Albeluvisol was a Reference Soil Group of the first edition and the second edition of the World Reference Base for Soil Resources. In the third edition of the WRB, Albeluvisols were replaced by the broader defined Retisols. An Albeluvisol is a soil with a thin, dark surface horizon on a bleached subsurface horizon that tongues into a clay illuviation horizon; the Bt horizon has an irregular or broken upper boundary resulting from the tonguing of bleached soil material into the illuviation horizon. Albeluvisols correlate with Glossaqualfs and Glossudalfs in the USDA soil taxonomy; these soils are formed in unconsolidated glacial till, lacustrine or fluvial materials or aeolian deposits such as loess. They occur on flat to undulating plains under coniferous forest or mixed forest in boreal and temperate climates with cold winters and short cool summers; the agricultural suitability of Albeluvisols is limited because of their acidity, low nutrient levels and drainage problems. In northern regions there is a short growing season and severe frost during the long winter.
The Albeluvisols of the northern taiga zone are exclusively under forest with small areas used for pasture or hay fields. In the southern taiga zone, less than 10 percent of the non-forested area is used for livestock farming. In the southern and western parts of the taiga in Russia arable crops, such as cereals, sugar beet and forage maize, are found on soils with higher base saturations in the subsoil. Albeluvisols cover an estimated 320 million ha in Europe, North Asia, Central Asia and in North America, they are concentrated in two regions: the continental regions that had permafrost in the Pleistocene of northeast Europe, northwest Asia and southern Canada, which constitute by far the largest areas of Albeluvisols. Pedogenesis Pedology Soil classification
Angelica M. Jimenez is an American Democratic Party politician, serving in the New Jersey General Assembly since 2012, where she represents the 32nd Legislative District. Jimenez has served in the Assembly on the Regulated Professions Committee as Vice-Chair, the Education Committee, the Health and Senior Services Committee, she has served on the West New York Housing Corporation Board since 2010 and was Vice Chair of the West New York Housing Authority, from 2008 to 2010. Jimenez has served on the New Jersey Democratic State Committee since 2008 and was Vice President of the Board of Education of the West New York School District from 2009 until 2011, she is a state-certified radiology technician. Each of the forty districts in the New Jersey Legislature has one representative in the New Jersey Senate and two members in the New Jersey General Assembly; the other representatives from the 32nd District for the 2014-2015 Legislative Session are: Senator Nicholas Sacco Assemblyman Pedro Mejia Assemblywoman Jimenez's legislative web page, New Jersey Legislature New Jersey Legislature financial disclosure forms - 2011
The Rev William Miller was a Scots-born minister of the Free Presbyterian Church of Victoria who served the John Knox Church, cnr Little Lonsdale and Swanston Streets, Melbourne 1851-64, was the first Chairman of the council of Scotch College in Melbourne. Miller should not to be confused with his contemporary Rev William Baird Millar/er, who belonged to the United Presbyterian Church of Victoria 1851-53, never held a charge but engaged chiefly in teaching, he was born on 4 August 1815 in East Kilpatrick the son of Isabella Wilson. He studied Divinity at Edinburgh. Miller was licensed by the Free Church of Scotland Presbytery of Linlithgow on 14 August 1849, was ordained for Melbourne, Victoria on 17 April and arrived in Melbourne on 11 September, he was received by the Free Presbyterian Church of Victoria on 22 September, appointed to the oversight of the John Knox Church in Swanston Street, its founding minister James Forbes having died the previous month. His ministrations were so acceptable that the congregation soon extended a call to him, which he accepted, was inducted into the charge on 16 December.
Miller laboured faithfully as a minister of the Free Presbyterian Church of Victoria, was spoken of as “highly esteemed”, “possessing good abilities”, “amiable in character” and “commanding the love and respect of the community”. However, he did not have the capacity of James Forbes. Miller had arrived in Melbourne the same day as Robert Lawson, the rector appointed by the Free Church of Scotland for the Academy planned by James Forbes and known as Scotch College. On 9 November 1851 the Free Presbyterian Synod appointed Miller Convener of the Academy Committee, so he may be regarded as the first Chairman of the College Council. In 1853 Miller, along with Rev Duncan MacDiarmid Sinclair, Rev John Tait, John Armstrong of Bush Station and Archibald Bonar, were appointed the first trustees of the East Melbourne site of Scotch College. Miller was subsequently replaced as Convener of the Academy Committee by Dr. Adam Cairns. In 1853, Miller was appointed to the church committee, to investigate and negotiate the basis for union with the various Presbyterian denominations in Victoria.
