Oceanography known as oceanology, is the study of the physical and biological aspects of the ocean. It is an important Earth science, which covers a wide range including ecosystem dynamics; these diverse topics reflect multiple disciplines that oceanographers blend to further knowledge of the world ocean and understanding of processes within: astronomy, chemistry, geography, hydrology and physics. Paleoceanography studies the history of the oceans in the geologic past. An oceanographer is a person who studies many matters concerned with oceans including marine geology, physics and biology. Humans first acquired knowledge of the waves and currents of the seas and oceans in pre-historic times. Observations on tides were recorded by Strabo. Early exploration of the oceans was for cartography and limited to its surfaces and of the animals that fishermen brought up in nets, though depth soundings by lead line were taken. Although Juan Ponce de León in 1513 first identified the Gulf Stream, the current was well known to mariners, Benjamin Franklin made the first scientific study of it and gave it its name.
Franklin measured water temperatures during several Atlantic crossings and explained the Gulf Stream's cause. Franklin and Timothy Folger printed the first map of the Gulf Stream in 1769–1770. Information on the currents of the Pacific Ocean was gathered by explorers of the late 18th century, including James Cook and Louis Antoine de Bougainville. James Rennell wrote the first scientific textbooks on oceanography, detailing the current flows of the Atlantic and Indian oceans. During a voyage around the Cape of Good Hope in 1777, he mapped "the banks and currents at the Lagullas", he was the first to understand the nature of the intermittent current near the Isles of Scilly. Sir James Clark Ross took the first modern sounding in deep sea in 1840, Charles Darwin published a paper on reefs and the formation of atolls as a result of the second voyage of HMS Beagle in 1831–1836. Robert FitzRoy published a four-volume report of Beagle's three voyages. In 1841 -- 1842 Edward Forbes undertook dredging in the Aegean Sea.
The first superintendent of the United States Naval Observatory, Matthew Fontaine Maury devoted his time to the study of marine meteorology and charting prevailing winds and currents. His 1855 textbook Physical Geography of the Sea was one of the first comprehensive oceanography studies. Many nations sent oceanographic observations to Maury at the Naval Observatory, where he and his colleagues evaluated the information and distributed the results worldwide. Despite all this, human knowledge of the oceans remained confined to the topmost few fathoms of the water and a small amount of the bottom in shallow areas. Nothing was known of the ocean depths; the British Royal Navy's efforts to chart all of the world's coastlines in the mid-19th century reinforced the vague idea that most of the ocean was deep, although little more was known. As exploration ignited both popular and scientific interest in the polar regions and Africa, so too did the mysteries of the unexplored oceans; the seminal event in the founding of the modern science of oceanography was the 1872–1876 Challenger expedition.
As the first true oceanographic cruise, this expedition laid the groundwork for an entire academic and research discipline. In response to a recommendation from the Royal Society, the British Government announced in 1871 an expedition to explore world's oceans and conduct appropriate scientific investigation. Charles Wyville Thompson and Sir John Murray launched the Challenger expedition. Challenger, leased from the Royal Navy, was modified for scientific work and equipped with separate laboratories for natural history and chemistry. Under the scientific supervision of Thomson, Challenger travelled nearly 70,000 nautical miles surveying and exploring. On her journey circumnavigating the globe, 492 deep sea soundings, 133 bottom dredges, 151 open water trawls and 263 serial water temperature observations were taken. Around 4,700 new species of marine life were discovered; the result was the Report Of The Scientific Results of the Exploring Voyage of H. M. S. Challenger during the years 1873–76. Murray, who supervised the publication, described the report as "the greatest advance in the knowledge of our planet since the celebrated discoveries of the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries".
He went on to found the academic discipline of oceanography at the University of Edinburgh, which remained the centre for oceanographic research well into the 20th century. Murray was the first to study marine trenches and in particular the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, map the sedimentary deposits in the oceans, he tried to map out the world's ocean currents based on salinity and temperature observations, was the first to understand the nature of coral reef development. In the late 19th century, other Western nations sent out scientific expeditions; the first purpose built oceanographic ship, was built in 1882. In 1893, Fridtjof Nansen allowed Fram, to be frozen in the Arctic ice; this enabled him to obtain oceanographic and astronomical data at a stationary spot over an extended period. In 1881 the geographer John Francon Williams published Geography of the Oceans. Between 1907 and 1911
Ligovsky pond is artificial lake existing in Ligovo, suburb of Saint Petersburg in 1716–1941. In 1703 Peter I had been based the city of Saint Petersburg and this area became capital suburb. In 1710s emperor has taken part in destiny of settlement - it has enjoined to block the Dudergofka river in 1715. On a dam the watermill which specialised on flour-grinding and felting works has been constructed. With barrage of Dudergofka river has been dug the Ligovsky channel, it has taken away an essential part of water from Dudergofka and the artificial lake became a source of water for Ligovo. At that time surrounding district represented imperial grange for maintenance of a palace with the foodstuffs; when in 1765 owner of district became Grigory Orlov, for it on the bank of lake buildings have been built. On the western coast of a pond were the house with landing stage and economic constructions. On east coast the manour house where Orlov accepted Russian empress Catherine II has been constructed. After 1783, when Grigory Orlov is dead, earths of Ligovo have been inherited by its pupil Natalia Alekseeva, she was married for aide-de-camp of Orlov Friedrich Wilhelm von Buxhoeveden.
