Non-governmental organizations, nongovernmental organizations, or nongovernment organizations referred to as NGOs, are non-profit and sometimes international organizations independent of governments and international governmental organizations that are active in humanitarian, health care, public policy, human rights and other areas to effect changes according to their objectives. They are thus a subgroup of all organizations founded by citizens, which include clubs and other associations that provide services and premises only to members. Sometimes the term is used as a synonym of "civil society organization" to refer to any association founded by citizens, but this is not how the term is used in the media or everyday language, as recorded by major dictionaries; the explanation of the term by NGO.org is ambivalent. It first says an NGO is any non-profit, voluntary citizens' group, organized on a local, national or international level, but goes on to restrict the meaning in the sense used by most English speakers and the media: Task-oriented and driven by people with a common interest, NGOs perform a variety of service and humanitarian functions, bring citizen concerns to Governments and monitor policies and encourage political participation through provision of information.
NGOs are funded by donations, but some avoid formal funding altogether and are run by volunteers. NGOs are diverse groups of organizations engaged in a wide range of activities, take different forms in different parts of the world; some may have charitable status, while others may be registered for tax exemption based on recognition of social purposes. Others may be fronts for religious, or other interests. Since the end of World War II, NGOs have had an increasing role in international development in the fields of humanitarian assistance and poverty alleviation; the number of NGOs worldwide is estimated to be 10 million. Russia had about 277,000 NGOs in 2008. India is estimated to have had around 2 million NGOs in 2009, just over one NGO per 600 Indians, many times the number of primary schools and primary health centres in India. China is estimated to have 440,000 registered NGOs. About 1.5 million domestic and foreign NGOs operated in the United States in 2017. The term'NGO' is not always used consistently.
In some countries the term NGO is applied to an organization that in another country would be called an NPO, vice versa. Political parties and trade unions are considered NGOs only in some countries. There are many different classifications of NGO in use; the most common focus is on "orientation" and "level of operation". An NGO's orientation refers to the type of activities; these activities might include human rights, improving health, or development work. An NGO's level of operation indicates the scale at which an organization works, such as local, national, or international; the term "non-governmental organization" was first coined in 1945, when the United Nations was created. The UN, itself an intergovernmental organization, made it possible for certain approved specialized international non-state agencies — i.e. non-governmental organizations — to be awarded observer status at its assemblies and some of its meetings. The term became used more widely. Today, according to the UN, any kind of private organization, independent from government control can be termed an "NGO", provided it is not-for-profit, non-prevention, but not an opposition political party.
One characteristic these diverse organizations share is that their non-profit status means they are not hindered by short-term financial objectives. Accordingly, they are able to devote themselves to issues which occur across longer time horizons, such as climate change, malaria prevention, or a global ban on landmines. Public surveys reveal that NGOs enjoy a high degree of public trust, which can make them a useful - but not always sufficient - proxy for the concerns of society and stakeholders. NGO/GRO types can be understood by their level of how they operate. Charitable orientation involves a top-down effort with little participation or input by beneficiaries, it includes NGOs with activities directed toward meeting the needs of the disadvantaged people groups. Service orientation includes NGOs with activities such as the provision of health, family planning or education services in which the programme is designed by the NGO and people are expected to participate in its implementation and in receiving the service.
Participatory orientation is characterized by self-help projects where local people are involved in the implementation of a project by contributing cash, land, labour etc. In the classical community development project, participation begins with the need definition and continues into the planning and implementation stages. Empowering orientation aims to help poor people develop a clearer understanding of the social and economic factors affecting their lives, to strengthen their awareness of their own potential power to control their lives. There is maximum involvement of the beneficiaries with NGOs acting as facilitators. Community-based organizations arise out of people's own initiatives, they can be responsible for raising the consciousness of the urban poor, helping them to understand their rights in accessing needed services, providing such services. City-wide organizations include organizations such as chambers of commerce and industry, coaliti
A security hacker is someone who seeks to breach defenses and exploit weaknesses in a computer system or network. Hackers may be motivated by a multitude of reasons, such as profit, information gathering, recreation, or to evaluate system weaknesses to assist in formulating defenses against potential hackers; the subculture that has evolved around hackers is referred to as the computer underground. There is a longstanding controversy about the term's true meaning. In this controversy, the term hacker is reclaimed by computer programmers who argue that it refers to someone with an advanced understanding of computers and computer networks, that cracker is the more appropriate term for those who break into computers, whether computer criminal or computer security expert. A 2014 article concluded that "... the black-hat meaning still prevails among the general public". In computer security, a hacker is someone who focuses on security mechanisms of computer and network systems. While including those who endeavor to strengthen such mechanisms, it is more used by the mass media and popular culture to refer to those who seek access despite these security measures.
