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Chaldea

Chaldea was a country that existed between the late 10th or early 9th and mid-6th centuries BC, after which the country and its people were absorbed and assimilated into Babylonia. Semitic-speaking, it was located in the marshy land of the far southeastern corner of Mesopotamia and came to rule Babylon; the Hebrew Bible uses the term כשדים and this is translated as Chaldaeans in the Greek Old Testament, although there is some dispute as to whether Kasdim in fact means Chaldean or refers to the south Mesopotamian Kaldu. During a period of weakness in the East Semitic-speaking kingdom of Babylonia, new tribes of West Semitic-speaking migrants arrived in the region from the Levant between the 11th and 9th centuries BCE; the earliest waves consisted of Suteans and Arameans, followed a century or so by the Kaldu, a group who became known as the Chaldeans or the Chaldees. These migrations did not affect the powerful kingdom of Assyria in the northern half of Mesopotamia, which repelled these incursions.

The short-lived 11th dynasty of the Kings of Babylon is conventionally known to historians as the Chaldean Dynasty, although the last rulers and his son Belshazzar, were from Assyria. These nomadic Chaldeans settled in the far southeastern portion of Babylonia, chiefly on the left bank of the Euphrates. Though for a short time the name referred to the whole of southern Mesopotamia in Hebraic literature, this was a geographical and historical misnomer as Chaldea proper was in fact only the plain in the far southeast formed by the deposits of the Euphrates and the Tigris, extending about four hundred miles along the course of these rivers and averaging about a hundred miles in width; the name Chaldaea is a latinization of the Greek Khaldaía, a hellenization of Akkadian māt Kaldu or Kašdu. The name appears in Hebrew in the Bible in Aramaic as Kaldo; the Hebrew word appears in the Bible in the name Arfa-ksad, the City of the Chaldeans. Jewish historian Flavius Josephus links Arphaxad and Chaldaea, in his Antiquities of the Jews, stating, “Arphaxad named the Arphaxadites, who are now called Chaldeans.”

In the early period, between the early 9th century and late 7th century BCE, mat Kaldi was the name of a small sporadically independent migrant-founded territory under the domination of the Neo-Assyrian Empire in southeastern Babylonia, extending to the western shores of the Persian Gulf. The expression mat Bit Yâkin is used synonymously. Bit Yâkin was the name of the largest and most powerful of the five tribes of the Chaldeans, or equivalently, their territory; the original extension of Bit Yâkin is not known but it extended from the lower Tigris into Arabia. Sargon II mentions it as extending as far as Dilmun or "sea-land". "Chaldea" or mat Kaldi referred to the low, alluvial land around the estuaries of the Tigris and Euphrates, which at the time discharged their waters through separate mouths into the sea. The tribal capital Dur Yâkin was the original seat of Marduk-Baladan; the king of Chaldea was called the king of Bit Yakin, just as the kings of Babylonia and Assyria were styled king of Babylon or Assur, the capital city in each case.

In the same way, what is now known as the Persian Gulf was sometimes called "the Sea of Bit Yakin", sometimes "the Sea of the Land of Chaldea". "Chaldea" came to be used in a wider sense, of Mesopotamia in general, following the ascendancy of the Chaldeans during 608–557 BCE. This is the case in the Hebrew Bible, composed during this period; the Book of Jeremiah makes frequent reference to the Chaldeans. Habbakuk 1:6 calls them "that bitter and hasty nation". Unlike the East Semitic Akkadian-speaking Akkadians and Babylonians, whose ancestors had been established in Mesopotamia since at least the 30th century BCE, the Chaldeans were not a native Mesopotamian people, but were late 10th or early 9th century BCE West Semitic Levantine migrants to the southeastern corner of the region, who had played no part in the previous 3,000 years or so of Sumero-Akkadian and Assyro-Babylonian Mesopotamian civilization and history; the ancient Chaldeans seem to have migrated into Mesopotamia sometime between c.

940–860 BCE, a century or so after other new Semitic arrivals, the Arameans and the Suteans, appeared in Babylonia, c. 1100 BCE. They first appear in written record in the annals of the Assyrian king Shalmaneser III during the 850s BCE; this was a period of weakness in Babylonia, its ineffectual native kings were unable to prevent new waves of semi-nomadic foreign peoples from invading and settling in the land. Though belonging to the same West Semitic speaking ethnic group and migrating from the same Levantine regions like the earlier arriving Aramaeans, they are to be differentiated; the Chaldeans were able to keep their identity despite the dominant Assyro-Babylonian culture although some were not able to, as was the case for the earlier Amorites and Sultans before them. By the time Babylon fell in 539 BCE; the Chaldeans spoke a West Semitic language similar to but distinct from Aramaic. During the Assyrian

2004 Sylvania 300

The 2004 Sylvania 300 was a NASCAR Nextel Cup Series race held on September 19, 2004 at New Hampshire International Speedway, in Loudon, New Hampshire. Contested at 300 laps on the1.058-mile speedway, it was the 27th race of the 2004 NASCAR Nextel Cup Series season. Kurt Busch of Roush Racing won the race. New Hampshire International Speedway is a 1.058-mile oval speedway located in Loudon, New Hampshire which has hosted NASCAR racing annually since the early 1990s, as well as an IndyCar weekend and the oldest motorcycle race in North America, the Loudon Classic. Nicknamed "The Magic Mile", the speedway is converted into a 1.6-mile road course, which includes much of the oval. The track was the site of Bryar Motorsports Park before being purchased and redeveloped by Bob Bahre; the track is one of eight major NASCAR tracks owned and operated by Speedway Motorsports. The 2004 Sylvania 300 was the first time. Rain cancelled prompting the grid to be set from owner's points. Jeff Gordon led them down to the green flag.

Afterward, Greg Biffle got in the back of Robby Gordon sending Gordon spinning. In the race Robby Gordon spun Biffle collecting Chase contenders Tony Stewart and Jeremy Mayfield. Robby Gordon was penalized two laps for aggressive driving. Kurt Busch won the race to start his run toward his first Nextel Cup Series championship. Time of race: 2:53:31 Average Speed: 109.753 miles per hour Pole Speed: no time trials Cautions: 7 for 30 laps Margin of Victory: 2.488 sec Lead changes: 15 Percent of race run under caution: 10% Average green flag run: 33.8 laps

Saint-Père River

Saint-Père River is a tributary of the east bank of the Wetetnagami River flowing into Senneterre, in the RCM of La Vallée-de-l'Or Regional County Municipality, in the administrative region of Abitibi-Témiscamingue, in Quebec, in Canada. This river successively crosses the townships of Moquin; the surface of the Saint-Père River is frozen from early December to late April. Forestry is the main economic activity of the sector; the Saint-Père River valley is served by the forest road passing north of Wetetnagami Lake] and another on the South side passing through the Wetetnagami Lake Biodiversity Reserve. At various times in history, this territory has been occupied by the Attikameks, the Algonquin and the Cree; the toponym "Rivière Saint-Père" was officialized on December 5, 1968, at the Commission de toponymie du Québec, when it was created