A union basis between the Free Presbyterian Church of Victoria and the Church of Scotland Synod of Victoria was drafted, but by 1856 Miller opposed further negotiations due to disputation over the doctrinal standards, legislative basis and ministerial supply. The John Knox congregation supported this stand by resolution at a congregational meeting in August 1856. Of his own denomination, “he hoped they would have grace and courage to maintain their own integrity and consistency by refusing all further negotiations until this point should be conceded.” Miller and several other opponents of union on the proposed basis were expelled by the majority in April 1857, through an illegal motion of 26 paragraphs by Dr. Cairns. A minority synod of the Free Presbyterian Church of Victoria, of which Miller became the moderator on 14 April continued, it became the only Free Presbyterian Synod when the majority, with the blessing of the Free Church of Scotland, entered into the union forming the Presbyterian Church of Victoria in April 1859 on a basis drawn up in 1858.
Funds were raised to send Miller to Scotland to represent the interests of the minority at the May 1860 Assembly of the Free Church of Scotland. The Assembly would not receive him as a deputy of the Free Presbyterian Church of Victoria, but only as one of a body "calling itself" the Free Presbyterian Church of Victoria; this he declined. On the advice of friends, he appealed to appear by way of petition as an individual; the Assembly urged reunion. The rebuff by the Assembly did not help stability in the Victorian Synod, this was aggravated by the May 1861 Assembly undertaking, by a vote of 341 to 64, to recognise the minority only if they ceased to claim they represented the position occupied by the Free Presbyterian Church of Victoria. In May 1864 the Free Presbyterian Synod divided down the middle and Miller took the side of those who thought union with the Presbyterian Church of Victoria was appropriate. At the close of the year he submitted his resignation from the ministry of John Knox Church, citing the poor health of his wife, although the difficult church situation must have been relevant.
The congregation sided with those opposed to union but joined the union church in 1867 through the influence of a visiting Scottish minister, Rev James Oswald Dykes. The kind of union that occurred in Victoria in 1859 did not occur in Scotland until 1900 and 1929. Miller returned to Britain around March 1865, where he served the English Presbyterian Church at St Helens, Lancashire for some years, before he retired to Callander in Scotland, he suffered a heart attack during a journey, died at the newly constructed Callander railway station on 10 August 1874 aged 59. He married Mary Brisbane, an industrial school teacher from Paisley, in West Calder on 21 March 1851. No children have been identified to date. Letter on the Position and Necessities of the Free Presbyterian Church of Victoria, to the General Assembly of the Free Church of Scotland Victorian Pulpit #5. Free Presbyterian Church in Victoria. Presbyterian Union in Australia - To the Editor of the Scottish Guardian; the Edinburgh Presbytery and the Australian Union.
Pine Plains is a town in Dutchess County, New York, United States. The population was 2,473 at the 2010 census; the name is derived from the geographic character of the region. The hamlet of Pine Plains is on the north border of the county; the town was part of the Little Nine Partners Patent of 1706. The town was first settled around 1740 by Moravian missionaries to the native Mahican village of Shekomeko; the town of Pine Plains was formed from the town of North East in 1823. In the 1880s the town served as the winter-home for P. T. Barnum's animals; this was due to the rural, non-urban nature of the town, proximity to many different railroad lines. In 1907, Walter W. Law moved Briarcliff Farms from Briarcliff Manor, New York, to Pine Plains and sold the property in 1918. In 1916, New York banker Oakleigh Thorne and several business partners purchased large land parcels and began breeding Angus cattle still in the name of Briarcliff Farm; the farm was broken up into several smaller farms in the late 1940s, most lasted until the early 1980s, closing due to property taxes and poor economic conditions.
