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A changeling historically referred to as an auf or oaf, is a human-like creature found in folklore and folk religion throughout Europe. A changeling was believed to be a fairy child, left in place of a human child stolen by the fairies; the theme of the swapped child is common in medieval literature and reflects concern over infants thought to be afflicted with unexplained diseases, disorders, or developmental disabilities. A changeling is identifiable via a number of traits, they may display intelligence far beyond their apparent years, as well as possess uncanny insight. A common way that a changeling could identify itself is through displaying unusual behaviour when it thinks it's alone, such as jumping about, dancing or playing an instrument — though this last example is found only within Irish and Scottish legend."A human child might be taken due to many factors: to act as a servant, the love of a human child, or malice. Most it was thought that fairies exchanged the children. In rare cases, the elderly of the fairy people would be exchanged in the place of a human baby, so that the old fairy could live in comfort, being coddled by its human parents.

Simple charms such as an inverted coat or open iron scissors left where the child sleeps, were thought to ward them off. A peasant family's subsistence depended upon the productive labour of each member, it was difficult to provide for a person, a permanent drain on the family's scarce resources. "The fact that the changelings' ravenous appetite is so mentioned indicates that the parents of these unfortunate children saw in their continuing existence a threat to the sustenance of the entire family. Changeling tales support other historical evidence in suggesting that infanticide was the solution selected." One belief is that trolls thought that it was more respectable to be raised by humans and that they wanted to give their own children a human upbringing. Some people believed. Once children had been baptized and therefore become part of the Church, the trolls could not take them. Beauty in human children and young women traits which evoke brightness or reflectivity, such as blonde hair and blue or silver eyes, are said to attract fairies, as they find preciousness in these perceived traits.

In Scottish folklore, the children might be replacements for fairy children in the tithe to Hell. According to common Scottish myths, a child born with a caul across their face is a changeling, will soon die. Other folklore says. In these cases either the newborn human child would be switched with a fairy baby to be suckled by the human mother, or the human mother would be taken back to the fairy world to breastfeed the fairy babies, it is thought that human midwives were necessary to bring fairy babies into the world. Some stories tell of changelings who proceed to live a human life. Changelings who do not forget, however, in some stories return to their fairy family leaving the human family without warning; the human child, taken may stay with the fairy family forever. Feeling connected to the fate of a changeling, there are families who turn their changeling loose to the wilderness; some folklorists believe that fairies were memories of inhabitants of various regions in Europe, driven into hiding by invaders.

They held that changelings had occurred. The Mên-an-Tol stones in Cornwall are said to have a fairy or pixie guardian who can make miraculous cures. In one case, a changeling baby was passed through the stone in order for the mother to have her real child returned to her. Evil pixies had changed her child, the stones were able to reverse their spell. In Germany, the changeling is known as Wechselbalg, Kielkropf or Dickkopf. Several methods are known in Germany to identify a changeling and to return the replaced real child: confusing the changeling by cooking or brewing in eggshells; this will force the changeling to speak, claiming its real age, revealing its position beyond synchronicity. Attempting to heat the changeling in the oven – a lie by capacity to endure present. Hitting or whipping the changelingSometimes the changeling has to be fed with a woman's milk before replacing the children. In German folklore, several possible parents are known for changelings; those are: the devil, a belief shared by Martin Luther a female dwarf a water spirit a Roggenmuhme/Roggenmutter In Ireland, looking at a baby with envy – "over looking the baby" – was dangerous, as it endangered the baby, in the fairies' power.

So too was admiring or envying a woman or man dangerous, unless the person added a blessing. Women were in danger in liminal states: being a new bride, or a new mother. Putting a changeling in a fire would cause it to jump up the chimney and return the human child, but at least one tale recounts a mother with a changel

