Professional wrestling is a form of performance art and entertainment that combines athletics with theatrical performance. It takes the form of events, held by touring companies; the unique form of sport portrayed is fundamentally based on classical and "catch" wrestling, with modern additions of striking attacks, strength-based holds and throws and acrobatic maneuvers. Much of these derive from the influence of various international martial arts. An additional aspect of combat with improvised weaponry is sometimes included to varying degrees; the matches have predetermined outcomes to heighten entertainment value and all combative maneuvers are executed with the full cooperation of those involved and performed in specific manners intended to lessen the chance of actual injury. These facts were once kept secret but are now a accepted open secret. To promote and sustain the willing suspension of disbelief by maintaining an aura of verisimilitude, the performing company avoids discussing the true nature of the performance in official media.
Fan communications by individual wrestlers and promotions through outside media directly acknowledge the dramatic and "fixed" nature of the spectacle. Originating as a popular form of entertainment in 19th-century Europe and as a sideshow exhibition in North American traveling carnivals and vaudeville halls, professional wrestling grew into a standalone genre of entertainment with many diverse variations in cultures around the globe, is now a billion dollar entertainment industry. Since the 1980s, local forms have declined in Europe, wrestling from North America has experienced several different periods of prominent cultural popularity during its century and a half of existence and has been exported back to Europe to fill the cultural gap left by the aforementioned decline of local versions; the advent of television gave professional wrestling a new outlet, wrestling was instrumental in making pay-per-view a viable method of content delivery. Show wrestling has become prominent in Central/North America and Europe.
In Brazil, there was a popular wrestling television program from the 1960s to the early 1980s called Telecatch. High-profile figures in the sport have become celebrities or cultural icons in their native or adopted home countries. Although professional wrestling started out as small acts in sideshows, traveling circuses and carnivals, today it is a billion-dollar industry. Revenue is drawn from ticket sales, network television broadcasts, pay-per-view broadcasts, branded merchandise and home video. Pro wrestling was instrumental in making pay-per-view a viable method of content delivery. Annual shows such as WrestleMania, Bound for Glory, Wrestle Kingdom and Starrcade are among the highest-selling pay-per-view programming each year. In modern day, internet programming has been utilized by a number of companies to air web shows, internet pay per views or on-demand content, helping to generate internet-related revenue earnings from the evolving World Wide Web. Home video sales dominate the Billboard charts Recreational Sports DVD sales, with wrestling holding anywhere from 3 to 9 of the top 10 spots every week.
Due to its persistent cultural presence and to its novelty within the performing arts, wrestling constitutes a recurring topic in both academia and the media. Several documentaries have been produced looking at professional wrestling, most notably, Beyond the Mat directed by Barry W. Blaustein, Wrestling with Shadows featuring wrestler Bret Hart and directed by Paul Jay. There have been many fictional depictions of wrestling; the largest professional wrestling company worldwide is the United States-based WWE, which bought out many smaller regional companies in the late 20th century, as well as its primary US competitors World Championship Wrestling and Extreme Championship Wrestling in early 2001. Other prominent professional wrestling companies worldwide include the US-based Impact Wrestling known as Total Nonstop Action Wrestling, Ring of Honor; when talking about professional wrestling, there are two levels: the "in-show" happenings that are presented through the shows, happenings which are outside the scope of performance but have implications on the performance, such as performer contracts, legitimate injuries, etc.
