The Chams or Cham people are an ethnic group of Austronesian origin in Southeast Asia. Their contemporary population is concentrated between the Kampong Cham Province in Cambodia and Phan Rang–Tháp Chàm, Phan Thiết, Ho Chi Minh City and An Giang Province in Southern Vietnam. Including the diaspora, their total is about 400,000. An additional 4,000 Chams live in Bangkok, who had migrated during Rama I's reign. Recent immigrants to Thailand are students and workers, who preferably seek work and education in the southern Islamic Pattani, Narathiwat and Songkhla provinces. A large Cham diaspora established in Malaysia following the turbulence during the Pol Pot regime, where they were assimilated with the local Malay population. Cham people represent the core of the Muslim communities in both Vietnam. From the 2nd to the mid-15th century the Chams populated Champa, a contiguous territory of independent principalities in central and southern Vietnam, they spoke a Malayo-Polynesian language of the Austronesian language family.
Chams and Malays are the only sizable Austronesian peoples that had settled in Iron Age mainland Southeast Asia among the more ancient Austroasiatic inhabitants. Austronesian origin and chronology of migration remain debated and it is assumed, that the Cham people arrived in peninsular Southeast Asia via Borneo. Mainland Southeast Asia had been populated on land routes by members of the Austroasiatic language family, such as the Mon people and the Khmer people around 5,000 years ago; the Cham were accomplished Austronesian seafarers, that from 4,000 years BP populated and soon dominated maritime Southeast Asia. Earliest known records of Cham presence in Indochina date back to the second century CE. Population centers around the river outlets along the coast controlled the import/export of continental Southeast Asia, therefore maritime trade was the essence of a prosperous economy; the size of Champa during its heyday in the 9th and 10th century was not larger than during its formative period.
Cham folklore includes the creation of a myth in which the founder of the first Cham polity was a certain Lady Po Nagar. Coming from a humble peasant origin somewhere in the Dai An Mountains, Khánh Hòa Province, spirits assisted her as she traveled to China on a floating log of sandalwood where she married a man of royalty and had two children, she returned to Champa "did many good deeds in helping the sick and the poor" and "a temple was erected in her honor". Like countless other political entities of Southeast Asia, the Champa principalities underwent the process of Indianization since the early common era as a result of centuries of socio-economic interaction adopted and introduced cultural and institutional elements of pre-Islamic India. From the 8th century onward trade and shipping of India came to be controlled by Muslims from such regions as Gujarat. Islamic ideas became a part of the vast tide of exchange, treading the same path as Hinduism and Buddhism centuries before. Cham people picked up these ideas by the 11th century.
This can be seen in the architecture of Cham temples, which shares similarities with the one of the Angkor Temples. Ad-Dimashqi idolaters; the Muslim religion came there during the time of Caliph Uthman... and Ali, many Muslims who were expelled by the Umayyads and by Hajjaj, fled there". The Daoyi Zhilüe records that at Cham ports, Cham women were married to Chinese merchants, who came back to them after trading voyages. A Chinese merchant from Quanzhou, Wang Yuanmao, traded extensively with Champa and married a Cham princess. In the 12th century, the Cham fought a series of wars with the Khmer Empire to the west. In 1177, the Cham and their allies launched an attack from the lake Tonlé Sap and managed to sack the Khmer capital. In 1181, they were defeated by the Khmer King Jayavarman VII. Between the rise of the Khmer Empire around 800 and the Vietnamese people's territorial push south from Jiaozhi and Đại Việt, Champa began to shrink. At a disadvantage against Vietnam's army of 300,000 troops, the Chams 100,000 were no match.