In 1840s the manor of Buxhoeveden has passed to count G. G. Kushelev-Bezbordko, it has continued useful agricultural activity of count Orlov, Ligovo became an exemplary agricultural manor. Have spent a network of avenues and paths, have created specific hills, have dug out ponds; the house has a connected covered transition to kitchen, to the north from it have organised separate zones — an orchard with greenhouses, the bird's and cattle courtyard. Lake coast too have improved - by the architect A. Stackenschneider have been constructed terrace, going down from the house to lake, a grotto on love island. After Kushelev-Bezbordko's death the manor fell into decay. In 1857 in Ligovo has come Baltic railway, by the end 1870s vicinities Ligovsky pond became country area. To October Revolution in 1917 the lake, a dam and a mill were supported. After that the mill has stopped, contemporaries recollected; the pond mirror was supported by a dam of a mill till 1941. On 5 December 1941 German armies destroyed the dam on the approach to Leningrad.
After the Second World War hydraulic work was not restored. On a lake place the big ravine which has grown with a bush settles down; the territory of the former lake is not built up - it is a memorial zone: in fights on this place was lost more than 700 persons. Near to the former lake the memorial Orthodox church is under construction
E. M. Black was an American businessman, he controlled the United Brands Company. His son Leon Black is a founding member of private equity firm Apollo Management. Born Elihu Menashe Blachowitz in Poland, he immigrated to the United States as a child, he attended Yeshiva University, graduated at the top of his class in 1940. He received training to be an Orthodox Jewish rabbi and served as the rabbi of a congregation in Woodmere, New York for three and a half years prior to entering business, his business career began in investment banking with Lehman Brothers, the American Securities Corporation, where he worked on financing for the American Seal-Kap Company, a company that made caps for milk bottles. He was hired to be their chairman and chief executive officer in 1954. Black renamed the company AMK, after its ticker symbol, turned it into a vehicle for acquisitions. Among his many takeovers was the John Co. meatpacking company. AMK joined the nation's top 500 companies in 1967. In September 1968, he was hired to take a run at United Fruit by the brokerage firm of Donaldson, Lufkin & Jenrette.
In 1970 AMK merged with United Fruit Company, adopted the name United Brands. Black became chairman, CEO. At that time, United Fruit was importing about a third of all the bananas sold in the US and owned the Chiquita banana brand, but Black soon discovered. The company soon became crippled with debt; the company's losses were exacerbated by Hurricane Fifi in 1974, which destroyed many of its banana plantations in Honduras. In 1974, United Brands reported losses of $40 million for the first three quarters of the year. Black struggled to keep the company solvent, in December United Brands announced that it was selling its interest in Foster Grant, Inc. for $70 million. Black was married to artist Shirley Lubell, they had two children: daughter Judy Black Nadler and son Leon Black, founding member of private equity firm Apollo Management. In 1975, the Securities and Exchange Commission uncovered a $1.25 million bribe that United Brands paid to Honduran president Oswaldo López Arellano under authorization by Black in order to obtain a reduction of taxes on banana exports.
A few weeks before the scandal broke, on February 3, 1975, Black went to his office on the forty-fourth floor of the Pan Am Building in Manhattan. At about 8:00 a.m. he broke the window with his briefcase and jumped to his death, landing on the northbound ramp of Park Avenue beside motorists. He was remembered favorably by a number of prominent people, including Senator Abraham Ribicoff and Amyas Ames, the chairman of Lincoln Center. United Farm Workers president Cesar Chavez said that his career was proof that management could work with farm labor "for the betterment of all." Black served as a trustee of the Lincoln Center for the Performing Arts, The American Jewish Committee, the Federation of Jewish Philanthropies, Babson College, the Jewish Guild for the Blind, the Jewish Museum. He had served as chairman of the Commentary Magazine publication committee; the Eli M. Black Lifelong Learning Center at the Park Avenue Synagogue is named in his honor. After Black's death, Seymour Milstein and Paul Milstein bought into United Fruit.
Black's suicide was the inspiration for a scene in the 1994 screwball comedy film The Hudsucker Proxy. Union of Banana Exporting Countries "Eli Black's Rites Attended by 500", The New York Times, February 6, 1975. Peter T. Kilborn, "Suicide of Big Executive: Stress of Corporate Life", The New York Times, February 14, 1975. Thomas P. McCann, On the Inside, Massachusetts: Quinlan Press, 1987. ISBN 0-933341-53-9