SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Chagatai Khanate

The Chagatai Khanate or Chagatai Ulus was a Mongol and Turkicized khanate that comprised the lands ruled by Chagatai Khan, second son of Genghis Khan, his descendants and successors. At its height in the late 13th century, the khanate extended from the Amu Darya south of the Aral Sea to the Altai Mountains in the border of modern-day Mongolia and China corresponding to the defunct Qara Khitai Empire; the rulers of the Chagatai Khanate recognized the supremacy of the Great Khan, but by the reign of Kublai Khan, Ghiyas-ud-din Baraq no longer obeyed the emperor's orders. During the mid-14th century, the Chagatais lost Transoxania to the Timurids; the reduced realm came to be known as Moghulistan, which lasted until the late 15th century when it broke off into the Yarkent Khanate and Turpan Khanate. In 1680, the remaining Chagatai domains lost their independence to the Dzungar Khanate, in 1705, the last Chagatai khan was removed from power, ending the dynasty of Chagatai; when Genghis Khan died in 1227, his son Chagatai Khan inherited the regions corresponding to the defunct Qara Khitai Empire: Issyk-Kul, Ili River, Chu River, Talas River and the Tarim Basin.

Chagatai was not independent in his khanate however and still received orders from Karakorum. When he dismissed the governor of Transoxania, Mahmud Yalavach, Ögedei Khan reinstated Mahmud, whose dynasty continued to administer the region after the death of Chagatai. In 1238 there was a Muslim uprising in Bukhara, but Mahmud's son Mas'ud crushed it the next year before Mongol troops were able to arrive, thereby saving the populace from Mongol vengeance. Chagatai Khan died in 1242 and was succeeded by his grandson Qara Hülegü, whose father Mutukan had been killed in 1221 during the Siege of Bamyan. Qara Hülegü was too young to rule independently so the widowed khatun Ebuskun ruled as regent in his place. In 1246, Güyük Khan replaced him with one of Yesü Möngke. Yesü Möngke came to power, he was a drunk who left the affairs of the state to minister Beha ad-Din Marghinani. In 1252 he was deposed by Möngke Khan. Qara Hülegü was succeeded by his son Mubarak Shah. Mubarak Shah was too young to rule and state affairs were managed by his mother Orghana.

In 1260, Ariq Böke replaced Mubarak Shah with a grandson of Chagatai Khan. Alghu rebelled against Ariq Böke upon securing power and defected to Kublai Khan's side in the Toluid Civil War. Ariq Böke attacked him and while Alghu experienced initial success in fending off the Ariq Böke's army, was forced to flee to Samarkand in 1263. Ariq Böke devastated the Ili region in his absence. Alghu was able to recruit a new army with the aid of Mas ` ud Yalavach, he went on to defeat an invasion by Kaidu and drive out Ariq Böke, who surrendered to Kublai in 1264. Alghu died in 1265 and Orghana placed her son, Mubarak Shah, on the throne once again. Mubarak Shah was the first Chagatai khan to be converted to Islam, his rule was cut short by his cousin Ghiyas-ud-din Baraq, who deposed him with the support of Kublai Khan. Ghiyas-ud-din Baraq came into conflict with Kublai Khan on the administration of the Tarim Basin. Baraq drove out an agent sent by Kublai to govern the region and when Kublai sent a detachment of 6,000 horsemen, Baraq met them with 30,000 men, forcing them to retreat.