In the Cham–Vietnamese War, Champa suffered serious defeats at the hands of the Vietnamese, in which 120,000 people were either captured or killed, the kingdom was reduced to a small enclave near Nha Trang with many Chams fleeing to Cambodia. Champa was no longer a threat to Vietnam, some were enslaved by their victors. Islam first arrived in Champa around the ninth century, however it didn't become significant among the Cham people until after the eleventh century. A number of Cham fled across the sea to Malay Peninsula and as early as the 15th century, a Cham colony was established in Malacca; the Chams encountered Sunni Islam there as the Malacca Sultanate was Muslim since 1414. The King of Champa became an ally of the Johor Sultanate. Between 1607 and 1676, one of the Champa kings converted to Islam and it became a dominant feature of Cham society; the Chams adopted the Jawi alphabet. Historical records in Indonesia showed the influence of Queen Dwarawati, a Muslim Princess from the Kingdom of Champa, toward her husband, the Seventh King of Majapahit Empire, so that the royal family of the Majapahit Empire converted to Islam, which lead to the conversion to Islam of the entire region.
Chams Princess tomb can be found in the site of the capital of the Majapahit Empire. In Babad Tanah Jawi, it is said that the king of Brawijaya V has a w
Le Tigre aime la chair fraîche is a 1964 Eurospy film directed by Claude Chabrol and starring and written by Roger Hanin as the Tiger. The film was an attempt to create a French franchise equal to James Bond, the film From Russia with Love is referenced within the film that features the film's female lead Daniela Bianchi, it was the predecessor of Our Agent Tiger which got released in 1965. The French government plans an international arms deal with the help of a Turkish diplomate named Baskine, but a group of terrorists menaces the diplomat. When the government receives intelligence concerning a looming attempt on Baskine's life, they assign Louis Rapière a.k.a. "The Tiger" to guard Baskine and his family. Rapière proves this decision right by scarcely foiling an assassination. More than one group is after Baskine, they are closing in on Baskine independently from each other. Roger Hanin as Louis Rapière a.k.a.'le Tigre' Maria Mauban as Madame Baskine Daniela Bianchi as Mehlica Baskine Roger Dumas as Duvet Antonio Passalia as Coubassi Jimmy Karoubi as Jean-Luc Roger Rudel as Benita Carlo Nell as the assassin in the theatre Josée Dayan was the assistant director on the movie.
The Fortezza Medicea of Volterra is built on the highest point of the hill overlooking the town. From the outside it is an imposing structure, it takes the form of two smaller fortresses joined together. Despite its name, the origins of the fortress predate the ascendancy of the Medicis; the southern part was constructed at the command of the Duke of Athens, appointed governor of Florence in 1342. For more than a century the once friendly relationship between Volterra and Florence became complicated and at times confrontational: the discovery locally of valuable Alum in the 1470s focused the interest of Florence, in 1472 7,000 Florentine troops besieged and sacked the town, after which Florentine control over Volterra and the alum mines was no longer in doubt; the fortress was upgraded by another Florentine ruler, Lorenzo the magnificent, responsible for the construction of the adjacent newer fortress in 1474. The two fortresses are linked by a stone “curtain wall”; the fortress is used as a maximum security prison and tourist visits to the interior are restricted to a few days and a small portion of the buildings.
A notable exception is that part used as a restaurant operated by appropriately supervised prisoners. This article incorporates text translated from the corresponding Italian Wikipedia article as of August 31, 2012. Media related to Fortezza Medicea at Wikimedia Commons
Johann Michael Ackner was a Transylvanian archaeologist and nature researcher. A Saxon born in Schäßburg, a town in the Habsburg province of Transylvania, Johann Ackner first studied at the college in his home town, he went on to study philosophy at the Reformed College of Hermannstadt and in 1805 in Wittenberg. However, his studies were interrupted by the occupation of Wittenberg by the troops of the French Empire in 1806. Ackner continued his studies in Göttingen where he heard among others Christian Gottlob Heyne, Johann Friedrich Blumenbach, Johann Beckmann and Arnold Hermann Ludwig Heeren. After finishing his university studies, he traveled by foot through large parts of Germany, France and Switzerland. After returning to Transylvania, he worked for 13 years as professor of philology and archaeology at the school of Hermannstadt. In 1821, the community of Hermannstadt elected him as priest, which gave him time to follow his studies, he traveled several times between 1832 and 1847 to visit areas of ancient Roman and Dacian history, as well as sites of mineral findings and petrifactions in Transylvania and neighbouring countries.
