click links in text for more info


Chaps are sturdy coverings for the legs consisting of leggings and a belt. They are buckled on over trousers with the chaps' integrated belt, but unlike trousers they have no seat and are not joined at the crotch, they are designed to provide protection for the legs and are made of leather or a leather-like material. Their name is a shortened version of the Spanish word chaparreras. Chaparreras were named after the chaparral from which they were designed to protect the legs while riding on horseback. Like much of western horse culture, the origin of chaparreras was in the part of New Spain that became Mexico, has been assimilated into cowboy culture of the American west, they are a protective garment to be used. In the modern world, they are worn for exhibition or show use. Chaps have been adopted for use on motorcycles by Harley-Davidson riders and other cruiser-style motorcycle riders; the earliest form of protective leather garment used by mounted riders who herded cattle in Spain and Mexico were called armas, meaning "weapons".

They were two large pieces of cowhide that were used as a protective apron of sorts. They attached to the horn of the rider's stock saddle, were spread across both the horse's chest and the rider's legs. From this early and rather cumbersome design came modifications that placed the garment on the rider, style variations adapted as vaqueros, cowboys, moved north from Mexico into the Pacific coast and northern Rockies regions of what today are the United States and Canada. There is evidence that certain design features may derive from the mountain men, who copied them from the leggings worn by Native Americans. Different styles developed to fit local climate and hazards. Designs were modified for purely stylistic and decorative purposes; the time of actual appearance of the garment on American cowboys is uncertain. By the late 1870s, most Texas cowboys wore them as the cattle industry moved north. By 1884, the Dictionary of American Regional English notes use of the word in Wyoming, spelled "schaps."The word chaps is a clip of chaparejos or chaparreras, which are Mexican Spanish words for this garment derived from Spanish chaparro, one sense of, a low growing thicket—difficult to ride through without damage to clothing.

In English, the word has two common pronunciations: and. Since at least the end of the 19th century, in the western United States and Canada, English-speaking riders have tended to pronounce the word; this pronunciation is used among rodeo riders in New Zealand. English-speaking riders in the eastern United States and Canada and the United Kingdom have tended to pronounce the word. Shotgun chaps, sometimes called "stovepipes", were so named because the legs are straight and narrow, they were the earliest design used in wide use by the late 1870s. Each leg is cut from a single piece of leather, their fit is snug, wrapping around the leg. They have full-length zippers running along the outside of the leg from the thigh to just above the ankle; the edge of each legging is fringed and the bottom is sometimes cut with an arch or flare that allows a smooth fit over the arch of a boot. Shotguns do not flap around the way the batwing design can, they are better at trapping body heat, an advantage in windy, snowy or cold conditions, though unpleasant in hot or humid weather.

Shotgun chaps are more common on ranches in the northwest, Rocky Mountains and northern plains states, as well as Canada, are the design most seen in horse show competition for western riders western equitation. English riders who wear full-length chaps usually wear a shotgun style, sometimes without fringe. Batwing chaps are cut wide with a flare at the bottom. Made of smooth leather, they have only two or three fasteners around the thigh, thus allowing great freedom of movement for the lower leg; this is helpful when riding actively, makes it easier to mount the horse. This design provides more air circulation and is thus somewhat cooler for hot-weather wear. Batwing chaps are seen on rodeo contestants those who ride bucking stock, they are seen on working ranches in Texas. They were a design, developed after the end of the open range. Although by definition the chaps that rodeo contestants wear are considered batwing chaps, contestants do not refer to them as batwings, they are called rodeo chaps.

There are a few differences in design between working ranch batwing chaps and rodeo chaps. Rodeo chaps are more colorful and decorated, whereas ranch cowboys need toughness over style. Rodeo chaps have long flowing fringe. Ranch chaps may be customized with a brand or initials and some floral tooling, but never have fringe. Chinks are half-length chaps that stop two to four inches below the knee, with long fringe at the bottom and along the sides, they are fringed along the outside edge and bottom, making their apparent length appear about 4 inches longer. The leg shape is cut somewhere between batwings and shotguns, each leg has only two fasteners, high on the thigh, they are cooler to wear and hence a design, suitable for warm climates. They are called "half-chaps"; the original etymon may have been chincaderos or chigaderos. and may have referred to armitas. Chinks are most seen on cowboys in the Southwestern and Pacific st

Aranda (band)

Aranda is an American rock band from Oklahoma City, United States. The band is composed of Gabe Aranda, their latest album Not The Same was released via Wind-Up Records on July 1, 2015. Dameon and Gabe Aranda have been creating music since an early age; the band became Aranda in 2001 and signed to Epic Records after years of playing locally in Oklahoma City with various groups under various names such as "Image" and "Freewill" in the 1990s. After recording an album for Epic they were let go from the label due to a massive overhaul to the label structurally. Original drummer Armando Lopez left the band in 2003 to join No Justice. Mike Walker joined the band to record "The 405 Sessions" in 2004 and became a permanent member when the band signed to Astonish records in 2006; the band's first full-length record, was released on April 22, 2008. The first single, "Still in the Dark", peaked at No. 31 on the Hot Mainstream Rock Tracks chart. Aranda has toured with bands like The All-American Rejects, Sevendust, Anew Revolution, Since October, Saliva, Puddle of Mudd, Theory of a Deadman, Black Stone Cherry, Shaman's Harvest, Tantric.

