United States Senate
The United States Senate is the upper chamber of the United States Congress, which along with the United States House of Representatives—the lower chamber—comprises the legislature of the United States. The Senate chamber is located in the north wing of the Capitol, in Washington, D. C; the composition and powers of the Senate are established by Article One of the United States Constitution. The Senate is composed of senators; each state, regardless of its population size, is represented by two senators who serve staggered terms of six years. There being at present 50 states in the Union, there are presently 100 senators. From 1789 until 1913, senators were appointed by legislatures of the states; as the upper chamber of Congress, the Senate has several powers of advice and consent which are unique to it. These include the approval of treaties, the confirmation of Cabinet secretaries, Supreme Court justices, federal judges, flag officers, regulatory officials, other federal executive officials and other federal uniformed officers.
In addition to these, in cases wherein no candidate receives a majority of electors for Vice President, the duty falls to the Senate to elect one of the top two recipients of electors for that office. Furthermore, the Senate has the responsibility of conducting the trials of those impeached by the House; the Senate is considered both a more deliberative and more prestigious body than the House of Representatives due to its longer terms, smaller size, statewide constituencies, which led to a more collegial and less partisan atmosphere. The presiding officer of the Senate is the Vice President of the United States, President of the Senate. In the Vice President's absence, the President Pro Tempore, customarily the senior member of the party holding a majority of seats, presides over the Senate. In the early 20th century, the practice of majority and minority parties electing their floor leaders began, although they are not constitutional officers; the drafters of the Constitution created a bicameral Congress as a compromise between those who felt that each state, since it was sovereign, should be represented, those who felt the legislature must directly represent the people, as the House of Commons did in Great Britain.
This idea of having one chamber represent people while the other gives equal representation to states regardless of population, was known as the Connecticut Compromise. There was a desire to have two Houses that could act as an internal check on each other. One was intended to be a "People's House" directly elected by the people, with short terms obliging the representatives to remain close to their constituents; the other was intended to represent the states to such extent as they retained their sovereignty except for the powers expressly delegated to the national government. The Senate was thus not designed to serve the people of the United States equally; the Constitution provides that the approval of both chambers is necessary for the passage of legislation. First convened in 1789, the Senate of the United States was formed on the example of the ancient Roman Senate; the name is derived from Latin for council of elders. James Madison made the following comment about the Senate: In England, at this day, if elections were open to all classes of people, the property of landed proprietors would be insecure.
An agrarian law would soon take place. If these observations be just, our government ought to secure the permanent interests of the country against innovation. Landholders ought to have a share in the government, to support these invaluable interests, to balance and check the other, they ought to be so constituted. The Senate, ought to be this body. Article Five of the Constitution stipulates that no constitutional amendment may be created to deprive a state of its equal suffrage in the Senate without that state's consent; the District of Columbia and all other territories are not entitled to representation allowed to vote in either House of the Congress. The District of Columbia elects two "shadow U. S. Senators", but they are officials of the D. C. City Government and not members of the U. S. Senate; the United States has had 50 states since 1959, thus the Senate has had 100 senators since 1959. The disparity between the most and least populous states has grown since the Connecticut Compromise, which granted each state two members of the Senate and at least one member of the House of Representatives, for a total minimum of three presidential electors, regardless of population.
In 1787, Virginia had ten times the population of Rhode Island, whereas today California has 70 times the population of Wyoming, based on the 1790 and 2000 censuses. This means some citizens are two orders of magnitude better represented in the Senate than those in other states. Seats in the House of Representatives are proportionate to the population of each state, reducing the disparity of representation. Before the adoption of the Seventeenth Amendment in 1913, senators were elected by the individual state legislatures. Problems with repeated vacant seats due to the inability of a legislature to elect senators, intrastate political struggles, bribery and intimidation had led to a growing movement to amend the Constitution to allow for the direct election of senators; the party composition of the Senate during the 116th Congress: Art
Director of the Joint Staff
The Director of the Joint Staff is a three-star officer who assists the Joint Chiefs of Staff, a cabinet of senior military officers within the United States Armed Forces who advise the Secretary of Defense and President on military matters. The Director assists the Chairman in managing the Joint Staff and with the management and organization of the staff's members; the Director chairs meetings of the Operations Deputies, a subsidiary body comprising the Director and a three-star delegate from each service who preview or resolve issues before they are escalated to the four-star level of the Joint Chiefs of Staff. The Director of the Joint Staff is selected by the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, in consultation with the other members of the Joint Chiefs of Staff and subject to the approval of the Secretary of Defense; as with all three- and four-star positions, the Director's appointment is subject to Senate confirmation. The position of Director is considered one of the most desirable three-star positions in the United States military establishment, for the position has served as a stepping stone to a four-star position.