Henry Boltinoff

Henry Boltinoff was an American cartoonist who worked for both comic strips and comic books. He drew many of the humor and filler strips that appeared in National Periodical comics from the 1940s through the 1960s. Born in New York City, Boltinoff created numerous humor features for DC Comics, where his brother Murray Boltinoff was an editor, his most prominent creation for DC was "Dover & Clover" which debuted in More Fun Comics #94. Boltinoff's other features include "Abdul the Fire Eater", "Bebe", "Billy", "Buck Skinner", "Cap's Hobby Center", "Casey the Cop", "Charlie Cannonball", "Chief Hot Foot", "Cora the Carhop", "Dexter", "Doctor Floogle", "Doctor Rocket", "Elvin", "Freddie the Frogman", "Hamid the Hypnotist", "Homer", "Honey in Hollywood", "Hy the Spy", "Hy Wire", "Jail Jests", "Jerry the Jitterbug", "King Kale", "Lefty Looie", "Lem'n' Lime", "Lionel and His Lions", "Little Pete", "Little Pocahontas", "Lucky", "The Magic Genie", "Moolah the Mystic", "No-Chance Charley", "Ollie", "On the Set", "Peg", "Peter Puptent", "Prehistoric Fun", "Professor Eureka", "Sagebrush Sam", "Shorty", "Stan", "Super-Turtle", "Tricksy the World's Greatest Stunt Man" and "Warden Willis".

These were lettered by Gaspar Saladino. Boltinoff's final creation for DC was "Cap's Hobby Hints". In 1969, he became the writer of the Date with Swing with Scooter titles. Boltinoff worked on the comic strips This and That, Woody Forrest, Stoker the Broker, Hocus-Focus through 2001, he received the National Cartoonists Society's Newspaper Panel Cartoon Award in 1981 and received their Humor Comic Book Award for 1970. Hocus-Focus may have been Boltinoff's best-known work; the King Features Syndicate feature, started c. 1965 by Harold Kaufmann, includes two similar panels with six differences between them. It continues to run in over 300 newspapers. Henry Boltinoff at the Comic Book DB Hocus Focus at King Features Henry Boltinoff and The Henry Boltinoff Hall of Fame Gallery at Mike's Amazing World of DC Comics Kimball, Kirk. "Super Turtle!". Dial B For Blog. Archived from the original on March 29, 2016

Spiteful-class destroyer

Two Spiteful-class destroyers served with the Royal Navy. These ships were both built by Palmers Shipbuilding and Iron Company Limited at Jarrow, were part of the group of boats known as the'thirty knotters'. Concern about the higher speeds of foreign boats had prompted the Admiralty to order new destroyers capable of 30 knots, rather than the 27-knot requirement, standard; the boats were not able to make this speed in bad weather, where they were wet and uncomfortable with cramped crew quarters. However, they proved their toughness while serving through the Great War, despite being twenty years old. Thanks to their watertight bulkheads, their thin plating and light structure was able to take a great deal of damage and remain afloat; the ships were fitted with Reed water tube boilers. Both were fired using coal, but in 1904 Spiteful was converted to burn fuel oil, they were armed with the standard 12-pounder gun and two torpedo tubes and carried a complement of 63 officers and men. The two ships of this type bore four funnels and were designated B-class destroyers in 1913.

They were sold off after the end of hostilities. Spiteful, launched 11 January 1899, sold for breaking up 14 September 1920. Peterel, launched 30 March 1899, sold for breaking up 30 August 1919. Manning, T. D; the British Destroyer. London: Godfrey Cave Associates. ISBN 0-906223-13-X. Lyon, D.. The First Destroyers. Mercury. ISBN 1-84560-010-X

Schuyler Bailar

Schuyler Bailar is an American swimmer, the first transgender NCAA Division I swimmer. He is the first publicly documented NCAA D1 transgender man to compete as a man in any sport, he was recruited by Harvard University and swam on the Harvard Men's Swimming and Diving team under coach Kevin Tyrrell. Bailar was recruited in 2013 as a member of the women's team by Harvard Women’s Swimming and Diving head coach Stephanie Morawski. After transitioning during a gap year, Bailar was offered a spot on the men’s team by coach Tyrrell, allowing Bailar the choice of either team, he elected to swim on the men’s team. Bailar is of Korean descent. Bailar grew up in Virginia where he lived until attending college. Bailar attended Georgetown Day School from kindergarten through 12th grade, he has one brother, who swims. Bailar started swimming; when he was four, his family joined a neighborhood summer club and he began swimming for the Langley Wildthings at the Langley Swim and Tennis Club. The Wildthings are a part of the storied Northern Virginia Swimming League for which Bailar would podium in their overall All-Star championships.

