André Le Nôtre
André Le Nôtre rendered as André Le Nostre, was a French landscape architect and the principal gardener of King Louis XIV of France. Most notably, he was the landscape architect who designed the park of the Palace of Versailles, his work represents the height of the French formal garden style, or jardin à la française. Prior to working on Versailles, Le Nôtre collaborated with Louis Le Vau and Charles Le Brun on the park at Vaux-le-Vicomte, his other works include the design of gardens and parks at Chantilly, Saint-Cloud and Saint-Germain. His contribution to planning was significant: at the Tuileries he extended the westward vista, which became the avenue of the Champs-Élysées and comprise the Axe historique. André Le Nôtre was born into a family of gardeners. Pierre Le Nôtre, in charge of the gardens of the Palais des Tuileries in 1572, may have been his grandfather. André's father Jean Le Nôtre was responsible for sections of the Tuileries gardens under Claude Mollet, as head gardener, during the reign of Louis XIII.
André was born on 12 March 1613, was baptised at the Église Saint-Roch. His godfather at the ceremony was an administrator of the royal gardens, his godmother was the wife of Claude Mollet; the family lived in a house within the Tuilieries, André thus grew up surrounded by gardening, acquired both practical and theoretical knowledge. The location allowed him to study in the nearby Palais du Louvre, part of, used as an academy of the arts, he learned mathematics and architecture, entered the atelier of Simon Vouet, painter to Louis XIII, where he met and befriended the painter Charles Le Brun. He learned classical art and perspective, studied for several years under the architect François Mansart, a friend of Le Brun. In 1635, Le Nôtre was named the principal gardener of duc d'Orléans. On 26 June 1637, Le Nôtre was appointed head gardener at the Tuileries, taking over his father's position, he had primary responsibility for the areas of the garden closest to the palace, including the orangery built by Simon Bouchard.
In 1643 he was appointed "draughtsman of plants and terraces" for Anne of Austria, the queen mother, from 1645 to 1646 he worked on the modernisation of the gardens of the Château de Fontainebleau. He was put in charge of all the royal gardens of France, in 1657 he was further appointed Controller-General of the Royal Buildings. There are few direct references to Le Nôtre in the royal accounts, Le Nôtre himself wrote down his ideas or approach to gardening, he expressed himself purely through his gardens. He became a trusted advisor to Louis XIV, in 1675 he was ennobled by the King, he and Le Brun accompanied the court at the siege of Cambrai in 1677. In 1640, he married Françoise Langlois, they had three children. André Le Nôtre's first major garden design was undertaken for Nicolas Fouquet, Louis XIV's Superintendent of Finances. Fouquet began work on the Château de Vaux-le-Vicomte in 1657, employing the architect Louis Le Vau, the painter Charles Le Brun, Le Nôtre; the three designers worked in partnership, with Le Nôtre laying out a grand, symmetrical arrangement of parterres and gravel walks.
Le Vau and Le Nôtre exploited the changing levels across the site, so that the canal is invisible from the house, employed forced perspective to make the grotto appear closer than it is. The gardens were complete by 1661, but only three weeks on 10 September 1661, Fouquet was arrested for embezzling state funds, his artists and craftsmen were taken into the king's service. From 1661, Le Nôtre was working for Louis XIV to build and enhance the garden and parks of the Château de Versailles. Louis extended the existing hunting lodge making it his primary residence and seat of power. Le Nôtre laid out the radiating city plan of Versailles, which included the largest avenue yet seen in Europe, the Avenue de Paris. In the following century, the Versailles design influenced Pierre Charles L'Enfant's master plan for Washington, D. C. See, L'Enfant Plan. In 1661, Le Nôtre was working on the gardens at the Palace of Fontainebleau. In 1663 he was engaged at Château de Saint-Germain-en-Laye, Château de Saint-Cloud, residence of Philippe d'Orléans, where he would oversee works for many years.
From 1663, Le Nôtre was engaged at Château de Chantilly, property of the Prince de Condé, where he worked with his brother-in-law Pierre Desgots until the 1680s. From 1664 he was rebuilding the gardens of the Tuileries, at the behest of Colbert, Louis's chief minister, who still hoped the king would remain in Paris. In 1667 Le Nôtre extended the main axis of the gardens westward, creating the avenue which would become the Champs-Élysées. Colbert commissioned Le Nôtre in 1670, to alter the gardens of his own château de Sceaux, ongoing until 1683. In 1662, he provided designs for Charles II of England. In 1670 Le Nôtre conceived a project for the Castle of Racconigi in Italy, between 1674 and 1698 he remodelled the gardens of Venaria Reale, near Turin. In 1679, he visited Italy, his advice was provided for Charlottenburg Palace and château de Cassel in Germany, with plans for Windsor Castle. Between 1679 and 1691, he was involved in the planning of the gardens of Château de Meudon for François-Michel le Tellier, Marquis de Louvois.
