Change ringing

Change ringing is the art of ringing a set of tuned bells in a controlled manner to produce precise variations in their successive striking sequences, known as "changes". This can be by method ringing in which the ringers commit to memory the rules for generating each change, or by call changes, where the ringers are instructed how to generate each change by instructions from a conductor; this creates a form of bell music which cannot be discerned as a conventional melody, but is a series of mathematical sequences. Change ringing originated following the invention of English full-circle tower bell ringing in the early 17th century, when bell ringers found that swinging a bell through a much larger arc than that required for swing-chiming gave control over the time between successive strikes of the clapper. Ordinarily a bell will swing through a small arc only at a set speed governed by its size and shape in the nature of a simple pendulum, but by swinging through a larger arc approaching a full circle, control of the strike interval can be exercised by the ringer.

This culminated in the technique of full circle ringing, which enabled ringers to independently change the speeds of their individual bells to combine in ringing different mathematical permutations, known as "changes". Speed control of a tower bell is exerted by the ringer only when each bell is mouth upwards and moving near the balance point; the considerable weights of full-circle tower bells means they cannot be stopped or started and the practical change of interval between successive strikes is limited. This places limitations on the rules for generating easily-rung changes. Change ringing is practised worldwide, but it is by far most common on church bells in English churches, where it first developed. Change ringing is performed on handbells, where conventionally each ringer holds two bells, chimed on carillons and chimes of bells. Today, some towers have as many as sixteen bells that can be rung together, though six or eight bells are more common; the highest pitch bell is known as the treble, the lowest is the tenor.

For convenience, the bells are referred to by number, with the treble being number 1 and the other bells numbered by their pitch—2,3,4, etc.—sequentially down the scale. The bells are tuned to a diatonic major scale, with the tenor bell being the tonic note of the scale; some towers contain additional bells so that different subsets of the full number can be rung, still to a diatonic scale. For instance, many 12-bell towers have a flat sixth, which if rung instead of the normal number 6 bell allows 2 to 9 to be rung as light diatonic octave; the bells in a tower reside in the bell chamber or belfry with louvred windows to enable the sound to escape. The bells are mounted within a bellframe of wood; each bell is suspended from a headstock fitted on trunnions mounted to the belfry framework so that the bell assembly can rotate. When stationary in the down position, the centre of mass of the bell and clapper is appreciably below the centreline of the trunnion supports, giving a pendulous effect to the assembly, this dynamic is controlled by the ringer's rope.

The headstock is fitted with a wooden stay, which, in conjunction with a slider, limits maximum rotational movement to a little less than 370 degrees. To the headstock a large wooden wheel is to which a rope is attached; the rope unwraps as the bell rotates backwards and forwards. This is quite different from fixed or limited motion bells, which chime. Within the bell the clapper is constrained to swing in the direction; the clapper is a rigid steel or wrought iron bar with a large ball to strike the bell. The thickest part of the mouth of bell is called the soundbow and it is against this that the ball strikes. Beyond the ball is a flight, which controls the speed of the clapper. In small bells this can be nearly as long as the rest of the clapper. Below the bell chamber there may be one or more sound chambers, through which the rope passes before it drops into the ringing chamber or room; the rope's length is such that it falls close to or on to the floor of the ringing chamber. About 5 feet from the floor, the rope has a woolen grip called the sally while the lower end of the rope is doubled over to form an held tail-end.

Unattended bells are left hanging in the normal position, but prior to being rung, the bells are rung up. In the down position, the bells are safe if a person pulls a rope. A bell, up is dangerous to be near, only expert ringers should contemplate entering a bell chamber or touching a rope when the bells are up; the ringer starts the bell swinging. Each time the bell swings the ringer adds a little more energy to the system, similar to pushing a child's swing. There is enough energy for the bell to swing right up and be left over-centre just beyond the balance point with the stay resting against the slider. Bellringers stand in a circle around the ringing chamber, each managing one rope. Bells and their attendant ropes are so mounted that the ropes are pulled in a ci