Because actual events are co-opted by writers for incorporation into storylines for the performers, the lines are blurred and become confused. Special care must be taken; the actions of the character should be considered fictional events, wholly separate from the life of the performer. This is similar to other entertainers; some wrestlers would incorporate elements of their real-life personalities into their characters if they and their in-ring persona have different names. Historians are unsure at what point wrestling changed from competitive catch wrestling into worked entertainment; those who participated felt that maintenance of a constant and complete illusion for all who were not involved was necessary to keep audience interest. For decades, wrestlers lived their public lives; the pra
The Indianapolis Colts are an American football team based in Indianapolis, Indiana. The Colts compete in the National Football League as a member club of the league's American Football Conference South division. Since the 2008 season, the Colts have played their games in Lucas Oil Stadium; the team had played for over two decades at the RCA Dome. Since 1987, the Colts have been the host team for the NFL Scouting Combine; the Colts have been a member club of the NFL since their founding in Baltimore in 1953. They were one of three NFL teams to join those of the American Football League to form the AFC following the 1970 merger. While in Baltimore, the team advanced to the playoffs 10 times and won three NFL Championship games in 1958, 1959, 1968; the Colts played in two Super Bowls while they were based in Baltimore, losing to the New York Jets in Super Bowl III and defeating the Dallas Cowboys in Super Bowl V. The Colts relocated to Indianapolis in 1984 and have since appeared in the playoffs 16 times, won two conference championships, won one Super Bowl, in which they defeated the Chicago Bears in Super Bowl XLI.
Following World War II, a competing professional football league was organized known as the All America Football Conference which began to play in the 1946 season. In its second year the franchise assigned to the Miami Seahawks was relocated to Maryland's major commercial and manufacturing city of Baltimore. After a fan contest the team was renamed the Baltimore Colts and used the team colors of silver and green; the Colts played for the next three seasons in the old AAFC. until they agreed to merge with the old National Football League when the NFL was reorganized. The Baltimore Colts were one of the three former AAFC powerhouse teams to merge with the NFL at that time, the others being the San Francisco 49ers and the Cleveland Browns; this new Colts team, now in the "big league" of professional American football for the first time, although with shaky financing and ownership, played only in the 1950 season of the reorganized "third" NFL, was disbanded and moved. Two years in 1953, a new Baltimore-based group supported by the City's municipal government and with a large subscription-base of fan-purchased season tickets, led by local owner Carroll Rosenbloom won the rights to a new Baltimore NFL franchise.
Rosenbloom was awarded the remains of the former Dallas Texans team, who themselves had a long and winding history starting as the Boston Yanks in 1944, merging with the Brooklyn Tigers, who were known as the Dayton Triangles, one of the original old NFL teams established before the League itself, in 1913. With the organization in 1920 of the original "American Professional Football Conference" two years in 1922, renamed a second time, now permanently as the "National Football League"; that team became the New York Yanks in 1950, many of the players from the New York Yankees of the former competing All-America Football Conference were added to the team to begin playing in the newly merged League for the 1950 season. The Yanks moved to Dallas in Texas after the 1951 season having competed for two seasons, but played their final two "home" games of the 1952 season as a so-called "road team" at the Rubber Bowl football stadium in Akron, Ohio; the NFL considers the Texans and Colts to be separate teams, although many of the earlier teams shared the same colors of blue and white.
Thus, the Indianapolis Colts are considered to be a 1953 expansion team. The third version of the Colts football team played their first season in Baltimore in 1953, where the team compiled a 3–9 record under first-year head coach Keith Molesworth; the franchise struggled during the first few years in Baltimore, with the team not achieving their first winning record until the 1957 season. However, under head coach Weeb Ewbank and the leadership of quarterback Johnny Unitas, the Colts went on to a 9–3 record during the 1958 season and reached the NFL Championship Game for the first time in their history by winning the NFL Western Conference; the Colts faced the New York Giants in the 1958 NFL Championship Game, considered to be among the greatest contests in professional football history. The Colts defeated the Giants 23–17 in the first game to utilize the overtime rule, a game seen by 45 million people. Following the Colts first NFL championship, the team posted a 9–3 record during the 1959 season and once again defeated the Giants in the NFL Championship Game to claim their second title in back to back fashion.