Bailar swam for the Wildthings nearly every summer as his love for swimming grew. In 2005, at the age of nine, Bailar joined Sea Devil Swimming, a year-round USA Swimming sanctioned club team. Under coach Ron Larkin, his true love of competitive swimming began. Bailar competed in the Potomac Valley LSC of USA Swimming and rose through the ladder of swimming championships. At age 10 he competed at the 2007 Potomac Valley Junior Olympics, he continued up the ladder to the 2009, 2010, 2011 JOs and the 2010, 2011, 2012 Eastern Zones. Bailar set school records in nearly every event at Georgetown Day School. Bailar’s broader high school titles include 1st place in both 2013 and 2014 in 100yd breaststroke at the Washington, D. C. Independent School League Championships, the Washington, D. C. Metropolitan Preparatory School Swimming and Diving League Championships and the Washington, D. C. Metropolitan Interscholastic Swimming and Diving Championships. Bailar was a 2-time All American for 100yd breast, A Potomac Valley Scholar Athlete and a USA Swimming Scholastic All American.

At the national level of competitive swimming, Bailar won many honors in both high school and club swimming including setting a USA Swimming National Age Group record in the 400yd Medley Relay at the 2013 USA Swimming AT&T National Championships with teammates Katie Ledecky, Janet Hu, Kylie Jordan. Bailar swam for the celebrated Nation's Capital Swim Club at. Bailar's 100 yard breaststroke swim at the 2013 NCSA Junior National Championships qualified for the U. S. Open, the fastest national championship meet. Bailar is multi-year qualifier for the NCSA Jr. Nationals. In 2019, Bailar completed his college career posting the "third fastest" time for 100-yard-breaststroke for the Harvard team in the 2018-2019 season and won his third Ivy-League Championship ring as part of the Crimson's highest ranked team since the1960/1961 season - 8th at the 2019 NCAA Championships. Although Bailar began his college swimming career with low expectations, his final 100-yard breaststroke time ranked him in the top 15% of all NCAA swims for the season and in the top 34% of all NCAA Division 1 swims for the season.

Bailar is an energetic advocate for LGBTQ rights and inclusion. He has assisted with and is featured in the USA Swimming cultural inclusion guides for both LGBTQ and Asian American athletes, he attended the NCAA Common Ground initiative, a group of selected athletes and sports constituents who met to discuss inclusion in NCAA activities. Bailar's primary activism is on the speaking circuit, appearing at schools and non-profits. After graduating from Harvard in 2019, he began working full time as a public speaker. Bailar was awarded the SMYAL Community Advocate Award for 2016 for his work as "a vocal advocate for LGBT rights." The 60 Minutes profile of Schuyler entitled "Switching Teams" was nominated for the 28th Annual GLAAD Media Awards. On June 28th, 2017 Bailar was profiled by the International Olympic Committee in a series entitled IDENTIFY for his activism in promoting gender inclusion in sports. Bailar was featured as a member of the 2017 Out Magazine OUT 100 and in another first, was the only LGBT athlete included in the elite listing for 2017.

In 2018, Bailar received several accolades: He was named to The Advocate's Champions of Pride list of Top LGBTQ activists in each state. He was named to the Gold House A100 list of the most influential Asian Americans. In 2019, Bailar was awarded the NBIC Best-of-the Best Visibility Award, hosted by the NGLCC for his "courageous and life-changing" example as an out and vocal trans athlete; as a notable graduate of the class of 2019, he received the Harvard Athletics Director's Award for the athlete who makes an outstanding contribution to athletics through education. Bailar began struggling with mental health issues in the fall of 2012, his junior year in high school, he went to therapy and enrolled at Oliver-Pyatt Centers, a residential treatment center for eating disorders, where he was first able to discuss his gender identity aloud. Bailar attended gender workshops at the YES! Institute in Miami, which he says helped him realize and come to terms with his gender. Shortly after his discharge from the center in October 2014, he began transitioning.