As of February 2016, 34 of the 43 past Directors and 7 past, short-term, acting Directors have been promoted to four-star rank, including a former Director promoted to that rank upon retirement from active duty. Many of them have been promoted to four-star rank within a year of leaving the position of Director of the Joint Staff; the current Director of the Joint Staff is Vice Admiral Michael M. Gilday, U. S. Navy; this is a complete list of the Directors of the Joint Staff. An asterisk —in the "No." column—indicates an acting Director. List of active duty United States four-star officers List of United States Army four-star generals List of United States Marine Corps four-star generals List of United States Navy four-star admirals List of United States Air Force four-star generals
The Pentagon, in Arlington County, across the Potomac River from Washington, D. C. is the headquarters of the United States Department of Defense. As a symbol of the U. S. military, the phrase The Pentagon is used as a metonym for the Department of Defense and its leadership. The building was designed by American architect George Bergstrom and built by contractor John McShain. Ground was broken on September 11, 1941, the building was dedicated on January 15, 1943. General Brehon Somervell provided the major motivating power behind the project. S. Army; the Pentagon is the world's largest office building, with about 6,500,000 sq ft of space, of which 3,700,000 sq ft are used as offices. Some 23,000 military and civilian employees, another 3,000 non-defense support personnel, work in the Pentagon, it has five sides, five floors above ground, two basement levels, five ring corridors per floor with a total of 17.5 mi of corridors. The central five-acre pentagonal plaza is nicknamed "ground zero" on the presumption that it would be a prime target in a nuclear war.
On September 11, 2001 60 years after the building's construction began, American Airlines Flight 77 was hijacked and flown into the western side of the building, killing 189 people, according to the 9/11 Commission Report. It was the first significant foreign attack on Washington's governmental facilities since the city was burned by the British during the War of 1812; the Pentagon is listed on the National Register of Historic Places and is a National Historic Landmark. The Pentagon building spans 28.7 acres, includes an additional 5.1 acres as a central courtyard. Starting with the north side and moving clockwise, its five façades are the Mall Terrace Entrance façade, the River Terrace Entrance façade, the Concourse Entrance façade, the South Parking Entrance façade, the Heliport façade. On the north side of the building, the Mall Entrance, which features a portico, leads out to a 600 ft long terrace, used for ceremonies; the River Entrance, which features a portico projecting out 20 ft, is on the northeast side, overlooking the lagoon and facing Washington.
A stepped terrace on the River Entrance leads down to the lagoon. The main entrance for visitors is on the southeast side, as are the Pentagon Metro station and the bus station. There is a concourse on the southeast side of the second floor of the building, which contains a mini-shopping mall; the south parking lot adjoins the southwest facade, the west side of the Pentagon faces Washington Boulevard. The concentric rings are designated from the center out as "A" through "E". "E" Ring offices are the only ones with outside views and are occupied by senior officials. Office numbers go clockwise around each of the rings, have two parts: a nearest-corridor number followed by a bay number, so office numbers range from 100 to 1099; these corridors radiate out from the central courtyard, with corridor 1 beginning with the Concourse's south end. Each numbered radial corridor intersects with the corresponding numbered group of offices. There are a number of historical displays in the building in the "A" and "E" rings.
Floors in the Pentagon are lettered "B" for Basement and "M" for Mezzanine, both of which are below ground level. The concourse is on the second floor at the Metro entrance. Above ground floors are numbered 1 to 5. Room numbers are given as the floor, concentric ring, office number. Thus, office 2B315 is on the second floor, B ring, nearest to corridor 3. One way to get to this office would be to go to the second floor, get to the A ring, go to and take corridor 3, turn left on ring B to get to bay 15, it is possible for a person to walk between any two points in the Pentagon in less than seven minutes. The complex includes eating and exercise facilities, meditation and prayer rooms. Tours for the public were suspended after the 2001 attack. Just south of the Pentagon are Pentagon City and Crystal City, extensive shopping and high-density residential districts in Arlington. Arlington National Cemetery is to the north; the Pentagon is surrounded by the complex Pentagon road network. The Pentagon has six Washington, DC ZIP Codes.