Abel Balbo

Abel Eduardo Balbo is an Argentine former professional footballer and manager who played as a striker for various clubs in Argentina and Italy during the course of his career. Balbo was born in Santa Fe. At club level, Balbo played for Newell's Old Boys, River Plate, before moving to Italy and Udinese, Roma and Fiorentina, he played four games for Boca Juniors before retiring. He scored a total of 138 goals in Serie A. In 2000, Roma paid Fiorentina 1.75 billion Italian lire to re-sign him and offered him a two-year contract with 1.7 billion annual salary before tax. 1 Including 1 match and 1 goal in season 1992-93 Relegation to Serie B. 2 Including 1 match in 2001 Supercoppa Italiana. For Argentina, Balbo scored 11 goals in 37 caps, played at the 1990, the 1994, the 1998 FIFA World Cups, the 1989 and 1995 Copas América. In the 1995 tournament in Uruguay, Balbo partnered Gabriel Batistuta in attack, scored a goal against Brazil's Claudio Taffarel in an infamous quarter-final game that Argentina lost in a penalty shootout after Brazilian striker Tulio Costa scored the Brazilian equalizer with 10 minutes to go – after controlling the ball with his arm.

After his retirement, Balbo became a musician, performing songs in Italian and Spanish. He took his UEFA Pro coaching badges in 2007, works as a football commentator for RAI Radio1. In February 2009 he took his first head coaching job, succeeding to Luca Gotti as manager of bottom-table Serie B club Treviso, he resigned only a few rounds on 18 March, after having achieved only one point in four games, citing lack of professionalism and organizational issues as the main reasons for his choice to step down as Treviso manager. In November 2010 he was appointed as new technical area coordinator and assistant coach of Serie D club Atletico Arezzo until the end of the season. In the season 2012–13 he coached the Serie D club Arezzo from the start of the season until 30 October 2012, when he left by mutual consent with the club, he is working as football commentator in a RAI sport program called Stadio Sprint. Abel Balbo is married and a practising Roman Catholic. Newell's Old Boys Argentine Primera División: 1988Parma Coppa Italia: 1998–99 UEFA Cup: 1998–99Roma Serie A: 2000–01 Supercoppa Italiana: 2001 Argentina FIFA World Cup: 1990 runner-up Copa América: 1989 bronze medalist Serie B Top-Scorer: 1990–91 Official website "Futbol Factory profile".

Archived from the original on 20 October 2007. Retrieved 30 March 2017. Abel Balbo at

Happy Camp (film)

Happy Camp is a 2014 American found footage horror film written and directed by Josh Anthony in his directorial debut. It was released on video on demand on March 25, 2014 through Gravitas Ventures and was produced through Drew Barrymore's production company Flower Films; the movie stars Michael Barbuto as a man trying to discover the truth behind his brother's disappearance years ago. In the 1980s Mike was adopted by Walt and Sandy and was taken to live with them in Happy Camp, a small logging town, with their son Dean. Mike got along with his new brother and was overjoyed that he would have a family; this happiness was cut short on October 1989 when Dean is abducted by persons unknown. Mike, the only witness to the crime, can't remember anything about his brother's disappearance, the latest in a string of over 600 disappearances over the last 27 years. Twenty years Mike's girlfriend Anne has persuaded him to revisit Happy Camp to try to recover his memory of what happened that day, she persuades him to allow a film crew to videotape the entire process.

However rather than have an experience that will help him reconcile with his past, Mike finds that he, the film crew are in serious danger. Josh Anthony as Josh Michael Barbuto as Michael Tanner Ben Blenkle as Local Teddy Gilmore as Teddy Anne Taylor as Anne Critical reception for Happy Camp has been negative, Twitch Film stated that the movie "provides a nice warning to future indie filmmakers looking to mine the nearly bankrupt found footage genre." Several reviewers criticized the movie's found footage angle, as they felt that it did not add anything to the film. Bloody Disgusting commented that the film took the concept of found footage too as they felt that "there’s no reason to try to pass it as authentic – if it bogs down whatever thin narrative there is." The final portion of Happy Camp was heavily criticized, reviewers from Dread Central and Film School Rejects felt that although the movie's premise showed promise, the film did not deliver. Ain't It Cool News gave a mixed review, commenting that although there were better films in the found footage genre there were many that were worse and that Happy Camp was overall an "entertaining although typical found footage film."

Happy Camp on IMDb