He underwent top surgery in March 2015 and began hormone replacem

Haddock Force

Haddock Force was a Royal Air Force group of bombers dispatched to airfields in southern France, with the mission of bombing northern Italian industrial sites, following the Italian entry into the Second World War. When Italy declared war on 10 June, the plan was put into effect but at first, the local authorities prevented the RAF Vickers Wellington bombers from taking off. Whitleys flying from England via the Channel Islands made the first raid on the night of 11/12 June 1940. After negotiations between the French and British governments and directives from Paris to the authorities in the south of France, the Wellingtons flew back. Operations commenced on the night of 14/15 June but all but one of the eight bombers returned without bombing due to bad weather. Eight Wellington crews tried again the next night and six claimed to have bombed Milan. Wireless decrypts by the Government Code and Cypher School at Bletchley Park gave the Allies about a month's notice of an Italian declaration of war.

The Battle of France was nearing its final phase when intelligence reports suggested that Italy was on the brink of entering the war on the side of her Axis partner, Germany. There were few resources available to Britain which could be used to support France against the Italians, with the exception of Royal Air Force Bomber Command; the Supreme War Council resolved on 31 May that if war was declared, industrial targets and oil plants in the northern Italian cities of Turin and Genoa, were to be attacked as soon as possible. Armstrong Whitworth Whitley bombers could reach their targets from the Channel Islands, while the shorter-ranged Vickers Wellingtons would have to refuel in the south of France and the French Air Command made available the airfield outside Marseilles at Salon-de-Provence and another one nearby; the headquarters of 71 Wing was sent to the Marseilles area on 3 June to prepare reception and refuelling facilities for the British bombers, which were ready on the outbreak of war on 10 June.

Italy declared war at midnight on 10 June 1940 and a detachment of Wellingtons from 99 Squadron, part of 3 Group, Bomber Command, left England for France and arrived at Salon at 15:30 hours on 11 June. French fighters based near the Italian border had been sent north against the Luftwaffe and despite the agreement to attack Italy, the French civilian authorities decided that bombing Italy would provoke attacks on the huge petrol dumps on the Étang de Berre, 25 km north-west of Marseille. General Jean-Baptiste-Benjamin Laurens, the commander of Zone d'opérations aériennes des Alpes asserted that the French government opposed the raid and refused to allow the attack from bases under his command. While the bombers were refuelling, the force commander, Group Captain R. M. Field, received a telephone call from the commander of the local French bomber group, told him that Italian targets were not to be attacked. Shortly afterwards, Field received orders from the Air Ministry in London that the aircraft should take off as planned.

There was a flurry of telephone calls from various French authorities, culminating in a call at 9:45 p.m. from the Chief of the Air Staff, General Joseph Vuillemin to the headquarters of British Air Forces in France. Field followed the orders from the Air Ministry in Barratt in the evening. Around 0:30 a.m. as the first Wellington taxied into position for take-off, French troops blocked the runway with a line of lorries and carts. On the evening of 11 June, the British diplomatic representatives in France heard that the French had stopped the British bombers from taking off from Salon and after strong protests Paul Reynaud, the French prime minister, agreed to order the French authorities to co-operate. From England, 4 Group sent 36 Whitleys from 10 Squadron, 51 Squadron, 58 Squadron, 77 Squadron and 102 Squadron; the Whitleys flew to Italy. Severe storms and icing caused the majority of the aircraft to turn back and only 13 reached their targets at Turin and Genoa. Several bombers hit Geneva and Lausanne in Switzerland, 115 mi from their targets, killing four civilians and wounding another eighty.

After representations at the highest levels, the French authorities consented to raids on Italy after Toulon was bombed and six Wellingtons each from 99 Squadron and 149 Squadron returned to the south of France. Eight aircraft left on the evening of 15 June to bomb the Ansaldo works at Genoa. Thunderstorms made navigation difficult; the following night, another attempt was made by nine Wellingtons but only five reached their objective. The French armistice negotiations prevented further operations. Haddock Force The National Archives, Kew

Hyram Marks

Hyram A. Marks was a rugby union player. Marks, a lock, attended Sydney Grammar School and Sydney University, he claimed two international rugby caps for Australia and was the University rugby club's first Wallaby representative. His Test debut was against Great Britain, at Sydney, on 24 June 1899, the inaugural rugby Test match played by an Australian national representative side. Due to funding constraints he was one of only six New South Wales players selected to make the trip to Brisbane four weeks for the second Test, his performance in that match was noted as excellent by the press. Collection Gordon Bray presents The Spirit of Rugby, Harper Collins Publishers Sydney Howell, Max Born to Lead - Wallaby Test Captains, Celebrity Books, Auckland NZ