The Secretary of Defense, the Joint Chiefs of Staff, the four service branches each have their own ZIP Code. Before the Pentagon was built, the United States Department of War was headquartered in the Munitions Building, a temporary structure erected during World War I along Constitution Avenue on the National Mall; the War Department, a civilian agency created to administer the U. S. Army, was spread out in additional temporary buildings on the National Mall, as well as dozens of other buildings in Washington, D. C. Maryland and Virginia. In the late 1930s, a new War Department Building was constructed at 21st and C Streets in Foggy Bottom but, upon completion, the new building did not solve the department's space problem and ended up being used by the Department of State; when World War II broke out in Europe, the War Department expanded in anticipation that the United States would be drawn into the conflict. Secretary of War H
National Military Command Center
The National Military Command Center is a Pentagon command and communications center for the National Command Authority. Maintained by the Department of the Air Force as the "DoD Executive Agent" for NMCC logistical, budgetary and systems support. "The NMCC is responsible for generating Emergency Action Messages to launch control centers, nuclear submarines, recon aircraft and battlefield commanders". The NMCC has three main missions, all serving the Chairman of Joint Chiefs of Staff in his role as the principal military advisor to both the Secretary of Defense and the President; the primary task of the NMCC is to monitor worldwide events. The NMCC has a crisis response component, and a strategic watch component. The NMCC is responsible for generating Emergency Action Messages to launch control centers, nuclear submarines, recon aircraft, battlefield commanders worldwide, it maintains the American end of the famous U. S.–Russia hotline. The NMCC is operated by five teams on a rotating watch system.
Each team has 17–20 personnel on duty performing a wide variety of functions including communications. Teams are led by a Deputy Director for Operations and an Assistant Deputy Director for Operations, are divided into five duty officer positions: The DDO is a Brigadier General or Rear Admiral, the ADDO is a Colonel or Captain. Leadership Current Operations Section Emergency Action Element Surveillance Supporting Sections The more than 300 people in the NMCC have responsibilities that are operational in nature; the NMCC is not by the Department of the Air Force. The Joint Staff J-3 Command Systems Operations Division manages the operations of the information system facilities and maintains operational control of the Crisis Management Automated Data Processing System for the National Military Command Center; the NMCC includes several war rooms, uses more than 300 operational personnel, houses the United States' side of the 1963 Moscow–Washington hotline which links the Pentagon and the Kremlin.
Data into the NMCC includes warning "on the size and targeting of an attack". The NMCC's Crisis Management Automated Data Processing Systems are under control of the J-3 Command Systems Operations Division. World War II Pentagon construction allowed a central military installation for the Navy and War Departments to communicate with theater commands, CONUS air defense was based on warning data compiled by local Aircraft Warning Corps information centers for processing GOC observations and radar tracks to coordinate ground-controlled interception; as requested by Gen. Spaatz, a fall 1947 AAF "war room" was establishment in the Pentagon. Strategic Air Command began using the telephonic Army Command and Administrative Net in 1946 until switching to the 1949 USAF AIRCOMNET "command teletype network" The Air Force Command Post was "hastily set up" on June 25, 1950, to replace the 1948 war room when the Korean War began. On the Pentagon's floor, the AFCP served "as a reception point for radio messages between Vandenberg and his FEAF commanders during Air Staff after-duty hours."
After a direct telephone line was installed in mid-July 1950 between CONAC headquarters and the 26th Air Division HQ. Alternate AFCP sites in 1951 were at Langley AFB and Maxwell AFB. Radar tracks from the 1952 Permanent System radar stations relayed to the Air Defense Command command center at Ent AFB, would be assessed; the "Pentagon would pass the warning to the President, the Secretary of Defense, the JCS". At the Pentagon, an annex established c. 1952–53 by the Joint Chiefs of Staff was "operated by the Air Force as an adjunct to the AFCP" and received reports from Joint Coordination Centers in Buckinghamshire and Pershing Heights, Tokyo. ADC built a new Ent AFB blockhouse in 1954 and "in August 1955 OSD approved the'automatic' activation of the AJCC on declaration of air defense warning or notice of surprise attack. 1956 Raven Rock annex In July 1956 in the Pennsylvania bunker, a joint "War Room Annex was established" and was operated by the Air Force
Chief of Naval Operations
The Chief of Naval Operations is the highest-ranking officer and professional head of the United States Navy. The position is a statutory office held by a four-star admiral, a military adviser and deputy to the Secretary of the Navy. In a separate capacity as a member of the Joint Chiefs of Staff the CNO is a military adviser to the National Security Council, the Homeland Security Council, the Secretary of Defense, the President; the current Chief of Naval Operations is Admiral John M. Richardson. Despite the title, the CNO does not have operational command authority over Naval forces; the CNO is an administrative position based in the Pentagon, exercises supervision of Navy organizations as the designee of the Secretary of the Navy. Operational command of naval forces falls within the purview of the Combatant Commanders who report to the Secretary of Defense; the Chief of Naval Operations is the highest-ranking officer on active duty in the U. S. Navy unless the Chairman and/or the Vice Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff are naval officers.