His work has been favorably compared and contrasted to the œuvre of Lancelot "Capability" Brown, the English landscape architect. André Le Nôtre was playe
Place de la Concorde
The Place de la Concorde is one of the major public squares in Paris, France Measuring 7.6 hectares in area, it is the largest square in the French capital. It is located at the eastern end of the Champs-Élysées, it was the site of many notable public executions during the French Revolution. The place was designed by Ange-Jacques Gabriel in 1755 as a moat-skirted octagon between the Champs-Elysées to the west and the Tuileries Garden to the east. Decorated with statues and fountains, the area was named the Place Louis XV to honor the king at that time; the square showcased an equestrian statue of the king, commissioned in 1748 by the city of Paris, sculpted by Edmé Bouchardon, completed by Jean-Baptiste Pigalle after the death of Bouchardon. At the north end, two magnificent identical stone buildings were constructed. Separated by the rue Royale, these structures remain among the best examples of Louis Quinze style architecture; the eastern building served as the French Naval Ministry. Shortly after its construction, the western building became the opulent home of the Duc d'Aumont.
It was purchased by the Comte de Crillon, whose family resided there until 1907. The famous luxury Hôtel de Crillon, which occupies the building, took its name from its previous owners. During the French Revolution in 1789 the statue of Louis XV of France was torn down and the area renamed the Place de la Révolution; the new revolutionary government erected a guillotine in the square, it was here that King Louis XVI was executed on 21 January 1793. Other important figures guillotined on the site in front of cheering crowds, were Queen Marie Antoinette, Princess Élisabeth of France, Charlotte Corday, Madame du Barry, Georges Danton, Camille Desmoulins, Antoine Lavoisier, Maximilien Robespierre, Louis de Saint-Just, Olympe de Gouges. In 1795, under the Directory, the square was renamed Place de la Concorde as a gesture of reconciliation after the turmoil of the French Revolution. After the Bourbon Restoration of 1814, the name was changed back to Place Louis XV, in 1826 the square was renamed Place Louis XVI.
After the July Revolution of 1830 the name was returned to Place de la Concorde and has remained that way since. To the west of the Place is the famous Champs-Élysées. To the east of the Place are the Tuileries Gardens; the Galerie nationale du Jeu de Paume and the Musée de l'Orangerie, both in the Tuileries Gardens, border the Place North of the Place: two identical stone buildings, separated by the Rue Royale. The eastern one houses the French Naval Ministry, the western one is the Hôtel de Crillon; the Rue Royale leads to the Église de la Madeleine. The Embassy of the United States is located in the corner of the Place at the intersection of Avenue Gabriel and Rue Boissy d'Anglas The northeastern corner of the Place is the western end of the Rue de Rivoli South of the Place: the River Seine, crossed by the Pont de la Concorde, built by Jean-Rodolphe Perronnet between 1787–1790 and widened in 1930-1932; the Palais Bourbon, home of the French National Assembly, is across the bridge, on the opposite bank of the river At each of the eight angles of the octagonal Place is a statue, initiated by architect Jacques-Ignace Hittorff, representing a French city: Brest and Rouen by Jean-Pierre Cortot Lyon and Marseille by Pierre Petitot Bordeaux and Nantes by Louis-Denis Caillouette Lille and Strasbourg by James Pradier.
After the Franco-Prussian War of 1870-1871, when Alsace-Lorraine was lost to Germany, the Strasbourg statue was covered in black mourning crepe on state occasions, was decorated with wreaths. The center of the Place is occupied by a giant Egyptian obelisk decorated with hieroglyphics exalting the reign of the pharaoh Ramesses II, it is one of two. The other one stayed in Egypt, too difficult and heavy to move to France with the technology at that time. In the 1990s, President François Mitterrand gave the second obelisk back to the Egyptians; the obelisk once marked the entrance to the Luxor Temple. The self-declared Khedive of Egypt, Muhammad Ali Pasha, offered the 3,300-year-old Luxor Obelisk to France in 1829, it arrived in Paris on 21 December 1833. Three years on 25 October 1836, King Louis Philippe had it placed in the center of Place de la Concorde; the obelisk, a yellow granite column, rises 23 metres high, including the base, weighs over 250 tonnes. Given the technical limitations of the day, transporting it was no easy feat — on the pedestal are drawn diagrams explaining the machinery, used for the transportation.
