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Chanel

Chanel S. A. is a French held company owned by Alain Wertheimer and Gérard Wertheimer, grandsons of Pierre Wertheimer, an early business partner of the couturière Coco Chanel. Chanel is a luxury company that focuses on high fashion and ready-made clothes, luxury products, accessories. In her youth, Gabrielle Chanel gained the nickname Coco from her time as a chanteuse; as a fashion designer, Coco Chanel catered to women's taste for elegance in dress, with blouses and suits and dresses, jewellery of simple design, that replaced the opulent, over-designed, constrictive clothes and accessories of 19th-century fashion. The Chanel product brands have been personified by male and female fashion models and actresses, including Inès de La Fressange, Catherine Deneuve, Carole Bouquet, Vanessa Paradis, Nicole Kidman, Jackie Kennedy, Anna Mouglalis, Audrey Tautou, Keira Knightley, Kristen Stewart, Pharrell Williams, Cara Delevingne, G-Dragon, Jennie Kim, Marilyn Monroe. Chanel is well-known for the perfume No. Chanel Suit.

Chanel's use of jersey fabric produced garments that were affordable. Chanel revolutionized fashion — high fashion and everyday fashion — by replacing structured-silhouettes, based upon the corset and the bodice, with garments that were functional and at the same time flattering to the woman's figure. In the 1920s, the simple-line designs of Chanel couture made popular the "flat-chested" fashions that were the opposite of the hourglass-figure achieved by the fashions of the late 19th century — the Belle Époque of France, the British Edwardian era. Chanel used colors traditionally associated with masculinity in Europe, such as grey and navy blue, to denote feminine boldness of character; the clothes of the House of Chanel featured quilted leather trimmings. An example of such haute couture techniques is the woolen Chanel suit — a knee-length skirt and a cardigan-style jacket and decorated with black embroidery and gold-coloured buttons; the complementary accessories were two-tone pump shoes and jewellery a necklace of pearls, a leather handbag.

Establishment and recognition — 1909–1920s The House of Chanel originated in 1909 when Gabrielle Chanel opened a millinery shop at 160 Boulevard Malesherbes, the ground floor of the Parisian flat of the socialite and textile businessman Étienne Balsan, of whom she was the mistress. Because the Balsan flat was a salon for the French hunting and sporting élite, Chanel had the opportunity to meet their demi-mondaine mistresses, who, as such, were women of fashion, upon whom the rich men displayed their wealth — as ornate clothes and hats. Coco Chanel thus could sell to them the hats she made. In the course of those salons Coco Chanel befriended Arthur'Boy' Capel, an English socialite and polo player friend of Étienne Balsan. Despite that social circumstance, Boy Capel perceived the businesswoman innate to Coco Chanel, and, in 1910, financed her first independent millinery shop, Chanel Modes, at 21 rue Cambon, Paris; because that locale housed a dress shop, the business-lease limited Chanel to selling only millinery products, not couture.

Two years in 1913, the Deauville and Biarritz couture shops of Coco Chanel offered for sale prêt-à-porter sports clothes for women, the practical designs of which allowed the wearer to play sport. The First World War affected European fashion through scarcity of materials, the mobilisation of women. By that time, Chanel had opened a large dress shop at 31 rue Cambon, near the Hôtel Ritz, in Paris. Coco Chanel used jersey cloth because of its physical properties as a garment, such as its drape — how it falls upon and falls from the body of the woman — and how well it adapted to a simple garment-design. Sartorially, some of Chanel's designs derived from the military uniforms made prevalent by the War. In 1915 and in 1917, Harper's Bazaar magazine reported that the garments of La Maison Chanel were "on the list of every buyer" for the clothing factories of Europe; the Chanel dress shop at 31 rue Cambon presented day-wear dress-and-coat ensembles of simple design, black evening dresses trimmed with lace.

After the First World War, La Maison Chanel, following the fashion trends of the 1920s, produced beaded dresses, made popular by the Flapper woman. By 1920, Chanel had designed and presented a woman's suit of clothes — composed either of two garments or of three garments — which allowed a woman to have a modern, feminine appearance, whilst being comfortable and practical to maintain. In 1921, to complement the suit of clothes, Coco Chanel commissioned the perfumer Ernest Beaux to create a perfume for La Maison Chanel, his perfumes included the perfume No.5, named after the number of the sample Chanel liked best. A bottle of No. 5 de Chanel was a gift to clients of Chanel. The popularity of the perfume prompted La Maison Chanel to offer it for retail

Northwest Passage expedition of 1741

The Royal Society and the Royal Navy worked together to commission the Northwest Passage expedition of 1741. The commander of the expedition, Christopher Middleton, had been a captain of ships of the Hudson's Bay Company, sailing on these ships that made annual voyages to supply the company's outposts, since 1721, he had a scientific mind, had published observations that earned him election the Royal Society, in 1737. He commanded HMS Furnace, while his cousin and protege, William Moor formerly a captain of Hudson's Bay Company ships, commanded HMS Discovery. Arthur Dobbs, a member of the Irish House of Commons played an influential role in organizing the expedition. J. C. Beaglehole, in his Life of Captain James Cook, notes that the expedition was commissioned in 1740, the same year George Anson was directed to lead a squadron into the Pacific Ocean, to attack Spanish shipping, he noted that Middleton's orders suggested he might rendezvous off California. Ice blocks navigation in Hudson's Bay for over half the year.