Baraq came into conflict with Kaidu, who enlisted the Golden Horde khan Mengu-Timur in attacking Baraq. With a Golden Horde army of 50,000 at his back, Kaidu forced Baraq to flee to Transoxania. In 1267, Baraq accepted peace with Kaidu, relinquished the territory east of Transoxania. Kaidu coerced Baraq into invading the Ilkhanate. Baraq attacked first, defeating Prince Buchin, the governor of Khorasan, brother of Abaqa Khan. Abaqa defeated Baraq near Herat on 22 July 1270, forcing him to retreat. On the way back he fell from his horse and was crippled so he spent the winter in Bukhara where he died not long after, he converted to Islam before his death. Baraq's four sons and two sons of Alghu rebelled against Kaidu in the wake of Baraq's death, but they were continually defeated. Kaidu enthroned Negübei as the khan in Transoxania; when Negübei rebelled, he was killed and replaced with another khan, Buqa Temür in 1274. It's not certain when Buqa Temür died. Meanwhile Abaqa invaded Transoxania in sacked Bukhara, carrying off 50,000 captives.

In 1275, Duwa were repelled. In 1295, Duwa devastated the region. Several invasions of the Delhi Sultanate occurred but none were able to make any headway. In September 1298, Duwa captured Temür Khan's son-in-law and put him to death, but after that suffered a disastrous defeat by Yuan forces. In 1301 they were defeated again in an attack on Kaidu died during the retreat. After Kaidu's death in 1301, both Duwa and Kaidu's son Chapar recognized Yuan authority in 1303; however Duwa threw off his allegiance to Chapar. Both the Yuan dynasty and Duwa attacked Chapar, forcing him to surrender his territory to Duwa in 1306. Meanwhile, Prince Turghai looted the Delhi region. In 1304 they suffered a crushing defeat. Duwa died soon after and was succeeded by his son Könchek, who ruled only for a year and a half before he died. One of Buqa Temür's brothers, seized power, but Duwa's family rebelled and killed him at a banquet. Duwa's younger son Kebek became khan. Kebek invaded the Delhi Sutunate again in 1305, looting the Multan region, but suffered a d

Benelux' Next Top Model (season 1)

Benelux' Next Top Model, Season 1 was the first season of Benelux' Next Top Model and the first season which include Dutch and Flemish contestants. It premiered on September 14, 2009, lasted until November 16 of the same year. Given the show was a merge between Holland's Next Top Model and the Belgian Topmodel which both follow the same format, the panel of judges, as well as the contestants, were representing both nations for one-half; the winner of the competition was 22-year-old Rosalinde Kikstra from Rotterdam. Her prizes were a €75,000 contract with Modelmasters The Agency, a cover of Beau Monde and ad campaigns for Max Factor and Gillette Venus Embrace; the contestant was eliminated The contestant was immune from elimination The contestant won the competition Daphne Deckers Ghislaine Nuytten Geert De Wolf Bastiaan van Schaik Mariana Verkerk Marie-Sophie Steenaert – Make-up Artist Jani Kazaltzis – Wardrobe Janice Dickinson – Episode 2 Olcay Gulsen – Episode 2 Doutzen Kroes – Episode 3 Victoria Koblenko – Episode 4 Nigel Barker – Episode 10 Official 2BE website Official RTL5 website

John Frewen

Admiral Sir John Byng Frewen GCB was Commander-in-Chief Naval Home Command. Frewen joined the Royal Navy in 1924, he served in World War II in the Russian Convoys and as Squadron Navigating Officer for Aircraft Carriers in the Pacific. He served in the Korean War as Commander of HMS Mounts Bay, he was appointed Chief of Staff to the Commander-in-Chief, Home Fleet in 1959 and became Flag Officer Second in Command Far East Fleet in 1961. He went on to be Vice Chief of the Naval Staff in 1963 and Commander-in-Chief, Home Fleet in 1965, he was appointed Commander-in-Chief, Portsmouth in 1967. He was appointed the first Commander-in-Chief Naval Home Command in 1969. In that capacity he welcomed Sir Alec Rose back to Portsmouth after his single-handed trip around the world. Frewen was First and Principal Naval Aide-de-Camp to the Queen from 1968 to 1970, he retired in 1970. In retirement Frewen transferred Brickwall House School, a specialist school for boys with dyslexia, into an educational trust and renamed the school Frewen College.

In 1972 he was Chairman of the Royal Navy Club of 1765 & 1785