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Château

A château is a manor house or residence of the lord of the manor or a country house of nobility or gentry, with or without fortifications and still most in French-speaking regions. The word chateau is a French word that has entered the English language, where its meaning is more specific than it is in French; the French word "chateau" denotes buildings as diverse as a medieval fortress, a Renaissance palace and a 19th-century country house. Care should therefore be taken when translating the French word château into English, noting the nature of the building in question. Most French châteaux are "palaces" or "country houses" and not "castles", for these the English word "chateau" is appropriate. Sometimes the word "palace" is more appropriate. To give an outstanding example, the Château de Versailles called in French « le palais de Versailles » is so called because it was located in the countryside when it was built, but it does not bear any resemblance to a castle, so it is known in English as the Palace of Versailles.

In French where clarification is needed, the term château fort is used to describe a castle, such as Château fort de Roquetaillade. The urban counterpart of château is palais, which in French is applied only to grand houses in a city; this usage is again different from that of the term "palace" in English, where there is no requirement that a palace must be in a city, but the word is used for buildings other than the grandest royal residences. The expression hôtel particulier is used for an urban "private house" of a grand sort. A château is a "power house", as Sir John Summerson dubbed the British and Irish "stately homes" that are the British Isles' architectural counterparts to French châteaux, it is the personal badge of a family that, with some official rank, locally represents the royal authority. However, the quality of the residences could vary from royal châteaux owned by royalty and the wealthy elite near larger towns to run-down châteaux vacated by poor nobility and officials in the countryside isolated and vulnerable.

A château was supported by its terres, composing a demesne that rendered the society of the château self-sufficient, in the manner of the historic Roman and Early Medieval villa system. The open villas of Rome in the times of Pliny the Elder and Emperor Tiberius began to be walled-in, fortified in the 3rd century AD, thus evolving to castellar "châteaux". In modern usage, a château retains some enclosures that are distant descendants of these fortifying outworks: a fenced, closeable forecourt a gatehouse or a keeper's lodge, supporting outbuildings. Besides the cour d'honneur entrance, the château might have an inner cour, inside, in the private residence, the château faces a and discreetly enclosed park. In the city of Paris, the Louvre and the Luxembourg represented the original château but lost their château etymology, becoming "palaces" when the City enclosed them. In the U. S. the word château took root selectively, in the Gilded Age resort town of Newport, Rhode Island, the châteaux were called "cottages", north of Wilmington, Delaware, in the rich, rural "Château Country" centred upon the powerful Du Pont family, château is used with its original definition.

In Canada in English, château denotes a hotel, not a house, applies only to the largest, most elaborate railway hotels built in the Canadian Railroad golden age, such as the Château Lake Louise, in Lake Louise, the Château Laurier, in Ottawa, the Château Montebello, in Montebello and the most famous Château Frontenac, in Quebec City. Moreover, in other French-speaking European regions, such as Wallonia, the word Château is used with the same definition. In Belgium, a strong French architectural influence is evident in the seventeenth-century Château des Comtes de Marchin and the eighteenth-century Château de Seneffe. There are many estates with true châteaux on them in Bordeaux, but it is customary for any wine-producing estate, no matter how humble, to prefix its name with "Château". If there were any trace of doubt that the Roman villas of Aquitaine evolved into fortified self-contained châteaux, the wine-producing châteaux would dispel it. On the other hand, there are many striking châteaux in the Bordeaux region still depicting this Roman villa style of architecture, an example of this being Château Lagorce in Haux.

The Loire Valley is home to more than 300 châteaux. They were built between the 10th and 20th centuries, firstly by the French kings followed soon thereafter by the nobility. Alternatively, due to its moderate climate, wine growing soils and rich agricultural land, the Loire Valley is referred to as "The Garden of France"; the châteaux range from the large to more'human-scale' châteaux such as the Château de Beaulieu in Saumur or the medieval Château du Rivau close to Chinon which were built of the local tuffeau stone. The Château de Chenonceau is a French château spanning the River Cher, near the small village of Chenonceaux in the Indre-et-Loire department of the Loire Vall

James Elliott (musician)

James Elliott is an American electronic musician releasing solo material under the alias Ateleia. The name comes from ancient Greek meaning tax-free; the music is electronic psychedelic minimalism. Elliott was the co-founder of the record label Antiopic, he was a former member of New York-based bands School of Seven Bells and Bear in Heaven, playing bass guitar and computer in both bands. Elliott is a member of the band Test House. Nightly - Radium/Table of the Elements CD/EP, 2007 Formal Sleep - Xeric/Table of the Elements CD, 2007With contributions by David Grubbs, David Daniell, Jon Philpot and Sadek Bazaraa. Swimming Against The Moments - Antiopic CD, 2004 "Along A Space Diagonal" on "88 Tapes" - Kesh CD, 2008 "Grasses" on Impala Eardrums - Radium/Table of the Elements LP/CD, 2008 "Inman Division" - Tu M'p3 MP3, 2003 "Demystifying In Order To Mystify Better" on Deconstructive Music - More Mars 3xCD, 2007 "The Sun Sets On Critical Distance" on The Allegorical Power Series Volume IV - Antiopic MP3, 2003 "We Become A Threat" on The Allegorical Power Series Volume I - Antiopic MP3, 2003 Ateleia and Benjamin Curtis: Baghdad Batterie - Table of the Elements LP, 2008 School of Seven Bells: Face To Face On High Places - Radium/Table of the Elements LP, 2007 Bear in Heaven: Red Bloom of the Boom - Hometapes CD, 2007 Ateleia and David Daniell: "FTP" on The Wire Tapper 12 - Wire Magazine CD, 2004 Ateleia and David Daniell: "Fuck The Polis" on The Allegorical Power Series Volume VII - Antiopic MP3, 2003 Project Qua Project: "For Rachel Corrie" on The Allegorical Power Series Volume II - Antiopic MP3, 2003 ateleia.com, official website Ateleia discography at MusicBrainz Ateleia discography at Discogs Nightly review at BoomKat

Mount Watson

Mount Watson is a 2,955-metre mountain summit located in Mount Assiniboine Provincial Park, in the Canadian Rockies of British Columbia, Canada. Its nearest higher peak is The Marshall, 2.0 km to the southeast. The mountain was named in 1924 after Sir David Watson, commander of the 4th Canadian Division during World War II; the mountain's name was adopted on March 31, 1924 when approved by the Geographical Names Board of Canada. Mount Watson is composed of sedimentary rock laid down during the Cambrian period. Formed in shallow seas, this sedimentary rock was pushed east and over the top of younger rock during the Laramide orogeny. Based on the Köppen climate classification, Mount Watson is located in a subarctic climate with cold, snowy winters, mild summers. Temperatures can drop below −20 °C with wind chill factors below −30 °C. Precipitation runoff from Mount Watson drains into tributaries of the Mitchell River. List of mountains of Canada Geography of British Columbia Geology of British Columbia Mount Assiniboine Provincial Park