That is, the media portrays the'hacker' as a villain. Parts of the subculture see their aim in correcting security problems and use the word in a positive sense. White hat is the name given to ethical computer hackers. White hats are becoming a necessary part of the information security field, they operate under a code, which acknowledges that breaking into other people's computers is bad, but that discovering and exploiting security mechanisms and breaking into computers is still an interesting activity that can be done ethically and legally. Accordingly, the term bears strong connotations that are favorable or pejorative, depending on the context; the subculture around such hackers is termed network hacker subculture, hacker scene, or computer underground. It developed in the context of phreaking during the 1960s and the microcomputer BBS scene of the 1980s, it is implicated with 2600: the alt.2600 newsgroup. In 1980, an article in the August issue of Psychology Today used the term "hacker" in its title: "The Hacker Papers".
It was an excerpt from a Stanford Bulletin Board discussion on the addictive nature of computer use. In the 1982 film Tron, Kevin Flynn describes his intentions to break into ENCOM's computer system, saying "I've been doing a little hacking here". CLU is the software. By 1983, hacking in the sense of breaking computer security had been in use as computer jargon, but there was no public awareness about such activities. However, the release of the film WarGames that year, featuring a computer intrusion into NORAD, raised the public belief that computer security hackers could be a threat to national security; this concern became real when, in the same year, a gang of teenage hackers in Milwaukee, known as The 414s, broke into computer systems throughout the United States and Canada, including those of Los Alamos National Laboratory, Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center and Security Pacific Bank. The case grew media attention, 17-year-old Neal Patrick emerged as the spokesman for the gang, including a cover story in Newsweek entitled "Beware: Hackers at play", with Patrick's photograph on the cover.
The Newsweek article appears to be the first use of the word hacker by the mainstream media in the pejorative sense. Pressured by media coverage, congressman Dan Glickman called for an investigation and began work on new laws against computer hacking. Neal Patrick testified before the U. S. House of Representatives on September 26, 1983, about the dangers of computer hacking, six bills concerning computer crime were introduced in the House that year; as a result of these laws against computer criminality, white hat, grey hat and black hat hackers try to distinguish themselves from each other, depending on the legality of their activities. These moral conflicts are expressed in The Mentor's "The Hacker Manifesto", published 1986 in Phrack. Use of the term hacker meaning computer criminal was advanced by the title "Stalking the Wily Hacker", an article by Clifford Stoll in the May 1988 issue of the Communications of the ACM; that year, the release by Robert Tappan Morris, Jr. of the so-called Morris worm provoked the popular media to spread this usage.
The popularity of Stoll's book The Cuckoo's Egg, published one year further entrenched the term in the public's consciousness. Several subgroups of the computer underground with different attitudes use different terms to demarcate themselves from each other, or try to exclude some specific group with whom they do not agree. Eric S. Raymond, author of The New Hacker's Dictionary, advocates that members of the computer underground should be called crackers. Yet, those people see themselves as hackers and try to include the views of Raymond in what they see as a wider hacker culture, a view that Raymond has harshly rejected. Instead of a hacker/cracker dichotomy, they emphasize a spectrum of different categories, such as white hat, grey hat, black hat and script kiddie. In contrast to Raymond, they reserve the term cracker for more malicious activity. According to Ralph D. Clifford, a cracker or cracking is to "gain unauthorized access to a computer in order to commit another crime such as destroying information contained in that system".
These subgroups may be defined by the legal status of their activities. A white hat hacker breaks security for non-malicious reasons, either to test their own security system, perform penetration tests, or vulnerability assessments for a
A biometric passport is a traditional passport that has an embedded electronic microprocessor chip which contains biometric information that can be used to authenticate the identity of the passport holder. It uses contactless smart card technology, including a microprocessor chip and antenna embedded in the front or back cover, or center page, of the passport; the passport's critical information is both printed on the data page of the passport and stored in the chip. Public key infrastructure is used to authenticate the data stored electronically in the passport chip making it expensive and difficult to forge when all security mechanisms are and implemented. Many countries are moving towards the issue of biometric passports; as of December 2008, 60 countries were issuing such passports, increasing to 120 as of June 2017. The standardised biometrics used for this type of identification system are facial recognition, fingerprint recognition, iris recognition; these were adopted after assessment of several different kinds of biometrics including retinal scan.