The obelisk is flanked on both sides by fountains constructed at the time of its erection on the Place. Missing its original cap, believed stolen in the 6th century BC, the government of France added a gold-leafed pyramid cap to the top of the obelisk in 1998; the two fountains in the Place de la Concorde have been the most famous of the fountains built during the time of Louis-Philippe, came to symbolize the fountains in Paris. They were designed by Jacques Ignace Hittorff, a student of the Neoclassical designer Charles Percier at the École des Beaux-Arts; the German-born Hittorff had served as the official Architect of Festivals and Ceremonies for the deposed King, had spent two years studying the architecture and fountains of Italy. Hittorff's two fountains were on the theme of rivers and seas, in part because of their proximity to the Ministry of Navy, to the Seine, their arrangement, on a north-south axis aligned with the Obelisk of Luxor and the Rue Royale, the form of the fountains themselv
Greek mythology is the body of myths told by the ancient Greeks. These stories concern the origin and the nature of the world, the lives and activities of deities and mythological creatures, the origins and significance of the ancient Greeks' own cult and ritual practices. Modern scholars study the myths in an attempt to shed light on the religious and political institutions of ancient Greece and its civilization, to gain understanding of the nature of myth-making itself; the Greek myths were propagated in an oral-poetic tradition most by Minoan and Mycenaean singers starting in the 18th century BC. Two poems by Homer's near contemporary Hesiod, the Theogony and the Works and Days, contain accounts of the genesis of the world, the succession of divine rulers, the succession of human ages, the origin of human woes, the origin of sacrificial practices. Myths are preserved in the Homeric Hymns, in fragments of epic poems of the Epic Cycle, in lyric poems, in the works of the tragedians and comedians of the fifth century BC, in writings of scholars and poets of the Hellenistic Age, in texts from the time of the Roman Empire by writers such as Plutarch and Pausanias.
Aside from this narrative deposit in ancient Greek literature, pictorial representations of gods and mythic episodes featured prominently in ancient vase-paintings and the decoration of votive gifts and many other artifacts. Geometric designs on pottery of the eighth century BC depict scenes from the Trojan cycle as well as the adventures of Heracles. In the succeeding Archaic and Hellenistic periods and various other mythological scenes appear, supplementing the existing literary evidence. Greek mythology has had an extensive influence on the culture and literature of Western civilization and remains part of Western heritage and language. Poets and artists from ancient times to the present have derived inspiration from Greek mythology and have discovered contemporary significance and relevance in the themes. Greek mythology is known today from Greek literature and representations on visual media dating from the Geometric period from c. 900 BC to c. 800 BC onward. In fact and archaeological sources integrate, sometimes mutually supportive and sometimes in conflict.
Mythical narration plays an important role in nearly every genre of Greek literature. The only general mythographical handbook to survive from Greek antiquity was the Library of Pseudo-Apollodorus; this work attempts to reconcile the contradictory tales of the poets and provides a grand summary of traditional Greek mythology and heroic legends. Apollodorus of Athens wrote on many of these topics, his writings may have formed the basis for the collection. Among the earliest literary sources are the Iliad and the Odyssey. Other poets completed the "epic cycle", but these and lesser poems now are lost entirely. Despite their traditional name, the "Homeric Hymns" have no direct connection with Homer, they are choral hymns from the earlier part of the so-called Lyric age. Hesiod, a possible contemporary with Homer, offers in his Theogony the fullest account of the earliest Greek myths, dealing with the creation of the world. Hesiod's Works and Days, a didactic poem about farming life includes the myths of Prometheus and the Five Ages.
The poet gives advice on the best way to succeed in a dangerous world, rendered yet more dangerous by its gods. Lyrical poets took their subjects from myth, but their treatment became less narrative and more allusive. Greek lyric poets, including Pindar and Simonides, bucolic poets such as Theocritus and Bion, relate individual mythological incidents. Additionally, myth was central to classical Athenian drama; the tragic playwrights Aeschylus and Euripides took most of their plots from myths of the age of heroes and the Trojan War. Many of the great tragic stories took on their classic form in these tragedies; the comic playwright Aristophanes used myths, in The Birds and The Frogs. Historians Herodotus and Diodorus Siculus, geographers Pausanias and Strabo, who traveled throughout the Greek world and noted the stories they heard, supplied numerous local myths and legends giving little-known alternative versions. Herodotus in particular, searched the various traditions presented him and found the historical or mythological roots in the confrontation between Greece and the East.
