmer, set time to altitude aircraft records of 12 min 1 s to 12,000 m, 23 min 43 s to 15,000 m, an airspeed record from Gander Airport to Paris le Bourget in 5 h 13 min, averaging 429 kn. Production continued for nine years with a total of 202 Citation IIIs being built. By 2018, The Citation III/VI/VII can be had for $0.5-1.5 million. In 1988 Cessna studied a 4 ft stretch, longer range Citation IV to better compete with the BAe 125 with new engines, either Garretts or Pratt & Whitney PW300s.
At the time, the 473 kn, 2,385 nmi range. Cessna launched the $8.8 million Citation IV at the October 1989 NBAA convention in Atlanta. It was expected to fly in early 1992, to be certified at the end of the year and to enter service in mid-1993. Powered by Garrett TFE731-4s, wingspan increased by 10% to 58.7 ft and wing area was up a quarter. Fuel capacity increased from 7,330 to 8,700 lb, max takeoff weight attained 24,000 lb and the cabin was 38 in longer. Performance was increased and it had a 2,710 nmi transcontinental range. In 1990, Cessna cancelled the bigger, longer range and more expensive Citation IV to offer the cheaper VI and more capable VIII. For $1.4 million less than the $8.1 million III, the Citation VI has a standard interior and was to be delivered from April 1991. It first flew in 1991 and 39 were built before it was discontinued in May 1995. For $1.65 million more than the III, the Citation VII has more powerful engines to improve the payload-range and hot and high performance.
It first flew in February 1991 and was certificated in January 1992. In 1996 Executive Jet Aviation ordered 20 for its Netjets fractional ownership programme. After the launch of the $12 million Citation Sovereign due for certification in the third quarter of 2003 and first delivery for the first quarter of 2004, the final Citation 650 was set to roll off the assembly line on 15 September 2000, 119 were built. SpainSpanish Navy - One Citation VII Data from FrawleyGeneral characteristics Crew: 2 Capacity: 6-9 Passengers Length: 55 ft 5 in Wingspan: 53 ft 6 in Height: 16 ft 10 in Wing area: 312 sq ft Aspect ratio: 9.17 Empty weight: 11,810 lb operating empty: 12,200lb, VII: 11,720lb Max takeoff weight: 22,002 lb VII: 22,450lb Powerplant: 2 × Garrett TFE731-3B Turbofans, 3,650 lbf thrust each VII: 4080lbf TFE731-4RPerformance Maximum speed: Mach MMo Mach.851 Cruise speed: 472 kn.
The wing configuration of a fixed-wing aircraft is its arrangement of lifting and related surfaces. Aircraft designs are classified by their wing configuration. For example, the Supermarine Spitfire is a conventional low wing cantilever monoplane of straight elliptical planform with moderate aspect ratio and slight dihedral. Many variations have been tried. Sometimes the distinction between them is blurred, for example the wings of many modern combat aircraft may be described either as cropped compound deltas with swept trailing edge, or as tapered swept wings with large leading edge root extensions; some are therefore duplicated here under more than one heading. This is so for variable geometry and combined wing types. Most of the configurations described here have flown on full-size aircraft. A few significant theoretical designs are noted. Note on terminology: Most fixed-wing aircraft have left hand and right hand wings in a symmetrical arrangement; such a pair of wings is called a wing plane or just plane.
However, in certain situations it is common to refer to a plane as a wing, as in "a biplane has two wings", or to refer to the whole thing as a wing, as in "a biplane wing has two planes". Where the meaning is clear, this article follows common usage, only being more precise where needed to avoid real ambiguity or incorrectness. Fixed-wing aircraft can have different numbers of wings: Monoplane: one wing plane. Since the 1930s most aeroplanes have been monoplanes; the wing may be mounted at various positions relative to the fuselage: Low wing: mounted near or below the bottom of the fuselage. Mid wing: mounted halfway up the fuselage. Shoulder wing: mounted on the upper part or "shoulder" of the fuselage below the top of the fuselage. A shoulder wing is sometimes considered a subtype of high wing. High wing: mounted on the upper fuselage; when contrasted to the shoulder wing, applies to a wing mounted on a projection above the top of the main fuselage. Parasol wing: raised clear above the top of the fuselage by cabane struts, pylon or pedestal.