As a result of these travels, he wrote a series of archaeological tracts and tracts on natural history and collected Roman Dacian antiquities, coins and minerals. He accepted visitors from scientific circles in his parish. In 1851, Johann Michael Ackner was elected as member of the German Academy of Sciences Leopoldina. In 1856 he initiated the archaeological research at the ancient Dacian town of Cumidava, where the Romans built a castrum after the conquest of Dacia. Ackner died in 1862 in Hermannstadt. Antiqua musei Parisiorum monumenta, Hermannstadt, 1809 Mineralogie Siebenbürgens mit geognostischen Andeutungen, 1847-1855 Die römischen Altertümer und deutschen Burgen in Siebenbürgen mit einer Übersichtskarte Die Colonien und militärischen Standlager der Römer in Dacien Die römischen Inschriften in Dacien, gesammelt und bearbeitet von J. W. Ackner und Friedr. Müller, Vienna, 1856 Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie
The Kwinana freight railway lines are a network of railways predominantly servicing the heavy industrial areas at Kwinana Beach south of Perth and to provide for the transport of freight servicing Fremantle Harbour, Kewdale Intermodal Facility and other freight destinations Perth. While some lines were constructed in the 1900s, most of the network was constructed in the 1950s and 1960s. Brookfield Rail owns the majority of the network, with the exception of owned spur lines; the Kwinana and Forrestfield freight rail network comprises several sections of lines including sections which have now been closed and proposed, which are described below. After 1898 the Fremantle railway line terminated at Robbs Jetty in North Coogee. On 1 July 1903 the line was extended south along the coast to Coogee servicing Woodman Point.: On 19 December 1955 the line was extended to Kwinana to provide a rail service to the Kwinana Oil RefineryThe line was made redundant by the construction of the freight line further east, on 16 September 1973 the section between Coogee and Naval Base was closed.
The section between Robbs Jetty and Coogee closed in February 1986. A line between Robbs Jetty and Jandakot was opened in 1906, the line was extended to Armadale in 1907 as a means of providing transport for agricultural goods in the Forrestdale area to Fremantle Harbour. With the construction of a new railway line between Kewdale and Cockburn, the Jandakot to Armadale section closed on 23 January 1964, followed by Bibra Lake to Jandakot on 6 June 1966; the Spearwood to Bibra Lake section was retained to serve CBH Group and Elders Limited sidings until it too closed in 1991. The section between Robbs Jetty and Spearwood remains in use today. A branch line was constructed off the Robbs Jetty-Armadale line at Spearwood to link with the Cockburn Cement plant in Munster in 1961; the line now forms part of the main freight line between Fremantle. A freight railway was constructed between the Midland railway line west of the Midland Junction railway station and the Armadale railway line at Welshpool in 1957.
The line provided access to the Kewdale Intermodal Facility - a major rail freight terminal in Perth. The section between Kewdale and Welshpool is now closed; the rest of the line was replaced in 1968 by a new route to the east of the new Forrestfield Marshalling Yard. Prior to the 1960s, the majority of railways constructed in Western Australia were built at narrow gauge, with the exception of the standard gauge Trans-Australian Railway linking Western Australia with South Australia at Kalgoorlie. In 1961 the Western Australian Government passed the Railways Construction Act 1961 to construct a standard gauge railway between Perth and Kalgoorlie to facilitate the movement of interstate freight; the following new railways were constructed and existing railways upgraded to dual gauge, with construction complete by 3 August 1968 The Midland Junction-Kewdale line was converted to dual gauge and rerouted around the new Forrestfield Marshalling Yard. A new Kewdale-Kwinana line was constructed between Kewdale and the Spearwood-Cockburn Cement line at Cockburn, the Cockburn Cement line extended south to intersect with the Robbs Jetty-Kwinana line at Naval Base.