Document and chip characteristics are documented in the International Civil Aviation Organization's Doc 9303. The ICAO defines the biometric file formats and communication protocols to be used in passports. Only the digital image of each biometric feature is stored in the chip; the comparison of biometric features is performed outside the passport chip by electronic border control systems. To store biometric data on the contactless chip, it includes a minimum of 32 kilobytes of EEPROM storage memory, runs on an interface in accordance with the ISO/IEC 14443 international standard, amongst others; these standards intend interoperability between different countries and different manufacturers of passport books. Some national identity cards are ICAO9303 compliant biometric travel documents. Biometric passports have protection mechanisms to avoid and/or detect attacks: Non-traceable chip characteristics Random chip identifiers reply to each request with a different chip number; this prevents tracing of passport chips.
Using random identification numbers is optional. Basic Access Control BAC protects the communication channel between the chip and the reader by encrypting transmitted information. Before data can be read from a chip, the reader needs to provide a key, derived from the Machine Readable Zone: the date of birth, the date of expiry and the document number. If BAC is used, an attacker cannot eavesdrop transferred information without knowing the correct key. Using BAC is optional. Passive Authentication PA is aimed at identifying modification of passport chip data; the chip contains a file that stores hash values of all files stored in the chip and a digital signature of these hashes. The digital signature is made using a document signing key which itself is signed by a country signing key. If a file in the chip is changed, this can be detected. Readers need access to all used public country keys to check whether the digital signature is generated by a trusted country. Using PA is mandatory. According to a September 2011 United States Central Intelligence Agency document released by WikiLeaks in December 2014, "Although falsified e-passports will not have the correct digital signature, inspectors may not detect the fraud if the passports are from countries that do not participate in the International Civil Aviation Organization's Public Key Directory.
As of January 2017, 55 of over 60 e-passport-issuing countries belong to the PKD program. Active Authentication AA prevents cloning of passport chips; the chip contains a private key that cannot be read or copied, but its existence can be proven. Using AA is optional. Extended Access Control EAC adds functionality to check the authenticity of both the chip and the reader. Furthermore, it uses stronger encryption than BAC. EAC is used to protect fingerprints and iris scans. Using EAC is optional. In the European Union, using EAC is mandatory for all documents issued starting 28 June 2009. Supplemental Access Control SAC was introduced by ICAO in 2009 for addressing BAC weaknesses, it will replace it in the future. Shielding the chip This prevents unauthorised reading; some countries – including at least the US – have integrated a thin metal mesh into the passport's cover to act as a shield when the passport cover is closed. The use of shielding is optional. To assure interoperability and functionality of the security mechanisms listed above, ICAO and German Federal Office for Information Security have specified several test cases.
These test specifications are updated with every new protocol and are covering details starting from the paper used and ending in the chip, included. Since the introduction of biometric passports several attacks have been demonstrated. Non-traceable chip characteristics In 2008 a Radboud/Lausitz University team demonstrated that it's possible to determine which country a passport chip is from without knowing the key required for reading it; the team fingerprinted error messages of passport chips from different countries. The resulting lookup table allows an attacker to determine from. In 2010 Tom Chothia and Vitaliy Smirnov documented an attack that allows an individual passport t
C-base e. V. is a non-profit association located in Germany. Its purpose is to increase knowledge and skills pertaining to computer software and data networks; the association is engaged in numerous related activities. For example, the society has had stands at large festivals, such as Children's Day, where they introduce young people to topics like robotics and computer-aided design; the association's headquarters, c-base station, is used by other initiatives and groups in and around Berlin as an event location or as function rooms, for example the wireless community network freifunk.net, the Chaos Computer Club and the Berlin Wikipedia group. Any group that identifies themselves with the purpose of the c-base are welcome to use the premises for meetings and events. Wireless LAN is available for all guests. Seventeen people founded c-base e. V. in the autumn of 1995. In the years 2002 and 2003 the BerlinBackBone project was launched to make available and promote free public access to the internet via wireless community networks.