A fixed-wing aircraft may have more than one wing plane, stacked one above another: Biplane: two wing planes of similar size, stacked one above the other. The biplane is inherently lighter and stronger than a monoplane and was the most common configuration until the 1930s; the first Wright Flyer I was a biplane. Unequal-span biplane: a biplane in which one wing is shorter than the other, as on the Curtiss JN-4 Jenny of the First World War. Sesquiplane: "one-and-a-half planes" is a type of biplane in which the lower wing is smaller than the upper wing, either in span or chord or both; the Nieuport 17 of World War I was notably successful. Inverted sesquiplane: has a smaller upper wing; the Fiat CR.1 was in production for many years. Triplane: three planes stacked one above another. Triplanes such as the Fokker Dr. I enjoyed a brief period of popularity during the First World War due to their manoeuvrability, but were soon replaced by improved biplanes. Quadruplane: four planes stacked one above another.
A small number of the Armstrong Whitworth F. K. 10 never saw service. Multiplane: many planes, sometimes used to mean more than one or more than some arbitrary number; the term is applied to arrangements stacked in tandem as well as vertically. The 1907 Multiplane of Horatio Frederick Phillips flew with two hundred wing foils. See the tandem wing, below. A staggered design has the upper wing forward of the lower. Long thought to reduce the interference caused by the low pressure air over the lower wing mixing with the high pressure air under the upper wing, it is common on triplanes. Backwards stagger is seen in a few examples such as the Beechcraft Staggerwing. A tandem wing design has two wings, one behind the other: see foreplanes below; some early types had tandem stacks of multiple planes, such as the nine-wing Caproni Ca.60 flying boat with three triplane stacks in tandem. A cruciform wing is a set of four individual wings arranged in the shape of a cross; the cross may take either of two forms: Wings spaced around the cross-section of the fuselage, lying in two planes at right angles, as on a typical missile.
Wings lying together in a single horizontal plane about a vertical axis, as in the cruciform rotor wing or X-wing. To support itself a wing has to be rigid and strong and may be heavy. By adding external bracing, the weight can be reduced; such bracing was always present, but it causes a large amount of drag at higher speeds and has not been used for faster designs since the early 1930s. The types are: Cantilevered: self-supporting. All the structure is buried under the aerodynamic skin. Braced: the wings are supported by external structural members. Nearly all multi-plane designs are braced; some monoplanes early designs such as the Fokker Eindecker, are braced to save weight. Braced wings are of two types: Strut braced: one or more stiff struts help to support the wing, as on the Fokker D. VII. A strut may act in tension at different points in the flight regime. Wire braced: alone or, more in addition to struts, tension wires help to support the wing. Unlike a strut, a wire can act only in tension.
A braced multiplane may have one or more "bays", which are the compa
Cessna Citation Hemisphere
The Cessna Citation Hemisphere is a 4,500 nautical miles range, Mach 0.9 business jet project by Cessna. Announced in November 2015, it was expected to fly in 2019 but its development was suspended in April 2018 due to a delay in the development of its Safran Silvercrest engines. Announced at the 2015 National Business Aviation Association conference with the widest cabin in its class, it was expected to fly in 2019. Although the Snecma Silvercrest was selected, the process was re-opened to the Pratt & Whitney Canada PW800; the Silvercrest with over 12,000 lbf of thrust was confirmed for the 2016 NBAA Convention, along the selection of Honeywell Primus Epic cockpit and Thales Group fly-by-wire flight control system. The Silvercrest axial-centrifugal high-pressure compressor architecture is common below 7,000 lbf but rare in its 10,000–12,000 lbf range, the pressure losses complexity at the final centrifugal stage made it slow to respond to commands in high altitude tests; this made Dassault cancel its silvercrest-powered Falcon 5X, but the Hemisphere business case depends on it as it could lead to the best fuel efficiency in the segment.
Textron is confident. In April 2018, development was suspended to see how Safran manage the Silvercrest problems before a decision on its continuation is made, or to defer it or to switch to another engine. In May 2018, Safran announced it had launched a high-pressure compressor redesign for a go-ahead decision by the middle of 2019, after testing, shelving the Hemisphere program if problems cannot be fixed; the redesigned compressor will be tested in July 2019 to prove the engine operation. On October 15, 2018, fractional operator NetJets announced the purchase of up to 150 Hemispheres, priced at $35 million each, along 175 Citation Longitude, sold for $26 million. Data from Citation HemisphereGeneral characteristics Capacity: 12 passengers Fuselage diameter: 102 inches Powerplant: 2 × Snecma Silvercrest turbofans, 12,000 lbf thrust eachPerformance Cruise speed: 516 kn mach 0.9 Range: 4,500 nmi Cabin Altitude: 5,000 ft Related development Cessna Citation series Cessna Citation ColumbusAircraft of comparable role and era Bombardier Challenger 650 Dassault Falcon 2000LXS/EX Dassault Falcon 900
Cessna Citation Mustang
The Cessna Citation Mustang is a light jet built by Cessna. Launched at the 2002 NBAA convention, it first flew on 23 April 2005, it received its FAA type certification September 8, 2006, was first delivered on November 22 and production ended in 2017 after 479 aircraft were built. The 8,645 lb MTOW jet is powered by two 1,460 lbf P&WC PW615F turbofans, can reach 340 kn and can cover 1,167 nmi. Launched at the 2002 NBAA convention, the $2.4 million Mustang first flew on 23 April 2005. The airplane received full type certification from the Federal Aviation Administration on September 8, 2006. Cessna received FAA certification to fly into "known icing conditions" on November 9, 2006. Cessna delivered the first production LJ on November 22, 2006, the same day the FAA awarded Cessna with the necessary certification. Dave and Dawn Goode of GOODE Ski Technologies received the first retail delivered Cessna Mustang on April 23, 2007. In 2010, Cessna launched an enhanced edition of the aircraft called the High Sierra, which features higher quality cabin furnishings and enhanced avionics, including synthetic vision.