Following the two championships in 1958 and 1959, the Colts did not return to the NFL Championship for four seasons and replaced the head coach Ewbank with the young Don Shula in 1963. In Shula's second season the Colts compiled a 12–2 record, but lost to the Cleveland Browns in the NFL Championship. However, in 1968 the Colts returned with the continued leadership of Unitas and Shula and went on to win the Colts' third NFL Championship and made an appearance in Super Bowl III. Leading up to the Super Bowl and following the 34–0 trouncing of the Cleveland Browns in the NFL Championship, many were calling the 1968 Colts team one of the "greatest pro football teams of all time" and were favored by 18 points against their counterparts from the American Football League, the New York Jets; the Colts, were stunned by the Jets, who won the game 16–7 in the first Super Bowl victory for the young AFL. The result of the game surprised many in the sports media as Joe Namath and Matt Snell led the Jets to the Super Bowl victory under head coach Weeb Ewbank, who had won
The Chicago Bears are a professional American football team based in Chicago, Illinois. The Bears compete in the National Football League as a member club of the league's National Football Conference North division; the Bears have won nine NFL Championships, including one Super Bowl, hold the NFL record for the most enshrinees in the Pro Football Hall of Fame and the most retired jersey numbers. The Bears have recorded more victories than any other NFL franchise; the franchise was founded in Decatur, Illinois, on September 17, 1920, moved to Chicago in 1921. It is one of only two remaining franchises from the NFL's founding in 1920, along with the Arizona Cardinals, also in Chicago; the team played home games at Wrigley Field on Chicago's North Side through the 1970 season. The Bears have a long-standing rivalry with the Green Bay Packers; the team headquarters, Halas Hall, is in the Chicago suburb of Illinois. The Bears practice at adjoining facilities there during the season. Since 2002, the Bears have held their annual training camp, from late July to mid-August, at Ward Field on the campus of Olivet Nazarene University in Bourbonnais, Illinois.
In March of 1920 a man telephoned me... George Chamberlain and he was general superintendent of the A. E. Staley Company... In 1919, had formed a football team, it had done well against other local teams but Mr. Staley wanted to build it into a team that could compete with the best semi-professional and industrial teams in the country... Mr. Chamberlain asked if I would like to come to work for the Staley Company. Named the Decatur Staleys, the club was established by the A. E. Staley food starch company of Decatur, Illinois in 1919 as a company team; this was the typical start for several early professional football franchises. The company hired Edward "Dutch" Sternaman in 1920 to run the team; the 1920 Decatur Staleys season was their inaugural regular season completed in the newly formed American Professional Football Association. Full control of the team was turned over to Halas and Sternaman in 1921. Official team and league records cite Halas as the founder as he took over the team in 1920 when it became a charter member of the NFL.
The team relocated to Chicago in 1921. Under an agreement reached by Halas and Sternaman with Staley, Halas purchased the rights to the club from Staley for US$100. In 1922, Halas changed the team name from the Staleys to the Bears; the team moved into Wrigley Field, home to the Chicago Cubs baseball franchise. As with several early NFL franchises, the Bears derived their nickname from their city's baseball team. Halas liked the bright orange-and-blue colors of his alma mater, the University of Illinois, the Bears adopted those colors as their own, albeit in a darker shade of each; the Staleys/Bears dominated the league in the early years. Their rivalry with the Chicago Cardinals, the oldest in the NFL, was key in four out of the first six league titles. During the league's first six years, the Bears lost twice to the Canton Bulldogs, split with their crosstown rival Cardinals, but no other team in the league defeated the Bears more than a single time. During that span, the Bears posted 34 shutouts.
The Bears' rivalry with the Green Bay Packers is one of the oldest and most storied in American professional sports, dating back to 1921. In one infamous incident that year, Halas got the Packers expelled from the league in order to prevent their signing a particular player, graciously got them re-admitted after the Bears had closed the deal with that player; the franchise was an early success under Halas, capturing the NFL Championship in 1921 and remaining competitive throughout the decade. In 1924 the Bears claimed the Championship after defeating the Cleveland Bulldogs on December 7 putting the title "World's Champions" on their 1924 team photo, but the NFL had ruled that games after November 30 did not count towards league standings, the Bears had to settle for second place behind Cleveland. Their only losing season came in 1929. During the 1920s the club was responsible for triggering the NFL's long-standing rule that a player could not be signed until his college's senior class had graduated.