As per 10 U. S. C. § 5035, whenever there is a vacancy for the Chief of Naval Operations or during the absence or disability of the Chief of Naval Operations, unless the President directs otherwise, the Vice Chief of Naval Operations performs the duties of the Chief of Naval Operations until a successor is appointed or the absence or disability ceases. The CNO performs all other functions prescribed under 10 U. S. C. § 5033, such as presiding over the Office of the Chief of Naval Operations, exercising supervision of Navy organizations, other duties assigned by the Secretary or higher lawful authority, or the CNO delegates those duties and responsibilities to other officers in OPNAV or in organizations below. Acting for the Secretary of the Navy, the CNO designates naval personnel and naval forces available to the commanders of Unified Combatant Commands, subject to the approval of the Secretary of Defense; the CNO is a member of the Joint Chiefs of Staff as prescribed by 10 U. S. C. § 151 and 10 U.
S. C. § 5033. Like the other members of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, the CNO is an administrative position, with no operational command authority over the United States Navy forces. Members of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, individually or collectively, in their capacity as military advisers, shall provide advice to the President, the National Security Council, or the Secretary of Defense on a particular matter when the President, the NSC, or SECDEF requests such advice. Members of the Joint Chiefs of Staff may submit to the Chairman advice or an opinion in disagreement with, or advice or an opinion in addition to, the advice presented by the Chairman to the President, NSC, or SECDEF; when performing his JCS duties, the CNO is responsible directly to the SECDEF, but keeps SECNAV informed of significant military operations affecting the duties and responsibilities of the SECNAV, unless SECDEF orders otherwise. The Chief of Naval Operations is nominated by the President for appointment and must be confirmed by the Senate.
A requirement for being Chief of Naval Operations is having significant experience in joint duty assignments, which includes at least one full tour of duty in a joint duty assignment as a flag officer. However, the president may waive those requirements if he determines that appointing the officer is necessary for the national interest. By statute, the CNO is appointed as a four-star admiral. Number One Observatory Circle, located on the northeast grounds of the United States Naval Observatory in Washington, DC, was built in 1893 for its superintendent; the Chief of Naval Operations liked the house so much that in 1923 he took over the house as his own official residence. It remained the residence of the CNO until 1974, when Congress authorized its transformation to an official residence for the Vice President; the Chief of Naval Operations resides in Quarters A in the Washington Naval Yard. The Chief of Naval Operations presides over the Navy Staff, formally known as the Office of the Chief of Naval Operations.
The Office of the Chief of Naval Operations is a statutory organization within the executive part of the Department of the Navy, its purpose is to furnish professional assistance to the Secretary of the Navy and the CNO in carrying out their responsibilities. The OPNAV organization consists of: The Chief of Naval Operations The Vice Chief of Naval Operations, the principal deputy of the Chief of Naval Operations, delegated complete authority to act for the CNO in all matters not reserved by law to the CNO; the Director of the Navy Staff. Several Deputy Chiefs of Naval Operations of either three or two-star rank, heading functional directorates. DCNO Manpower, Training, & Education/Chief of Naval Personnel DCNO Warfare Dominance/Director of the Office of Naval Intelligence DCNO Operations, Plans, & Strategy DCNO Fleet Readiness & Logistics DCNO Integration of Capabilities & Resources DCNO Warfare Systems The Master Chief Petty Officer of the Navy, appointed by the Chief of Naval Operations to serve as a spokesperson to address the issues of enlisted personnel to the highest positions in the Navy.