Cessna ended production of the design in May 2017. Production ended due to lack of customer demand for the aircraft, as a result of competition from the company's own Cessna Citation M2; the company had been selling an average of 40 Mustangs per year until the M2 was introduced in 2013 and Mustang sales dropped to just 24 aircraft over the next three years. The M2 is a faster and larger aircraft, but can operate from similar length runways and requires only a single pilot with the C/E-525 type rating, which reduced training and crewing costs over the Mustang. A total of 479 examples of the Citation Mustang were produced. In 2018, used 2009-2016 Mustangs were priced at $1.85-2.5 million. The Mustang is a low-wing cantilever monoplane with a swept wing, T-tail and retractable tricycle gear. One main door is located in the forward left section of the aircraft, with an additional emergency exit on the center right section of the fuselage; the Mustang, in standard configuration, has four passenger seats in the aft cabin, a toilet, seating for two in the cockpit.
The airframe is of aluminum alloy construction, with a three spar wing. Power is provided by two Pratt & Whitney Canada PW615F turbofans, mounted in pods on the aft fuselage, it is built at the Cessna production facility in Kansas. Like many other light jets, the Mustang is approved for single-pilot operation. Data from Cessna Aircraft CompanyGeneral characteristics Crew: one or two pilots Capacity: 4 to 5 passengers Length: 40 feet 7 inches Wingspan: 43 feet 2 inches Height: 13 feet 5 inches Empty weight: 5600 lb Useful load: 3130 lb Max. Takeoff weight: 8645 lb Powerplant: 2 × Pratt & Whitney Canada PW615F turbofans, 1460 lb thrust eachPerformance Maximum speed: Mach 0.63 Cruise speed: 340 ktas Range: 1167 nmi Service ceiling: 41000 ft Rate of climb: 3010 fpm Thrust/weight: 0.337 Takeoff distance: 3,110 ft Landing distance: 2,380 ft Avionics Garmin G1000 Half of the fleet is in the U. S. and Canada operated by firms or individuals owning a single aircraft and flown by their owners, with some owners defraying a portion of the fixed operating costs by sharing use with air charters.
Outside of North America, most are flown by third-party crews. Most of the other half of the fleet is based in Europe: 23 aircraft in the British Isles, 20 aircraft in Austria, 20 in France, 11 in Germany, six in the Czech Republic, five in Switzerland and four in Italy. In Latin America, Brazil has 31 aircraft, there are 10 in Mexico, three in Argentina, two in Venezuela and one each in Chile, Guatemala and Paraguay. In the Middle East four are in Turkey, as in Egypt and two are in Israel. Six are in nine in Australia and five in New Zealand. On Thursday 14 December 2017, OE-FWD operated by Skytaxi Luftfahrt from Egelsbach Airport crashed approaching to Friedrichshafen Airport, Germany, 15 km from the runway, killing the lone passenger and the two crewmembers including its captain, company CEO and chief pilot Adi Anderst; this was its first major accident in a decade. Aircraft of comparable role and era Eclipse 500 / 550 Embraer Phenom 100 Cessna Citation M2 HondaJet Cirrus Vision SF50 Manufacturer's website FAA Type Certificate A00014WI
Cessna Citation II
The Cessna Citation II series of Citation jets are light corporate jets built by Cessna. Stretched from the Citation I, it was announced in September 1976, first flew on January 31, 1977 was certified in March 1978; the II/SP is a single pilot version, the improved S/II first flew on February 14, 1984 and the Citation Bravo upgraded with new avionics and P&WC PW530A turbofans on April 25, 1995, while the United States used it as the T-47. Production ceased in 2006; the Citation II stretches the Citation I fuselage by 1.14m, increasing seating capacity to 10 and baggage capacity. Wingspan was increased, its larger fuel capacity and more powerful, 2,500 lbf Pratt & Whitney Canada JT15D4 engines provided higher cruise speeds and longer range; the stretched Citation was announced in September 1976, it first flew on January 31 1977 and FAA certification was awarded in March 1978, the II/SP is the single pilot version. A total of 688 aircraft were delivered; the improved Citation S/II was announced in October 1983 and first flew on February 14, 1984, before certification in July.