Berkshire Stud purchased 550 acres there, starting in 1983. According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 31.2 square miles. 30.6 square miles of it is land, 0.58 square miles, or 1.89%, is water. The north town line is the border of Columbia County. Three small lakes lie west of Pine Plains hamlet: Stissing Lake, excellent for swimming, Thompson Pond, dedicated to conservation for wildlife, Twin Island Lake, known locally as "Mud Pond". Stissing Mountain, the town's highest point at 1,403 feet, is to the west, it is formed of Precambrian gneiss that remains after numerous cycles of glaciation have scoured and reformed the surrounding terrain. The mountain itself is a permanent exhibit at the American Museum of Natural History, showcasing its unique formation and flora/fauna of the area; the town enacted its first zoning ordinance after protracted review and community input. Pine Plains is the location of a two thousand acre farm assembled by ice cream parlor chain entrepreneur Tom Carvel.
It belongs to the Durst Organization, planning a housing community. As of the census of 2000, there were 2,569 people, 988 households, 700 families residing in the town; the population density was 83.2 people per square mile. There were 1,161 housing units at an average density of 37.6 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 96.26% White, 0.90% Black or African American, 0.66% Native American, 0.66% Asian, 0.47% from other races, 1.05% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.36% of the population. There were 988 households out of which 33.5% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 55.6% were married couples living together, 10.1% had a female householder with no husband present, 29.1% were non-families. 23.0% of all households were made up of individuals and 9.9% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.60 and the average family size was 3.03. In the town, the population was spread out with 25.9% under the age of 18, 6.4% from 18 to 24, 27.2% from 25 to 44, 25.6% from 45 to 64, 14.9% who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 40 years. For every 100 females, there were 93.2 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 94.7 males. The median income for a household in the town was $43,125, the median income for a family was $46,900. Males had a median income of $35,417 versus $26,645 for females; the per capita income for the town was $24,259. About 5.7% of families and 9.2% of the population were below the poverty line, including 14.0% of those under age 18 and 2.3% of those age 65 or over. Bethel – A hamlet in the south-central part of town. Hammertown – A hamlet east of Pine Plains village. Mount Ross – A location in the northwest corner of the town. Pachin Mills – A hamlet in the north part of the town near the Columbia County border. Pine Plains – The hamlet of Pine Plains, located in the center of the town. Pulver's Corners – A location in the northeast part of the town. Graham-Brush Log House The Pines Stissing Mountain and Thompson Pond Preserve Stissing Mountain Fire Tower Evergreen Cemetery Hammertown Barn Furniture and home goods store located in a Historic Barn Stissing house, historic former inn and current restaurant.
Pine Plains operates under a council-manager form of government. The town supervisor is the chief administrative officer of the city selected to carry out the directives of the council; the manager enforces its ordinances and laws. The town supervisor is involved in the discussion of all matters coming before council yet has no final vote; the town board is the legislative body consisting of four council members. The town supervisor serves as the presiding officer of the council; the council functions to set policy, approve the annual budget, appoint the town supervisor and town clerk, enact local laws, resolutions & ordinances. The Pine Plains Fire District serves the town of Pine Plains as well as a portion of the town of Gallatin in southern Columbia County. With the sole fire station located in the center of the town at the corner of Lake Rd and South Main St, Pine Plains has been assigned a department ID number of "55". Firefighters in Pine Plains get alerted via paging through the Dutchess County Department Of Emergency Response, as well as text notifications to phones.
35 active members respond to any emergencies 24/7. The fire department is 100% volunteer; the Pine Plains Hose Company is made up of three fire engines for fire calls, one
Neverwinter Nights 2: Mask of the Betrayer is a role-playing video game developed by Obsidian Entertainment and published by Atari. It is an expansion pack for Neverwinter Nights 2, it was released in Autumn 2007 for the PC in North America and Australia. Like the first game, Mask of the Betrayer is set in the Forgotten Realms campaign setting of the paper and pencil role-playing game Dungeons & Dragons and employs the 3.5 edition rules. Mask of the Betrayer continues the story of Neverwinter Nights 2 by following the main character, the Shard-bearer, afflicted by a curse that requires the devouring of spirits to survive, the character's quest to determine the nature of the curse; the game takes place in two nations of the Forgotten Realms and Thay, which are considered part of Faerûn's "Unapproachable East". The expansion received favorable reviews upon its release. New character traits, such as spells and combat abilities, were welcomed by players, as were the storyline and setting; the game's technical aspects received mixed reception, with some reviewers welcoming the changes and others complaining that the technical glitches present in the original game had still not been addressed.