The NFL took that action as a consequence of the Bears' aggressive signing of famous University of Illinois player Red Grange within a day of his final game as a collegian. Despite much of the on-field success, the Bears were a team in trouble, they faced the problem of flatlined attendance. The Bears would only draw 5,000–6,000 fans a game, while a University of Chicago game would draw 40,000–50,000 fans a game. By adding top college football draw Red Grange to the roster, the Bears knew that they found something to draw more fans to their games. C. C. Pyle was able to secure a $2,000 per game contract for Grange, in one of the first games, the Bears defeated the Green Bay Packers, 21–0. However, Grange remained on the sidelines while learning the team's plays from Bears quarterback Joey Sternaman. In 1925, The Bears would go on a barnstorming tour, showing off the best football player of the day. 75,000 people paid to see Grange
Steven Kenneth Lombardi is an American semi-retired professional wrestler and road agent, better known by his ring name, The Brooklyn Brawler. He worked for WWE, as well as several independent promotions. Though some sources erroneously give Lombardi's birthplace as Detroit, Michigan, he was born at Brooklyn's Victory Memorial Hospital to Renaldo and Rosemarie Lombardi and he grew up in the Bensonhurst section of Brooklyn, New York, his father worked as an airline mechanic. Lombardi studied biochemistry at St. Francis College prior to his wrestling career. Lombardi began his WWF career in late 1983, competing under his real name, being a heel as an enhancement talent, his debut came on July 1983 in Queens, NY where he was defeated by Swede Hanson. After facing Ivan Koloff and Sgt. Slaughter on house show matches, Lombardi made his TV debut on the October 29th episode of All American Wrestling where he was submitted by The Iron Sheik and carried out on a stretcher, he began regular appearances on both television and house shows.
After losing numerous matches that winter, Lombardi gained his first success on March 18, 1984 when he wrestled Jerry Valiant to a draw. Another draw, this time with Terry Daniels came on April 24 in Mountaintop, PA, but apart from that he continued on as an enhancement talent, losing to much of the WWF roster including Big John Studd, Paul Orndorff, David Schultz, Iron Mike Sharpe, Rocky Johnson, others. In the midst of another long losing streak, Lombardi gained a second draw against Daniels on June 1 in Winston-Salem, NC, he made his Madison Square Garden debut on June 16, losing to Mad Dog Vachon in the latter's first match back in the WWF in a decade. A month on July 6 in Long Island, NY Lombardi gained his first pinfall victory when he upset Vachon in a return match. On July 31 he became involved in a mild angle with WWF World Champion Hulk Hogan during the company's initial "Championship Wrestling" taping in Poughkeepsie, NY. During a sub-minute loss to Kamala, Hogan came out to the ring to give encouragement to Lombardi.
Nothing further came from this angle, Lombardi closed out his second year as a wrestler with numerous additional losses to wrestlers such as a Buddy Rose and young Bret Hart, as well as a defeat to manager Bobby "The Brain" Heenan. As the company continued to expand Lombardi remained a young enhancement talent, although this time he was switched to face other similar talent in house shows across the country, he put over various young wrestlers such as Paul Roma, David Sammartino, Barry O, Terry Gibbs, George Wells. On the June 29th episode of "All-American Wrestling" Lombardi teamed with Dave Barbie in a losing effort to The Killer Bees in their debut match. Lombardi would go on to face numerous wrestlers in their debuts during his long career. Eleven months after his first victory, Lombardi gained another when he pinned Jack Armstrong on June 22 in Boston, MA. After numerous losses, a month Lombardi garnered the first win streak of his career when he defeated Dan Rignati and George Sanders on successive house shows.
