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Changchun

Changchun is the capital and largest city of Jilin Province, People's Republic of China. Lying in the center of the Songliao Plain, Changchun is administered as a sub-provincial city, comprising 7 districts, 1 county and 2 county-level cities. According to the 2010 census of China, Changchun had a total population of 7,674,439 under its jurisdiction; the city's metro area, comprising 5 districts and 4 development areas, had a population of 3,815,270 in 2010, as the Shuangyang and Jiutai districts are not urbanized yet. It is one of the biggest cities in Northeast China, along with Shenyang and Harbin; the name of the city means "long spring" in Chinese. Between 1932 and 1945, Changchun was renamed Hsinking by the Japanese as it became the capital of the Japanese puppet state of Manchukuo, occupying modern Northeast China. After the foundation of the People's Republic of China in 1949, Changchun was established as the provincial capital of Jilin in 1954. Known locally as China's "City of Automobiles", Changchun is an important industrial base with a particular focus on the automotive sector.

Because of its key role in the domestic automobile industry, Changchun was sometimes referred to as the "Detroit of China." Apart from this industrial aspect, Changchun is one of four "National Garden Cities" awarded by the Ministry of Construction of P. R. China in 2001 due to its high urban greening rate. Changchun was established on imperial decree as a small trading post and frontier village during the reign of the Jiaqing Emperor in the Qing dynasty. Trading activities involved furs and other natural products during this period. In 1800, the Jiaqing Emperor selected a small village on the east bank of the Yitong River and named it "Changchun Ting". At the end of 18th century peasants from overpopulated provinces such as Shandong and Hebei began to settle in the region. In 1889, the village was promoted into a city known as "Changchun Fu". In May 1898, Changchun got its first railway station, located in Kuancheng, part of the railway from Harbin to Lüshun, constructed by the Russian Empire.

After Russia's loss of the southernmost section of this branch as a result of the Russo-Japanese War of 1904–1905, the Kuancheng station became the last Russian station on this branch. The next station just a short distance to the south—the new "Japanese" Changchun station—became the first station of the South Manchuria Railway, which now owned all the tracks running farther south, to Lüshun, which they re-gauged to the standard gauge. A special Russo-Japanese agreement of 1907 provided that Russian gauge tracks would continue from the "Russian" Kuancheng Station to the "Japanese" Changchun Station, vice versa, tracks on the "gauge adapted by the South Manchuria Railway" would continue from Changchun Station to Kuancheng Station. An epidemic of pneumonic plague occurred in surrounding Manchuria from 1910 to 1911, it was the worst-ever recorded outbreak of pneumonic plague, spread through the Trans-Manchurian railway from the border trade port of Manzhouli. This turned out to be the beginning of the large pneumonic plague pandemic of Manchuria and Mongolia which claimed 60,000 victims.

The Treaty of Portsmouth formally ended the Russo-Japanese War of 1904–05 and saw the transfer and assignment to Japan in 1906 the railway between Changchun and Port Arthur, all its branches. Having realized the strategic importance of Changchun's location with respect to Japan and Russia, the Japanese Government sent a group of planners and engineers to Changchun to determine the best site for a new railway station. Without the consent of the Chinese Government, Japan purchased or seized from local farmers the land on which the Changchun Railway Station was to be constructed as the centre of the South Manchuria Railway Affiliated Areas. In order to turn Changchun into the centre for extracting the agricultural and mineral resources of Manchuria, Japan developed a blueprint for Changchun and invested in the construction of the city. At the beginning of 1907, as the prelude to, preparation for, the invasion and occupation of China, Japan initiated the planning programme of the SMRAA, which embodied distinctive colonial characteristics.

The guiding ideology of the overall design was to build a high standard colonial city with sophisticated facilities, multiple functions and a large scale. Accordingly, nearly 7 million yen on average was allocated on a year-by-year basis for urban planning and construction during the period 1907 to 1931; the comprehensive plan was to: ensure the comfort required by Japanese employees on Manchurian Railways ensure that Changchun would be a base for Japanese control of the whole Manchuria provide an effective counterweight to Russia in that part of China. The city's role as a rail hub was underlined in its planning and construction, the main design concepts of which read as follows: under conventional grid pattern terms, two geoplagiotropic boulevards were newly carved eastward and westward from the grand square of the new railway station; the two helped form two intersections with the gridded prototypes, which led to two circles of South and West. The two sub-civic centres served as axes on which eight radial roads were blazed that took the shape of a sectoral structure.