The new "spirit eating" mechanic, which forces players to replenish the main character's life force by sucking out the force of spirits and gods was not appreciated by many reviewers. Mask of the Betrayer is an expansion pack for Neverwinter Nights 2 and its core gameplay is identical; the game uses the 3.5 edition rules of the tabletop role-playing game Dragons. Players can create a character from scratch and make use of Mask of the Betrayer's new races and feats, or import an existing character from Neverwinter Nights 2. Characters must be at level 18 to begin the game; the level cap has been raised from 20 to 30, allowing for epic level characters and accompanying prestige classes and feats. Mask of the Betrayer features all of the races from Neverwinter Nights 2, as well as introducing two types of elves, four types of genasi, it contains two new base classes, the "favored soul" and "spirit shaman", five new prestige classes. The game adds more than 100 new feats and magical spells to the base game.
Like other Dungeons & Dragons games, the player character in Mask of the Betrayer relies on combat to progress throughout the game. The hero has different options in combat depending on their choice of class and abilities, including melee or ranged physical attacks and spells; the player character has the opportunity to solve puzzles such as breaking a contract with a devil by searching for loopholes. Certain actions, such as defeating enemies, result in the player character being awarded with experience points which are used to gain levels and become more powerful. Throughout the adventure, the player character is able to create a party; each follower has their own agenda, the hero may alienate followers with their actions if they disagree on a course of action. Like other games in the Neverwinter Nights series, Mask of the Betrayer takes place in the Forgotten Realms campaign setting; the story is a direct sequel to the plot of Neverwinter Nights 2, set immediately following the events at the main game's end.
The main campaign is set in Rashemen near the kingdom of Thay, the Red Wizards of Thay are a driving force behind the campaign story. In Act I, the Shard-bearer's story resumes after the defeat of the King of Shadows; the player awakens alone in an underground barrow in Rashemen, where he meets Safiya, a Red Wizard of Thay. The player follows Safiya to the Veil Theater in the nearby town of Mulsantir, hoping to find Lienna, an acquaintance of Safiya's mother, supposed to provide the player with some much-needed answers; the player finds that the theater has been attacked by Red Wizards, Lienna has been killed. At the back of the theater, the player finds a portal to the Plane of Shadow, a dark reflection of the Prime Material Plane, where he defeats the Red Wizards who murdered Lienna. Upon returning to the Prime Material Plane, the player finds that the spirit-god Okku has besieged Mulsantir, demanding the player's blood; the player defeats his spirit army. At the end of the battle, the player learns that he has become a spirit-eater, an accursed being who must feed upon feys and elementals in order to survive.
In Act II, the player meets a group of gargoyle-like creatures who reveal that Lienna and her "red twin" ordered them to kidnap the player from the Sword Coast. This plot was inspired by the Slumbering Coven, a sisterhood of hag oracles who dwell in an ancient flooded city; the player follows this clue to Lake Mulsantir, where he finds another portal to the Plane of Shadow. In this "alternate reality," the player confronts the hags; the Slumbering Coven reveal that Lienna, along with Safiya's mother Nefris, were responsible for the hero's current dilemma. They send the player to Nefris's Academy in Thay to discover her motive. At the Academy, the player enters a portal to the Astral Plane where they meet Myrkul, the former god of the dead. Myrkul reveals that the spirit-eater "curse" originated as a punishment for his former servant, Akachi "The Betrayer", who once led a crusade against the realm of the dead. Akachi's empty and hungering soul now resides in the player's body, the player's own soul has been displaced to the Wall of the Faithless, in the realm of the dead.
In Act III, the player meets the Founder of the Academy, Safiya realizes that she and Nefris are all splinters of the Founder's soul, that the Founder was once Ak