On November 14 defeated Dennis Goulet, on December 5 in Long Island, NY pinned Paul Roma, this finishing with five wins for 1985. Lombardi remained a consistent presence on house shows, wrestling over 150 times; the company continued to pair the young but now experienced Lombardi against other new wrestlers, he would face newcomers such as Sivi Afi, Tony Parisi, Nick Kiniski, Dan Spivey, Scott McGee. He gained his first tag-team win when he teamed with fellow enhancement talent Lanny Poffo to defeat SD Jones and George Skaaland on April 13 in Brisbane, Australia. After dozens of defeats he gained his first pinfall victory of 1986 in singles action when he defeated Terry Gibbs in Pittsburgh, PA on August 9. On the November 15th episode of WWF Superstars he participated in another debut, teaming with Moondog Spot in a loss to the newly arrived Can-Am Connection. Lombardi closed out 1986 with wins over Barry O, Jim Powers, Mark Young, Frankie Lane, an upset of Tony Garea. Despite a tick upwards in in-ring success, Lombardi began 1987 cemented as an entry-level wrestler without an angle.
But, not to last long, as he began to establish an on-screen presence as a heel. On the January 24th episode of WWF Superstars Paul Orndorff defeated Paul Roma; this led to a house show series between Roma and Lombardi, for both wrestlers it was their first real feud. Despite coming out winless, Lombardi was now more than just a non-descript jobber, he upset Sivi Afi on March 1 in Landover, MD gained another surprise victory over Tony Garea a month later. On June 17 Lombardi participated in yet another debut, this time facing The Dingo Warrior in Wichita Falls, TX. A month he began what would be an on-again, off-again team with Barry Horowitz, losing to The Young Stallions on the July 26th episode of Wrestling Challenge. Four weeks on August 21 in Detroit, MI the team would defeat Sivi Afi and Scott Casey. After gaining a pair of pinfall singles wins over the newly arrived Sam Houston, Lombardi switched alliances to join Mike Sharpe; the two proclaimed themselves as "the tag-team of the future" in an inset during a match with The Young Stallions in August, but were unsuccessful.
Entering the fall Lombardi continued to lose but was now gaining a smattering of wins. Still an enhancement talent, he was now beginning to climb the ladder. Lombardi began 1988 with several squash losses, a win over Scott Casey on January 23 in Lexington, KY. Two days at
Valparaiso is a city and the county seat of Porter County, United States. The population was 31,730 at the 2010 census; the site of present-day Valparaiso was included in the purchase of land from the Potawatomi people by the U. S. Government in October 1832. Chiqua's town or Chipuaw was located a mile east of the current Courthouse along the Sauk Trail. Chiqua's town existed from or before 1830 until after 1832; the location is just north of the railroad crossing on County Road 400 North. Located on the ancient Native American trail from Rock Island to Detroit, the town had its first log cabin in 1834. Established in 1836 as Portersville, county seat of Porter County, it was renamed to Valparaiso in 1837 after Valparaíso, near which the county's namesake David Porter battled in the Battle of Valparaiso during the War of 1812; the city was once called the "City of Churches" due to the large number of churches located there at the end of the 19th Century. Valparaiso Male and Female College, one of the earliest higher education institutions admitting both men and women in the country, was founded in Valparaiso in 1859, but closed its doors in 1871 before reopening in 1873 as the Northern Indiana Normal School and Business Institute.