In 2003 the c-base association began staging weekly meetings of musicians, called Cosmic Open Stage, thus providing a platform for well known or unknown musicians to hold jam sessions or to give concerts. Since 2004 the premises of the c-base association are used in cooperation by transmediale. C-base is recognized as one of the first hackerspaces in the world. It, along with Metalab, directly influenced the creation of hackerspaces in the US. Apart from the main purpose of the c-base association the members are engaged in many other activities, for example Go and Jugger, the rules of which were gained through analysis of files on c-beam, the main computer in the c-base station. Once a year, @c-terra, an event organised by the c-base association, gives an overview of all activities offered; the premises of the c-base association host a lot of different events, such as Cosmic Open Stage. The c-base society is present at events of the Chaos Computer Club like the Chaos Communication Congress or the Chaos Communication Camp.
From September 14–16, 2006 the fourth Wizards of OS conference was held in cooperation with c-base. The location for c-base is accompanied by a myth; this myth says that there are remnants of a space station called c-base underneath the city centre of Berlin. The space station's antenna is the Fernsehturm Berlin, a large spire with a mirrored ball near the top and a distinctive landmark nearby. According to the stories of the members of the c-base, the space station crashed due to unstable conditions in its orbit after exiting a time warp. At that time there was a number of technological advanced and heretofore undiscovered lifeforms aboard the station. Much evidence of its existence is said to be in and around Berlin, including the aforementioned antenna, unmasked by East German and Soviet scientists. Other evidence, such as the multifunctional space station module, which ejected during the crash, is now under intense research and makes up the current premises of the c-base association. There is only a printed edition of the collected knowledge about the space station, known as the "space almanack".
A project, called "c-pedia", is underway, attempting to make this knowledge available on the internet. There is a reconstruction of station artifacts taking place; the c-base is a system of seven concentric rings. Each ring is considered a single module with a special set of functions; the rings are called "core", "com", "culture", "creactiv", "cience", "carbon" and "clamp". The inner ring, provides a nonterminating supply of energy produced by a Möbius strip generator; the central computer of the c-base, "c-beam", is located there. The second ring, harbours the space ports and communication devices including the interstellar communication module identified as Blinkenlights by the Chaos Computer Club; the following three rings, culture and cience, host devices serving culture and science. The latter ring is the location of the Arboretum. Accommodation for station crew members are found on the carbon ring; the outer ring, stabilizes the station. On September 10, 2006, the Pirate Party Germany was established at c-base.
Episode 430, "Tödliches Labyrinth" and Episode 691 "Tod einer Heuschrecke" of German television series Tatort was filmed at c-base. The Wikipedia local chapter has met at c-base since 2004. C-booc: 20 years history publication of c-base c-base e. V.: c-base. Official handout v.6.0s, Berlin 2004 c-base-Homepage openstage-berlin.de c-base – space station in Berlin c-base at myspace.com showing videos and music of some members
Germany the Federal Republic of Germany, is a country in Central and Western Europe, lying between the Baltic and North Seas to the north, the Alps to the south. It borders Denmark to the north and the Czech Republic to the east and Switzerland to the south, France to the southwest, Luxembourg and the Netherlands to the west. Germany includes 16 constituent states, covers an area of 357,386 square kilometres, has a temperate seasonal climate. With 83 million inhabitants, it is the second most populous state of Europe after Russia, the most populous state lying in Europe, as well as the most populous member state of the European Union. Germany is a decentralized country, its capital and largest metropolis is Berlin, while Frankfurt serves as its financial capital and has the country's busiest airport. Germany's largest urban area is the Ruhr, with its main centres of Essen; the country's other major cities are Hamburg, Cologne, Stuttgart, Düsseldorf, Dresden, Bremen and Nuremberg. Various Germanic tribes have inhabited the northern parts of modern Germany since classical antiquity.
A region named Germania was documented before 100 AD. During the Migration Period, the Germanic tribes expanded southward. Beginning in the 10th century, German territories formed a central part of the Holy Roman Empire. During the 16th century, northern German regions became the centre of the Protestant Reformation. After the collapse of the Holy Roman Empire, the German Confederation was formed in 1815; the German revolutions of 1848–49 resulted in the Frankfurt Parliament establishing major democratic rights. In 1871, Germany became a nation state when most of the German states unified into the Prussian-dominated German Empire. After World War I and the revolution of 1918–19, the Empire was replaced by the parliamentary Weimar Republic; the Nazi seizure of power in 1933 led to the establishment of a dictatorship, the annexation of Austria, World War II, the Holocaust. After the end of World War II in Europe and a period of Allied occupation, Austria was re-established as an independent country and two new German states were founded: West Germany, formed from the American and French occupation zones, East Germany, formed from the Soviet occupation zone.