A marshalling yard was constructed south of Rockingham Road. The Spearwood-Cockburn Cement line and Robbs Jetty-Spearwood line was converted to dual gauge, continued north to Fremantle and the marshalling yards at Leighton; the Robbs Jetty-Coogee line to Woodman Point was converted to dual gauge. The Kwinana loop rail was constructed at dual gauge; the railways constructed and upgraded under the Railways Construction Act 1961 form the backbone of the freight railway network in Perth. The Kwinana Loop Railway is railway branching from the main line at Kwinana first constructed under the Industrial Lands Railway Act 1966 and extended to the CBH Group terminal under the Kwinana Loop Railway Act 1968 with a balloon loop at the terminus; the southern portion has not been constructed, access to the Loop Railway is reliant upon the triangle intersection at Kwinana. The Department of Transport has identified the Kwinana triangle is now approaching capacity, it is seeking alternatives in order to ensure that future growth in rail-hauled freight can be accommodated.
Completion of the southern portion of the Kwinana Loop as planned, between the CBH balloon loop and the Kwinana-Mundijong line, is an option being considered. In December 2015 the City of Rockingham publicised its objection to the reinstatement of the extension of the loop railway; the Kwinana-Mundijong line was constructed to connect Kwinana with the South Western Railway. The line extended to Jarrahdale and one of the main purposes of the line was to transport bauxite between Jarrahdale and Alcoa's Naval Base refinery; the Kwinana-Mundijong line is one of the few narrow gauge lines in the network. In 2006 the government commenced an investigation for the development of an intermodal freight terminal in the Kwinana area, in 2007 a preferred site was identified in the Latitude 32 industrial area at Hope Valley/Wattleup. Planning is progressing for the intermodal terminal; the Shire of Serpentine-Jarrahdale has adopted a structure plan for future urban in the Mundijong/Whitby district. The South Western Railway bisects the district, one of the key components of the structure plan is the relocation of the freight rail along the western perimeter of the structure plan area.
The relocation is intended to free up land for the construction of a new passenger rail terminus on the Armadale Line near the point where the Kwinana-Mundijong line joins the South Western Railway, servicing a proposed town centre at Whitby. The r
"Baby Doll" is the third single to be released by American pop group Girlicious. The whole song was performed for the first time by Girlicious on television, when they were on Live @ Much on August 6, 2008; this was the last single of Girlicious having four girls in the band. After Tiffanie Anderson's departure, Natalie Mejia started performing Tiffanie's verse. A 1:30 preview of "Baby Doll" premiered online on August 1, 2008, it was confirmed by Natalie Mejia. The single was released on iTunes Canada in November, it was stated by Tiffanie that "Baby Doll" will hit the US in the beginning of the 2009. However the music video was available on iTunes in the US since 2008, it first entered the Canadian Hot 100 at #75 due to digital downloads during the week the album was released. It re-entered the chart and peaked at #55 after 4 months due to its single release. According to Chrystina Sayers' official MySpace page, Girlicious will be going to the US to shoot a music video for "Baby Doll". Bandmate, Tiffanie Anderson confirmed on her MySpace blog that they will be shooting the video on October 6.
The music video premiered on the show OnSet on popular Canadian music station, Much Music, which takes viewers behind the scenes on the set of "Baby Doll". It was directed by Matt Mcdermitt; the video starts off with the girls in metallic mini dresses and fur, singing in a green Cadillac with hydraulics. They move on to singing in separate scenes and clips of them dancing outside of the Cadillac with the hood up. Girlicious goes onto "the party scene," performing with male back-up dancers and ends in the "party-scene" with the Girlicious girls laughing with pink money falling from above; the video was shot in Los Angeles, at the Quixtoe Studios and was overseen by Robin Antin and Mikey Minden. The music video was released to iTunes on Nov 20, 2008, which caused confusion as to if the single was released everywhere as well; however it is only a single in Canada for the time being. "Baby Doll" reached #4 on Canada's MuchMusic Countdown. Lyrics of this song at MetroLyrics