Middleton was able to get the government to put pressure on the Hudson's Bay Company to allow his ships to moor off Fort Prince of Wales, at the mouth of the Churchill River, to provide room for his crew, during the winter of 1942, so he could begin his expedition as soon as the Bay was free of ice. His crew were housed in an older wooden fort, abandoned, in place of the new stone fort. Ten of his crew died, over the winter, many others lost fingers and toes to frostbite; the expedition was able to set off in June 1942. They proceeded north to a deep indentation he named Wager Bay, after Charles Wager, First Lord of the Admiralty. Dobbs thought that Middleton's reports that he did not find a Northwest Passage were part of a hoax, the two men conducted a pamphlet campaign, denouncing each other. Captain James Cook's third and final expedition sent him back to the Pacific Ocean, to look for a Northwest Passage from the Pacific end. Cook consulted with Middleton, prior to his departure

Ancient Corinth

Corinth was a city-state on the Isthmus of Corinth, the narrow stretch of land that joins the Peloponnese to the mainland of Greece halfway between Athens and Sparta. The modern city of Corinth is located 5 kilometres northeast of the ancient ruins. Since 1896, systematic archaeological investigations of the Corinth Excavations by the American School of Classical Studies at Athens have revealed large parts of the ancient city, recent excavations conducted by the Greek Ministry of Culture have brought to light important new facets of antiquity. For Christians, Corinth is well known from the two letters of Saint Paul in the New Testament and Second Corinthians. Corinth is mentioned in the Acts of the Apostles as part of the Paul the Apostle's missionary travels. In addition, the second book of Pausanias' Description of Greece is devoted to Corinth. Ancient Corinth was one of the largest and most important cities of Greece, with a population of 90,000 in 400 BC; the Romans demolished Corinth in 146 BC, built a new city in its place in 44 BC, made it the provincial capital of Greece.

Neolithic pottery suggests that the site of Corinth was occupied from at least as early as 6500 BC, continually occupied into the Early Bronze Age, when, it has been suggested, the settlement acted as a centre of trade. However, there is a dramatic drop in ceramic remains during the Early Helladic II phase and only sparse ceramic remains in the EHIII and MH phases. There was a settlement on the coast near Lechaion. According to Corinthian myth as reported by Pausanias, the city was founded by Corinthos, a descendant of the god Zeus. However, other myths suggest that it was founded by the goddess Ephyra, a daughter of the Titan Oceanus, thus the ancient name of the city. There is evidence that the city was destroyed around 2000 BC; some ancient names for the place are derived from a pre-Greek "Pelasgian" language, such as Korinthos. It seems that Corinth was the site of a Bronze Age Mycenaean palace-city, like Mycenae, Tiryns, or Pylos. According to myth, Sisyphus was the founder of a race of ancient kings at Corinth.

It was in Corinth that Jason, the leader of the Argonauts, abandoned Medea. During the Trojan War, as portrayed in the Iliad, the Corinthians participated under the leadership of Agamemnon. In a Corinthian myth recounted to Pausanias in the 2nd century AD, one of the Hecatonchires, was the arbitrator in a dispute between Poseidon and Helios, between the sea and the sun, his verdict was that the Isthmus of Corinth belonged to Poseidon and the acropolis of Corinth belonged to Helios. Thus, Greeks of the Classical age accounted for the archaic cult of the sun-titan in the highest part of the site; the Upper Peirene spring is located within the walls of the acropolis. "The spring, behind the temple, they say was the gift of Asopus to Sisyphus. The latter knew, so runs the legend, that Zeus had ravished Aegina, the daughter of Asopus, but refused to give information to the seeker before he had a spring given him on the Acrocorinthus.". Corinth had been a backwater in 8th-century Greece; the Bacchiadae were a tightly-knit Doric clan and the ruling kinship group of archaic Corinth in the 8th and 7th centuries BC, a period of expanding Corinthian cultural power.

In 747 BC, an aristocratic ousted the Bacchiadai Prytaneis and reinstituted the kingship, about the time the Kingdom of Lydia was at its greatest, coinciding with the ascent of Basileus Meles, King of Lydia. The Bacchiadae, numbering a couple of hundred adult males, took power from the last king Telestes in Corinth); the Bacchiads dispensed with kingship and ruled as a group, governing the city by annually electing a prytanis a council, a polemarchos to head the army. During Bacchiad rule from 747 to 650 BC, Corinth became a unified state. Large scale public buildings and monuments were constructed at this time. In 733 BC, Corinth established colonies at Syracuse. By 730 BC, Corinth emerged as a advanced Greek city with at least 5,000 people. Aristotle tells the story of Philolaus of Corinth, a Bacchiad, a lawgiver at Thebes, he became the lover of the winner of the Olympic games. They both lived for the rest of their lives in Thebes, their tombs were built near one another and Philolaus' tomb points toward the Corinthian country, while Diocles' faces away.

In 657 BC, polemarch Cypselus obtained an oracle from Delphi which he interpreted to mean that he should rule the city. He exiled the Bacchiadae. Cypselus or Kypselos was the first tyrant of Corinth in the 7th century BC. From 658 -- 628 BC, he ruled for three decades, he built temples to Apollo and Poseidon in 650 BC. Aristotle reports that "Cypselus of Corinth had made a vow that if he became master of the city, he would offer to Zeus the entire property of the Corinthians. Accordingly, he commanded them to make a return of their possessions."The city sent forth colonists to found new settlements in the 7th century BC, under the rule of Cypselus and his son Periander. Those settlements were Epidamn