In the early 20th century, it became Valparaiso College Valparaiso University. It was affiliated with the Methodist Church but after 1925 with the Lutheran University Association and expanded after World War II. Valparaiso has a long history of being a transportation hub for the region. In 1858, the Pittsburgh, Fort Wayne and Chicago Railroad reached Valparaiso, connecting the city directly to Chicago. By 1910, an interurban railway connected the city to Indiana. Today, while the city no longer has a passenger train station, it is still much a part of the "Crossroads of America" due to its proximity to I-65, I-80, I-90, I-94. Additionally, the Canadian National railroad still runs freight on the tracks, including through the downtown area; until 1991, Valparaiso was the terminal of Amtrak's Calumet commuter service. The city is situated at the junctions of U. S. Route 30, State Road 2, State Road 49. According to the 2010 census, Valparaiso has a total area of 15.578 square miles, of which 15.53 square miles is land and 0.048 square miles is water.
The city is situated on the Valparaiso Moraine. Glaciation has left numerous features on the landscape here. Kettle lakes and knobs make up much of this hilly area of Northwest Indiana; the Pines Ski Area is the only remaining kame in the city. Many glacial erratics can be found throughout the city; the moraine has left the city with clay soil. As of the census of 2010, there were 31,730 people, 12,610 households, 7,117 families residing in the city; the population density was 2,043.1 inhabitants per square mile. There were 13,506 housing units at an average density of 869.7 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 89.9% White, 3.3% African American, 0.3% Native American, 2.1% Asian, 0.1% Pacific Islander, 2.2% from other races, 2.1% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 7.1% of the population. There were 12,610 households of which 28.7% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 41.6% were married couples living together, 10.9% had a female householder with no husband present, 3.9% had a male householder with no wife present, 43.6% were non-families.
34.5% of all households were made up of individuals and 11.3% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.28 and the average family size was 2.99. The median age in the city was 33.4 years. 21.3% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the city was 48.6% male and 51.4% female. As of the census of 2000, there were 27,428 people, 10,867 households, 6,368 families residing in the city; the population density was 971.6/km². There were 11,559 housing units at an average density of 409.4/km². The racial makeup of the city was 94.35% White, 1.60% African American, 0.23% Native American, 1.49% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 0.79% from other races, 1.52% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 3.34% of the population. There were 10,867 households out of which 28.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 45.9% were married couples living together, 9.7% had a female householder with no husband present, 41.4% were non-families.
33.4% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.9% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.27 and the average family size was 2.93. In the city, the population was spread out with 21.2% under the age of 18, 17.4% from 18 to 24, 28.1% from 25 to 44, 20.2% from 45 to 64, 13.1% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 33 years. For every 100 females, there were 91.8 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 88.5 males. The median income for a household in the city was $45,799, the median income for a family was $60,637. Males had a median income of $46,452 versus $26,544 for females; the per capita income for the city was $22,509. About 4.8% of families and 9.1% of the population were below the poverty line, including 8.1% of those unde
WCW WorldWide is a syndicated TV show, produced by World Championship Wrestling aired from 1975 to 2001. At the time of its cancellation, WorldWide was the longest-running, uninterrupted weekly syndicated show of any kind on the air in the United States; the show began in 1975, a syndicated one-hour program produced by Charlotte, North Carolina-based Jim Crockett Promotions. It was taped each Wednesday night at WRAL-TV television studios in Raleigh, North Carolina, following the taping of the syndicated Mid-Atlantic Championship Wrestling; the original host of Wide World Wrestling was former Georgia Championship Wrestling announcer Ed Capral. Hosts of Wide World Wrestling included George Scott, Sandy Scott, Dr. Tom Miller and Les Thatcher. In 1978, to avoid confusion with ABC's Wide World of Sports, JCP changed the name of the show to World Wide Wrestling. Rich Landrum became the new host and was joined shortly thereafter by veteran wrestler Johnny Weaver as color commentator. In the summer of 1981, WRAL television opted not to renew its contract with JCP, citing that it needed the studio space to produce a new local version of PM Magazine.