Following the Revolutions of 1989 that ended communist rule in Central and Eastern Europe, the country was reunified on 3 October 1990. Today, the sovereign state of Germany is a federal parliamentary republic led by a chancellor, it is a great power with a strong economy. As a global leader in several industrial and technological sectors, it is both the world's third-largest exporter and importer of goods; as a developed country with a high standard of living, it upholds a social security and universal health care system, environmental protection, a tuition-free university education. The Federal Republic of Germany was a founding member of the European Economic Community in 1957 and the European Union in 1993, it is part of the Schengen Area and became a co-founder of the Eurozone in 1999. Germany is a member of the United Nations, NATO, the G7, the G20, the OECD. Known for its rich cultural history, Germany has been continuously the home of influential and successful artists, musicians, film people, entrepreneurs, scientists and inventors.
Germany has a large number of World Heritage sites and is among the top tourism destinations in the world. The English word Germany derives from the Latin Germania, which came into use after Julius Caesar adopted it for the peoples east of the Rhine; the German term Deutschland diutisciu land is derived from deutsch, descended from Old High German diutisc "popular" used to distinguish the language of the common people from Latin and its Romance descendants. This in turn descends from Proto-Germanic *þiudiskaz "popular", derived from *þeudō, descended from Proto-Indo-European *tewtéh₂- "people", from which the word Teutons originates; the discovery of the Mauer 1 mandible shows that ancient humans were present in Germany at least 600,000 years ago. The oldest complete hunting weapons found anywhere in the world were discovered in a coal mine in Schöningen between 1994 and 1998 where eight 380,000-year-old wooden javelins of 1.82 to 2.25 m length were unearthed. The Neander Valley was the location where the first non-modern human fossil was discovered.
The Neanderthal 1 fossils are known to be 40,000 years old. Evidence of modern humans dated, has been found in caves in the Swabian Jura near Ulm; the finds included 42,000-year-old bird bone and mammoth ivory flutes which are the oldest musical instruments found, the 40,000-year-old Ice Age Lion Man, the oldest uncontested figurative art discovered, the 35,000-year-old Venus of Hohle Fels, the oldest uncontested human figurative art discovered. The Nebra sky disk is a bronze artefact created during the European Bronze Age attributed to a site near Nebra, Saxony-Anhalt, it is part of UNESCO's Memory of the World Programme. The Germanic tribes are thought to date from the Pre-Roman Iron Age. From southern Scandinavia and north Germany, they expanded south and west from the 1st century BC, coming into contact with the Celtic tribes of Gaul as well
23 is a 1998 German drama thriller film about a young hacker Karl Koch, who died on 23 May 1989, a presumed suicide. It was directed by Hans-Christian Schmid, who participated in screenwriting; the title derives from the protagonist's obsession with the number 23, a phenomenon described as apophenia. Although the film was well received by critics and audiences, its accuracy has been vocally disputed by some witnesses to the real-life events on which it was based. Schmid subsequently co-authored a book that tells the story of the making of 23 and details the differences between the movie and the actual events. In 1980s Germany at the height of the Cold War, 19-year-old Karl Koch finds the world around him threatening and chaotic. Inspired by the fictitious character Hagbard Celine, he starts investigating the backgrounds of political and economic power and discovers signs that make him believe in a worldwide conspiracy. At a meeting of the Chaos Computer Club, Karl gets to know the student David.