The Director of the Naval Nuclear Propulsion Program, a unique eight-year posting held by a 4 star admiral, created and served in by Admiral Hyman G. Rickover; the appointment as Director is both a military and civilian position as it is the head of the Naval Nuclear Propulsion Program in the Department of the Navy and deputy administrator for the Office of Naval Reactors of the National Nuclear Security Administration
Senior Enlisted Advisor to the Chairman
Senior Enlisted Advisor to the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff is a military position within the United States Department of Defense and is the most senior noncommissioned or petty officer overall in the United States Armed Forces. The SEAC is appointed by the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff to serve as a spokesperson to address the issues of enlisted personnel to the highest positions in the Department of Defense; as such, the SEAC is the senior enlisted advisor to the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, serves at the pleasure of the Secretary of Defense. The SEAC's exact duties vary, depending on the Chairman, though he devotes much time traveling throughout the Department of Defense observing training and communicating to service members and their families; the normal tour of assignment is four years. The first member to hold this post was William Gainey. On 11 December 2015, the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, General Joseph Dunford, administered the Oath of Office to CSM John W. Troxell, USA.
Troxell became the third member and second soldier to hold the office. Although Army and Marine headquarters from battalions and regiments, up to divisions, to corps, army headquarters and higher, have traditionally each had a sergeant major; the Marine Corps was the exception, having a Sergeant Major from 1801 until 1946, a Sergeant Major of the Marine Corps from 23 May 1957 onwards, as the senior enlisted advisor to the Commandant of the Marine Corps. The other services followed during the Vietnam War, creating the counterpart positions of Sergeant Major of the Army in 1966, Master Chief Petty Officer of the Navy and Chief Master Sergeant of the Air Force in 1967, Master Chief Petty Officer of the Coast Guard in 1969; the positions are generically or collectively referred to as "senior enlisted advisors". Only one Soldier, Marine and Coast Guardsman can hold that rank at any one time; each advises his or her service chief and other senior service leaders on all enlisted matters, makes decisions affecting enlisted personnel and their families, is invited to testify before Congress.
The position of Senior Enlisted Advisor to the Chairman was created in 2005 under General Peter Pace. The newly created position was established to advise the Chairman on all matters involving enlisted personnel in a joint environment; when Admiral Michael Mullen became Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, he consulted the SEAs of the services and opted not to appoint an SEA in his own office. His office's press release stated that this was not a reflection on General Pace that he did not feel the office was required; the position was reinstated in 2011 by General Martin Dempsey. General Peter Pace selected Army Command Sergeant Major William Gainey to serve as the first Senior Enlisted Advisor to the Chairman, beginning 1 October 2005. Gainey had more than 30 years of active-duty experience including an extensive background in joint operations, he had most served as the command sergeant major of III Corps and Fort Hood, from 9 May 2003 until 30 September 2005. He served as Senior Enlisted Advisor to the Chairman until he retired on 25 April 2008.
General Martin Dempsey selected United States Marine Corps Sergeant Major Bryan B. Battaglia to serve as the 2nd Senior Enlisted Advisor to Joint Chiefs of Staff, he took his post on 1 October 2011. Battaglia had more than 36 years of service at all levels including multiple combat deployments and senior enlisted assignments, he served as Senior Enlisted Advisor to the Chairman until 11 December, 2015 and retired on 31 August, 2016. The SEAC has oversight in any area; the SEAC is the spokesman of the Chairman to all services' SEAs. The SEAC, in some cases, is the spokesman for all enlisted members of the services and combatant commands during meetings with leaders from the services, civilian community, service leaders of other nations; the SEAC is not in the direct chain of command of the services' nor combatant commands' SEAs. The SEAC is the Chairman's link to and/or from the services' and combatant commands' SEAs. During visits to areas of operation, the SEAC identifies issues and problems that might affect the services as a whole.
When a problem is identified, he works with the services to find a common solution and help integrate, if possible, the solution into all of the services. Combatant commands, joint duty and does contain enlisted members from various services, have created Senior Enlisted Advisor positions; the SEAC is an advisor to the Chairman on all matters concerning joint and combined total force integration and development. Additionally, the SEAC helps develop NCO-related joint professional education, enhance utilisation of senior NCOs on joint battle staffs, support the Chairman’s responsibilities as directed. In carrying out the functions, roles and responsibilities, the SEAC, as appropriate, consults with and seek the advice of the services' and combatant commands' S