Crockett worked out a deal with WCCB television in Charlotte to house the tapings, but that fell through. So he instead went with WPCQ-TV in Charlotte. WPCQ had played host to tapings for Eddie Einhorn's International Wrestling Association in the 1970s, so it seemed like a natural fit; the physical studio itself was cramped however. Landrum left World Wide Wrestling in 1982 after being released by Jim Crockett Promotions in a cost-cutting measure. David Crockett left his position as Bob Caudle's color commentator on Mid-Atlantic Championship Wrestling to take over play-by-play duties on World Wide. For a time, World Wide ran with a three-man announce team as wrestler Ray "The Crippler" Stevens joined. Rowdy Roddy Piper would occasionally commentate. Not pleased with the studio situation, Crockett began to make plans to rectify matters and by July 1983, had moved his tapings out of WPCQ and into major arenas, buying a mobile TV truck for $1 million and hiring his own crew. In 1984, Tony Schiavone replaced Weaver as color commentator on World Wide.
Schiavone had worked for JCP as the announcer for their minor league baseball team the Charlotte O's, as the host of their market-specific promotional interview segments, which were used to promote events in individual towns. Tully Blanchard for a time joined World Wide as a color commentator as well. After the sale of JCP's wrestling assets to Turner Broadcasting in 1988, World Wide Wrestling went through a revolving series of announcing teams and included at various times such names as Schiavone, Jim Ross, Gordon Solie, Lance Russell, Chris Cruise, Terry Funk, Dutch Mantell, Ole Anderson, Jesse "The Body" Ventura, Scott Hudson, Bobby "The Brain" Heenan and Larry Zbyszko. Under the Bill Watts regime, the name World Wide Wrestling was changed to WCW WorldWide in 1992. WorldWide was made up of matches from television tapings around the country. Beginning in 1993, when Eric Bischoff took over, the show was taped in Florida; the initial home for these tapings was Disney/MGM Studios at Walt Disney World, which gave rise to the term "Disney Tapings".
The last set of tapings at Disney occurred in November 1996 and aired in February 1997. In 1998, WorldWide became an in-studio recap show like its sister program WCW Pro had, with an exclusive match or two at the end of the show; these matches continued to be taped in Orlando. In 1999, the WorldWide exclusive matches were moved out of Orlando and began being taped with WCW Saturday Night, which left its base in Atlanta in 1996 and had become a traveling show. Still, the matches were moved a second time and began to be recorded before WCW Thunder tapings. In November 2000, the show would change formats, no longer featuring exclusive matches, instead showing matches from previous WCW pay-per-view events. WorldWide was cancelled along with Monday Nitro and Thunder the day before the World Wrestling Federation purchased WCW's tape library and intellectual property. At the time of its cancellation, WorldWide was the longest-running, uninterrupted weekly syndicated show of any kind on the air in the United States.
The final episode of WorldWide aired on April 2001, making it the last WCW television show aired. Throughout the years, WorldWide has hosted numerous title changes. Magnum T. A. defeated Wahoo McDaniel in a steel cage match to win The NWA US Heavyweight Championship The Fantastics defeated The Midnight Express to win the NWA United States Tag Team Championship on May 14, 1988 Eddie Gilbert and Rick Steiner defeated The Varsity Club to win the NWA United States Tag Team Championship on March 18, 1989 Brian Pillman and Tom Zenk defeated The Fabulous Freebirds in a tournament final to win the reactivated NWA United States Tag Team Championship on February 24, 1990 Arn Anderson defeated Tom Zenk to win the WCW World T
University of Louisville
The University of Louisville is a public university in Louisville, Kentucky, a member of the Kentucky state university system. When founded in 1798, it was the first city-owned public university in the United States and one of the first universities chartered west of the Allegheny Mountains; the university is mandated by the Kentucky General Assembly to be a "Preeminent Metropolitan Research University". The university enrolls students from 118 of 120 Kentucky counties, all 50 U. S. states, 116 countries around the world. The University of Louisville School of Medicine is touted for the first self-contained artificial heart transplant surgery as well as the first successful hand transplantation; the University Hospital is credited with the first civilian ambulance, the nation's first accident services, now known as an emergency department, one of the first blood banks in the US. Between 1999 and 2006 Louisville was one of the fastest growing medical research institutions according to National Institutes of Health rankings.