Herodotus attempted to reconcile the blending of differing cultural concepts. The poetry of the Hellenistic and Roman ages was composed as a literary rather than cultic exercise, it contains many important details that would otherwise be lost. This category includes the works of: The Roman poets Ovid, Valerius Flaccus and Virgil with Servius's commentary; the Greek poets of the Late Antique period: Nonnus, Antoninus Liberalis, Quintus Smyrnaeus. The Greek poets of the Hellenistic period: Apollonius of Rhodes, Pseudo-Eratosthenes, Parthenius. Prose writers from the same periods who make reference to myths includ
Arrondissements of Paris
The city of Paris is divided into twenty arrondissements municipaux, administrative districts, more referred to as arrondissements. These are not to be confused with departmental arrondissements, which subdivide the 100 French départements; the word "arrondissement", when applied to Paris, refers always to the municipal arrondissements listed below. The number of the arrondissement is indicated by the last two digits in most Parisian postal codes; the twenty arrondissements are arranged in the form of a clockwise spiral, starting from the middle of the city, with the first on the Right Bank of the Seine. Lyon and Marseille have, more also been subdivided into arrondissements. In French, notably on street signs, the number is given in Roman numerals. For example, the Eiffel Tower belongs to the VIIe arrondissement while Gare de l'Est is in the Xe arrondissement. In daily speech, people use only the ordinal number corresponding to the arrondissement, e.g. "Elle habite dans le sixième", "She lives in the 6th".
Notes: 1. With the Bois de Vincennes 2. Without the Bois de Vincennes 3. With the Bois de Boulogne 4. Without the Bois de Boulogne 5. 2005 is the year of the most recent official estimate. Paris thus has eighty quartiers administratifs, each containing a police station. For a table giving the names of the eighty quartiers, see Quarters of Paris. On 11 October 1795, Paris was divided into twelve arrondissements, they were numbered from west to east, with the numbers 1-9 situated on the Right Bank of the Seine and the numbers 10-12 on the Left Bank. Each arrondissement was subdivided into four quartiers, which corresponded to the 48 original districts created in 1790. Emperor Napoleon III and the Prefect of the Seine Baron Haussmann developed a plan to incorporate several of the surrounding communes into the Paris jurisdiction in the late 1850s. Parliament passed the necessary legislation in 1859, the expansion took effect when the law was promulgated on 3 November 1859; the previous twelve arrondissements were reorganized from twelve arrondissements into twenty.
When Haussmann released his plan for the new boundaries and numbering system, residents of Passy objected because it placed them in the new thirteenth arrondissement, at the time the expression "they were married in the thirteenth" was "a jocular way of referring to non-marital cohabitation". The mayor of Passy, devised the idea of a numbering the arrondissements in a spiral pattern beginning with the first centered on the imperial palaces, which put Passy in the sixteenth. In historical records, when it is important to distinguish between two systems, the original arrondissements are indicated by adding the term ancienne, for example, 2ème ancienne or 7ème anc. Both a city and a département, Paris has since 1982 and the PLM law both a city council and 20 arrondissement councils; the PLM law set limits to the prerogatives of the mayor of Paris, who has to deal with the powers granted to the prefect of police on security issues. The 20 arrondissement councils are similar in operation to the municipal council but with few powers.
Its members are elected at municipal elections in the same way as in municipalities with more than 3,500 inhabitants. The arrondissement council is made up of 2/3 arrondissement councilors and 1/3 of city councilors, elected in the arrondissement but who sit on the Paris city council. At its first meeting after the elections, each arrondissement council elects its mayor. Arrondissement, for other uses of the term. Historical quarters of Paris Paris, je t'aime, film composed of five-minute sequences on each arrondissement Administration of Paris Official Paris website Diagrams of each arrondissement showing its quartiers administratifs Website showing location, numbering conventions, general info for arrondissements Map of Paris arrondissements
Marly-le-Roi is a commune in the Yvelines department in the Île-de-France region in north-central France. It is located in the western suburbs of 18.4 km from the centre of Paris. Marly-le-Roi was the location of the Château de Marly, the famous leisure residence of the Sun King Louis XIV, destroyed after the French Revolution; the Marly-le-Roi National Estate and Park now occupies much of the grounds of the former château, including restored waterways and lawns. The inhabitants are called Marlychois or less Marlésiens. Marly-le-Roi is served by Marly-le-Roi station on the Transilien Paris – Saint-Lazare suburban rail line. Marly-le-Roi is twinned with: Leichlingen, Germany Marlow, United Kingdom Viseu, Portugal Communes of the Yvelines department Château de Marly Machine de Marly INSEE
The Tuileries Garden is a public garden located between the Louvre and the Place de la Concorde in the 1st arrondissement of Paris, France. Created by Catherine de' Medici as the garden of the Tuileries Palace in 1564, it was opened to the public in 1667 and became a public park after the French Revolution. In the 19th and 20th centuries, it was a place where Parisians celebrated, met and relaxed. In July 1559, after the accidental death of her husband, Henry II, Queen Catherine de Medici decided to leave her residence of the Hôtel des Tournelles, at the eastern part of Paris, near the Bastille. Together with her son, the new king of France François II, her other children and the royal court, she moved to the Louvre Palace. Five years in 1564, she commissioned the construction of a new palace just beyond the wall of Charles V, not far from the Louvre, from which it would be separated by a neighborhood of private hotels, churches and the Hospice des Quinze-Vingts near the Porte Saint-Honoré.