At that time, the radial circles and the design concept of urban roads were quite advanced and scientific. It activated to great extent the serious urban landscapes as well as identifying the traditional gridded pattern. With the new Changchun railway station as its cent

Publius Memmius Regulus

Publius Memmius Regulus was a Roman senator active during the reign of the emperor Tiberius. He served as consul suffectus in October–December AD 31 with Lucius Fulcinius Trio as his colleague. Regulus was a member of the plebeian Memmia gens, his father was named Publius. He was from the town of Rosceliona in the province of Gallia Narbonensis. Regulus came to the consulate a novus homo, meaning that no member of his family had achieved that office. A Gaius Memmius had been consul suffectus in 34 BC, but they were unrelated. Regulus' wife was a woman of great beauty and considerable wealth. Shortly after his accession, Caligula compelled Regulus to divorce Paulina, who in AD 38 became the emperor's third wife, but after six months, the emperor exiled Paulina. Regulus was the father of Gaius Memmius Regulus, consul in AD 63. Regulus and his colleague, entered their consulship on the Kalends of October, AD 31, served until the end of the year, their magistracy saw the downfall of Sejanus, the notorious plotter and sycophant of Tiberius, whom Regulus conducted to prison.

After his consulship, Regulus served as prefect of Achaea. During his time in Achaea and his son were honored with various statues. After the death of Tiberius, his successor, ordered Regulus to remove the statue of Jupiter by Phidias at Olympia, bring it to Rome, he was proconsular governor of Asia for the term 48/49. Regulus was one of the Sodales Augustales, the Epulones, the Arval Brethren, all important priesthoods. Tacitus describes him as "a man of dignity, a person of influence and good name." Shortly before his died in the year 61, the emperor Nero described him as one of his nation's greatest resources. Memmia Flavius Josephus, Antiquitates Judaïcae. Publius Cornelius Tacitus, Annales. Gaius Suetonius Tranquillus, De Vita Caesarum. Pausanias, Description of Greece. Lucius Cassius Dio Cocceianus, Roman History. Eusebius of Caesarea, Chronicon. Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology, William Smith, ed. Little and Company, Boston. Alison E. Cooley, The Cambridge Manual of Latin Epigraphy, Cambridge University Press

2000–01 United States network television schedule (daytime)

The 2000–01 daytime network television schedule for the six major English-language commercial broadcast networks in the United States in operation during that television season covers the weekday daytime hours from September 2000 to August 2001. The schedule is followed by a list per network of returning series, new series, series canceled after the 1999–2000 season. Affiliates fill time periods not occupied by network programs with syndicated programming. PBS – which offers daytime programming through a children's program block, PBS Kids – is not included, as its member television stations have local flexibility over most of their schedules and broadcast times for network shows may vary. Not included are stations affiliated with Pax TV, as its schedule is composed of syndicated reruns although it carried a limited schedule of first-run programs. New series are highlighted in bold. All times correspond to U. S. Eastern and Pacific Time scheduling. Except where affiliates slot certain programs outside their network-dictated timeslots, subtract one hour for Central, Mountain and Hawaii-Aleutian times.

Local schedules may differ, as affiliates have the option to delay network programs. Such scheduling may be limited to preemptions caused by local or national breaking news or weather coverage and any major sports events scheduled to air in a weekday timeslot. Stations may air shows at other times at their preference. Notes: NBC allowed owned-and-operated and affiliated stations the preference of airing Passions and Days of Our Lives in reverse order from the network's recommended scheduling, a structure held over from when Another World occupied the 2:00 p.m. ET timeslot prior to its discontinuance in July 1999; the WB returned its morning children's programming block to its affiliates on September 3. A few of its affiliates deferred the block to the afternoon in order to air morning newscasts or other syndicated programs. 2000–01 United States network television schedule 2000–01 United States network television schedule Curt Alliaume. "ABC Daytime Schedule". Curt Alliaume’s Utterly Irrelevant Web Site.

Archived from the original on October 15, 2007. Curt Alliaume. "CBS Daytime Schedule". Curt Alliaume’s Utterly Irrelevant Web Site. Archived from the original on October 15, 2007. Curt Alliaume. "NBC Daytime Schedule". Curt Alliaume’s Utterly Irrelevant Web Site. Archived from the original on October 15, 2007. "Fox Kids Weekday Lineups". The Kids Block Blog. October 25, 2012. Aaron Greenhouse. "Kids WB! Schedule". Carnegie Mellon University. Aaron Greenhouse. "UPN Kids Broadcast Schedule". Carnegie Mellon University