As of 2006, the melanoma clinic ranked third in among public universities in NIH funding, the neurology research program fourth, the spinal cord research program 10th. Louisville is known for its Louisville Cardinals athletics programs. Since 2005 the Cardinals have made appearances in the NCAA Division I men's basketball Final Four in 2005, 2012, 2013, football Bowl Championship Series Orange Bowl in 2007 and Sugar Bowl in 2013, the College Baseball World Series 2007, 2013, 2014, 2017, the women's basketball Final Four in 2009, 2013, 2018, the men's soccer national championship game in 2010; the Louisville Cardinals Women's Volleyball program has three-peated as champions of the Big East Tournament, were Atlantic Coast Conference Champions in 2015 and 2017. Women's track and field program has won Outdoor Big East titles in 2008, 2009 and 2010 and an Indoor Big East title in 2011; the University of Louisville traces its roots to a charter granted in 1798 by the Kentucky General Assembly to establish a school of higher learning in the newly founded town of Louisville.
It ordered the sale of 6,000 acres of South Central Kentucky land to underwrite construction, joined on April 3, 1798 by eight community leaders who began local fund raising for what was known as the Jefferson Seminary. It opened 15 years and offered college and high school level courses in a variety of subjects, it was headed by Edward Mann Butler from 1813 to 1816, who ran the first public school in Kentucky in 1829 and is considered Kentucky's first historian. Despite the Jefferson Seminary's early success, pressure from newly established public schools and media critiques of it as "elitist" would force its closure in 1829. Eight years in 1837, the Louisville City council established the Louisville Medical Institute at the urging of renowned physician and medical author Charles Caldwell; as he had earlier at Lexington's Transylvania University, Caldwell led LMI into becoming one of the leading medical schools west of the Allegheny Mountains. In 1840, the Louisville Collegiate institute, a rival medical school, was established after an LMI faculty dispute.
It opened in 1844 on land near the present day Health sciences campus. In 1846, the Kentucky legislature combined the Louisville Medical Institute, the Louisville Collegiate Institution, a newly created law school into the University of Louisville, on a campus just east of Downtown Louisville; the LCI folded soon afterwards. The university experienced rapid growth in the 20th century, adding new schools in the liberal arts, graduate studies, engineering and social work. In 1923, the school purchased what is today the Belknap Campus, where it moved its liberal arts programs and law school, with the medical school remaining downtown; the school had attempted to purchase a campus donated by the Belknap family in The Highlands area in 1917, but a citywide tax increase to pay for it was voted down. The Belknap Campus was named after the family for their efforts. In 1926, the building that would be dedicated as Grawemeyer Hall, was built. In 1931, the university established the Louisville Municipal College for Negroes on the former campus of Simmons University, as a compromise plan to desegregation.
As a part of the university, the school had an equal standing with the school's other colleges. It was dissolved in 1951. During World War II, Louisville was one of 131 colleges and universities nationally that took part in the V-12 Navy College Training Program which offered students a path to a Navy commission. In the second half of the 20th century, schools were opened for business and justice administration. Talk of Louisville joining the public university system of Kentucky began in the 1960s; as a municipally funded school, the movement of people to the suburbs of Louisville created budget shortfalls for the school and forced tuition prices to levels unaffordable for most students. At the same time, the school's well established medicine and law schools were seen as assets for the state system. Still, there was opposition to the university becoming public, both from faculty and alumni who feared losing the small, close-knit feel of the campus, from universities in the state system who feared funding cuts.
After several years of heated debate, the university joined the state system in 1970, a move orchestrated by Kentucky governor and Louisville alumnus Louie Nunn. The first years in the public system