It gained a supercritical airfoil developed for the Citation JT15D4B turbofans. It replaced the II from 1984, but the II resumed production from late 1985, both were built until the Bravo introduction. Deliveries of the S/II amount to 160; the improved 2,500 lbf JT15D-4B has higher temperatures components, allowing more thrust at higher altitudes. It could seat 11 people and fuel capacity was increased to 5820 lbs. TKS fluid de-icing was used on airfoils leading edges in addition to bleed air for the engines. By 2018, 1970s-1980s model IISPs were valued at $300,000-700,000; the Citation Bravo first flew on April 25, 1995, was granted certification in August 1996 and was first delivered in February 1997. It features new P&WC PW530A turbofans, modern Honeywell Primus EFIS avionics, a revised Citation Ultra interior and a trailing link main undercarriage. Production of the Bravo ceased in late 2006, its more efficient PW530A generates 15% more thrust at takeoff and 23% more at altitude. It burns 1,100 lb of fuel in the first hour, dropping to 750–830 lb the second hour cruising at 360–365 kn at FL410-430 and 637 lb the third hour at 350 kn and FL450.
The engine overhaul every 4,000 hours cost $1 million or $275 at power by the Hour. In 2018, early 1997 models starts at up to $1.7 million for 2006 planes. The competing Beechjet 400A is roomier and faster but needs more fuel and more runway, the compact Learjet 31A is faster but have less range, the faster and more expensive Citation V Ultra have a longer cabin but consumes more fuel; the US Customs & Border Protection purchased ten Citation IIs configured with fire control radar and the WF-360TL imaging system. These aircraft have been used in Panama, Colombia, Venezuela and Aruba; the similar OT-47B aircraft are based on the Cessna Citation V airframe. The Model 552 T-47A was the designation given by the U. S. Navy to the Citation II. Fifteen aircraft were purchased by the Navy to train Naval Flight Officers its Navy F-14 Tomcat Radar Intercept Officers and Marine Corps A-6 Intruder Bombardier/Navigators and Marine Corps EA-6B Prowler Electronic Warfare Officers, Marine Corps F/A-18D Hornet Weapon Systems Officers and Navy S-3 Viking Copilot/Tactical Coordinators.
The T-47A was modified by incorporating JT15D5 engines, shortened wings, multiple radar consoles and the AN/APQ-167 radar system. The T-47As were operated by Training Air Squadron Eighty Six, based at Naval Air Station Pensacola, Florida. All but one of the T-47As were destroyed in a hangar fire, the Navy replaced them with upgraded T-39s Citation II a larger stretched development of the Model 500 first produced in 1978. Replaced by the S/II in production, but was brought back and produced side-by-side with the S/II until the Bravo was introduced. T-47A is the military designation of the Citation II; the United States Navy purchased 15 T-47A aircraft as radar system trainers. Citation II/SP single-pilot operations Citation S/II incorporated a number of improvements an improved wing. Replaced the II in production. Citation Bravo updated S/II with new PW530A engines, landing gear and Primus 1000 avionics; the last Citation Bravo rolled off the production line in late 2006, ending a nearly 10-year production run of 337 aircraft.
ArgentinaArgentine Army Aviation Colombia EcuadorEcuadorian Army MyanmarMyanmar Air Force NigeriaNigerian Air Force PakistanPakistan Army Saudi ArabiaRoyal Saudi Air Force South Africa SpainSpanish Air Force Spanish Navy National Police Corps of Spain SwedenSwedish Air Force TurkeyTurkish Air Force United StatesUnited States Navy VenezuelaVenezuelan Air Force Data from Jane's All the World's Aircraft 1993–94General characteristics Crew: Two Capacity: Six to eight passengers Length: 47 ft 8 1⁄2 in Wingspan: 52 ft 2 1⁄2 in Height: 15 ft 0 in Wing area: 342.6 sq ft Airfoil: NACA 23000 Empty weight: 8,059 lb Max takeoff weight: 15,100 lb Fuel capacity: 862 US gal usable fuel Powerplant: 2 × Pratt & Whitney Canada JT15D-4B turbofans, 2,500 lbf thrust eachPerformance Maximum speed: Mach 0.721 Cruise speed: 403 kn at 35,000 ft Stall speed: 82 kn Range: 1,998 nmi Service ceiling: 43,000 ft (max oper