For that purpose, Catherine had bought land west of Paris, on the other side of the portion of the wall of Charles V situated between the Tour du Bois and the 14th century Porte Saint-Honoré. It was bordered on the south by the Seine, on the north by the faubourg Saint-Honoré, a road in the countryside continuing the Rue Saint-Honoré. Since the 13th century this area had been occupied by tile-making factories called tuileries. Catherine further commissioned a landscape architect from Florence, Bernard de Carnesse, to create an Italian Renaissance garden, with fountains, a labyrinth, a grotto, decorated with faience images of plants and animals, made by Bernard Palissy, whom Catherine had tasked to discover the secret of Chinese porcelain; the garden of Catherine de' Medici was an enclosed space five hundred metres long and three hundred metres wide, separated from the new palace by a lane. It was divided into rectangular compartments by six alleys, the sections were planted with lawns, flower beds, small clusters of five trees, called quinconces.
The Tuileries garden was the largest and most beautiful garden in Paris at the time. Catherine used it for lavish royal festivities honoring ambassadors from Queen Elizabeth I of England, the marriage of her daughter, Marguerite de Valois, to Henri III of Navarre, better known as Henry IV, King of France and of Navarre. King Henry III was forced to flee Paris in 1588, the gardens fell into disrepair, his successor, Henry IV, his gardener, Claude Mollet, restored the gardens, built a covered promenade the length of the garden, a parallel alley planted with mulberry trees where he hoped to cultivate silkworms and start a silk industry in France. He built a rectangular ornamental lake of 65 metres by 45 metres with a fountain supplied with water by the new pump called La Samaritaine, built in 1608 on the Pont Neuf; the area between the palace and the former moat of Charles V was turned into the "New Garden" with a large fountain in the center. Though Henry IV never lived in the Tuilieries Palace, continually under reconstruction, he did use the gardens for relaxation and exercise.
In 1610, at the death of his father, Louis XIII became the new owner of the Tuileries Gardens at the age of nine. It became his enormous playground - he used it for hunting, he kept a menagerie of animals. On the north side of the gardens, Marie de' Medici established a riding school, a covered manege for exercising horses; when the king and court were absent from Paris, the gardens were turned into a pleasure spot for the nobility. In 1630 a former rabbit warren and kennel at the west rampart of the garden were made into a flower-lined promenade and cabaret; the daughter of Gaston d'Orléans and the niece of Louis XIII, known as La Grande Mademoiselle, held a sort of court in the cabaret, the "New Garden" of Henry IV became known as the "Parterre de Mademoiselle." In 1652, "La Grande Mademoiselle" was expelled from the chateau and garden for having supported an uprising, the Fronde, against her cousin, the young Louis XIV. The new king imposed his own sense of order on the Tuileries Gardens, his architects, Louis Le Vau and François d'Orbay finished the Tuileries Palace, making a proper royal residence.
In 1662, to celebrate the birth of his first child, Louis XIV held a vast pageant of mounted courtiers in the New Garden, enlarged by filling in Charles V's moat and had been turned into a parade ground. Thereafter the square was known as the Place du Carrousel. In 1664, the king's superintendent of buildings, commissioned the landscape architect André Le Nôtre, to redesign the entire garden. Le Nôtre was the grandson of Pierre Le Nôtre, one of Catherine de' Medici's gardeners, his father Jean had been a gardener at the Tuileries, he began transforming the Tuileries into a formal garden à la française, a style he had first developed at Vaux-le-Vicomte and perfected at Versailles, based on symmetry and long perspectives. Le Nôtre's gardens were designed to be seen from a building or terrace, he eliminated the street which separated the palace and the garden, replaced it with a terrace looking down upon flowerbeds bordered by low boxwood hedges and filled with designs of flowers. In the centre of the flowerbeds he placed three ornamental lakes with fountains.
In front of the centre of the first fountain he laid out the Grande Allée, which extended 350 metres. He built two other alleys, lined with chestnut trees, on either side, he crossed these three main alleys with small lanes, t