David and Karl are able to hack into the global data network—which is still, at this point, in its early stages—and their belief in social justice propels them into espionage for the KGB. Driven by contacts with a drug dealer—and by increasing KGB pressure to hack into foreign systems—Karl spirals into a cocaine dependency and grows alienated from David. In a drug-addled state, Karl begins to sit in front of his computer for days at a time. Perpetually sleepless, he grows delusional; when David publicly reveals the espionage activity in which the two men have been engaged, Karl is left alone to face the consequences. Collapse soon follows. Karl is taken to a hospital to deal with his drug addiction and mysteriously dies after his supposed hacking of Chernobyl. 23 Enigma The Number 23 The Cuckoo's Egg – another account of the Hanover Hacker case, written by one of the system administrators who discovered the break-ins List of films featuring surveillance 23 on IMDb 23 at AllMovie 23 at Rotten Tomatoes
The hacker culture is a subculture of individuals who enjoy the intellectual challenge of creatively overcoming limitations of software systems to achieve novel and clever outcomes. The act of engaging in activities in a spirit of playfulness and exploration is termed "hacking". However, the defining characteristic of a hacker is not the activities performed themselves, but the manner in which it is done and whether it is something exciting and meaningful. Activities of playful cleverness can be said to have "hack value" and therefore the term "hacks" came about, with early examples including pranks at MIT done by students to demonstrate their technical aptitude and cleverness. Therefore, the hacker culture emerged in academia in the 1960s around the Massachusetts Institute of Technology's Tech Model Railroad Club and MIT Artificial Intelligence Laboratory. Hacking involved entering restricted areas in a clever way without causing any major damages; some famous hacks at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology were placing of a campus police cruiser on the roof of the Great Dome and converting the Great Dome into R2-D2.
Richard Stallman explains about hackers who program: What they had in common was love of excellence and programming. They wanted to make their programs, they wanted to make them do neat things. They wanted to be able to do something in a more exciting way than anyone believed possible and show "Look how wonderful this is. I bet you didn't believe this could be done." Hackers from this subculture tend to emphatically differentiate themselves from what they pejoratively call "crackers". The Jargon File, an influential but not universally accepted compendium of hacker slang, defines hacker as "A person who enjoys exploring the details of programmable systems and stretching their capabilities, as opposed to most users, who prefer to learn only the minimum necessary." The Request for Comments 1392, the Internet Users' Glossary, amplifies this meaning as "A person who delights in having an intimate understanding of the internal workings of a system and computer networks in particular."As documented in the Jargon File, these hackers are disappointed by the mass media and general public's usage of the word hacker to refer to security breakers, calling them "crackers" instead.
This includes both "good" crackers who use their computer security related skills and knowledge to learn more about how systems and networks work and to help to discover and fix security holes, as well as those more "evil" crackers who use the same skills to author harmful software and illegally infiltrate secure systems with the intention of doing harm to the system. The programmer subculture of hackers, in contrast to the cracker community sees computer security related activities as contrary to the ideals of the original and true meaning of the hacker term that instead related to playful cleverness; the word "hacker" derives from the seventeenth-century word of a "lusty laborer" who harvested fields by dogged and rough swings of his hoe. Although the idea of "hacking" has existed long before the term "hacker"—with the most notable example of Lightning Ellsworth, it was not a word that the first programmers used to describe themselves. In fact, many of the first programmers were from physics backgrounds.
There was a growing awareness of a style of programming different from the cut and dried methods employed at first, but it was not until the 1960s that the term hackers began to be used to describe proficient computer programmers. Therefore, the fundamental characteristic that links all who identify themselves as hackers are ones who enjoy "…the intellectual challenge of creatively overcoming and circumventing limitations of programming systems and who tries to extend their capabilities". With this definition in mind, it can be clear where the negative implications of the word "hacker" and the subculture of "hackers" came from; some common nicknames among this culture include "crackers" who are unskilled thieves who rely on luck. Others include "phreak"—which refers to a type of skilled crackers and "warez d00dz"—which is a kind of cracker that acquires reproductions of copyrighted software. Within all hackers are tiers of hackers such as the "samurai" who are hackers that hire themselves out for legal electronic locksmith work.
Furthermore, there are other hackers who are hired to test security, they are called "sneakers" or "tiger teams". Before communications between computers and computer users were as networked as they are now, there were multiple independent and parallel hacker subcultures unaware or only aware of each other's existence. All of these had certain important traits in common: Creating software and sharing it with each other Placing a high value on freedom of inquiry Hostility to secrecy Information-sharing as both an ideal and a practical strategy Upholding the right to fork Emphasis on rationality Distaste for authority Playful cleverness, taking the serious humorously and humor These sorts of subcultures were found at academic settings such as college campuses; the MIT Artificial Intelligence Laboratory, the University of California and Carnegie Mellon University were well-known hotbeds of early hacker culture. They evolved in parallel, unconsciously, until the Internet, where a legendary PDP-10 machine at MIT, called