They were on tour with Halestorm, Adelitas Way, 3 Doors Down, Daughtry. In 2010 Aranda performed at Rocklahoma in Oklahoma, they were nominated in 2012 for a RadioContraband Rock Radio Award for Indie Artist of the Year. In 2015 it was announced that Aranda will perform at the 10th Rock on the Range festival in Columbus, Ohio in May 2016. Aranda announced via Facebook their new album will be called "Stop the World", on July 1, 2011, they released the first single entitled "Undone". On January 31, 2012, their new album "Stop the World" was released on iTunes; the CD was produced by Grammy Award nominated producer Johnny K, has 10 songs, including their first single "Undone". Aranda became signed to Wind-up Records in mid-2012. On June 30, 2015 Aranda released their third studio album Not the Same featuring the tracks “Don’t Wake Me” and “We Are The Enemy”. Produced by Kato Khandwala, the release peaked at number 12 on the Billboard Heatseeker Albums Chart. "Whyyawannabringmedown" was used as official theme for WWE's PPV The Bash, recorded by Grammy Award winner Kelly Clarkson.

"All I Ever Wanted" was recorded by Kelly Clarkson for her fourth record, named after the song, is the fourth single from the album. Aranda Stop the World Not the Same #12 Billboard Heatseeker Albums Aranda's official website Aranda's Wind-Up Records page arandaVEVO on YouTube

Siphiwe Nyanda

General Siphiwe Nyanda is a South African military commander and politician. He served as Chief of the South African National Defence Force from 1998 to 2005, Minister of Communications from 2009 to 2010 and appointment as a board member of Denel in May 2018. Nyanda joined Umkhonto we Sizwe, the military wing of the African National Congress, in 1974, served as a field commander during the liberation struggle against the South African government in the 1980s, he was appointed MK Chief of Staff in 1992, served on the Transitional Executive Council which oversaw the change of government in 1994. Major General Nyanda became part of the South African National Defence Force, into which MK was incorporated in 1994, served successively as Chief of Defence Force Staff, General Officer Commanding Gauteng Command, Deputy Chief of the South African National Defence Force, Chief of the South African National Defence Force. In 1999, Nyanda was awarded the Star of Gold. Star of South Africa Star for Bravery in Silver Conspicuous Leadership Star Decoration for Merit in Gold Merit Medal in Silver Military Merit Medal Unitas Medal Medalje vir Troue Diens Service Medal in Silver Service Medal in Bronze Legion of Merit Légion d'honneur Commander of the Order of Military Merit International Council of Military Sports Order of Merit – Officer Nyanda was a controversial figure throughout the 18 months that he was minister of communications.

Dubbed the "minister of luxury" by South Africa's Mail & Guardian, Nyanda was alleged to have spent hundreds of thousands of rands living in a luxurious Cape Town hotel throughout his tenure because he was unhappy with the ministerial house appointed to him. At the same time as the allegations surrounding his living arrangements came to light, Nyanda's private business was under scrutiny. A company, in which Nyanada's family owned 45%, called GNS Risk Management Services was accused of impropriety in a tender process in March 2010. Amongst its numerous clients were several parastatals, including Transnet Freight Rail, passenger train company Metrorail, state bus company Autopax, the Gauteng provincial government, it emerged that Transnet Freight Rail had been involved in the awarding of tenders without following the correct procedures. Amongst the tenders that were questioned was one security contract valued at ZAR55 million, awarded to GNS Risk Management Services. Transnet's CEO, Siyabonga Gama, was dismissed.

However, Nyanda was not reprimanded. In October 2010, Nyanda came under fire for the suspension of communications ministry director general Mamodupi Mohlala, it was reported that in July 2010, on the day that Nyanda axed Mohlala, she had reported tender irregularities worth ZAR70 million to the police for a fraud investigation and had called for disciplinary action against several senior civil servants. Nyanda fervently denied the allegations, labeling them "false and malicious". However, shortly after the story regarding the removal of Mohlala came out, Nyanda was removed from his position in the Ministry of Communications. Despite the numerous suggestions of political impropriety, Nyanda was subsequently appointed as a parliamentary counselor to ex-President Jacob Zuma. No more telecoms'rip-offs' Fin24

Francis Awe

Francis Awe is a prince of the Yoruba tribe of Nigeria. He is said to be a master of the Nigerian talking drum, his grandmother was the one. Every time there would be drums being played. So one day his grandmother decided to take him to a place. Francis would stop crying as soon; the grandmother did this on three different occasions and she introduced him to the village drummers and they took him under their wing. In 1981 Francis earned a degree in Dramatic Arts at The University of Ife in Nigeria. After graduating he got a job as a drummer and Chief Cultural Assistant at The University of Lagos, Centre for Cultural Studies. Soon after decided he wanted to come to America and go to school at The California Institute of the Arts. There he received a bachelor's degree in World Cultures. In 1985 Francis Awe formed The Nigerian Talking Drum Ensemble with his wife, the lead dancer; the Nigerian Talking Drum Ensemble is a group that performs with the hopes to educate the people about the Nigerian culture through music and dance.

The group has traveled to places throughout the United States and to Mexico, Italy and India. With the Ensemble, Francis goes to universities and schools, teaches at workshops, he has composed for movies, on stage. He is a recording artist for Bindu Records and is releasing an album with his drumming titled, Oro Ijinle. Awe has said that his mission is to, "Not only make the Dundun a universal instrument, but to transmit the family aspect of African life to all the people of the universe." He had two children. His oldest, Asabi Awe and his youngest Babatunde Awe African Music Encyclopedia: Francis Awe Bindu Records - Francis Awe Francis Awe and the Nigerian Talking Drum Ensemble

Australian Air Corps

The Australian Air Corps was a temporary formation of the Australian military that existed in the interval between the disbandment of the Australian Flying Corps of World War I and the establishment of the Royal Australian Air Force in March 1921. Raised in January 1920, the AAC was commanded by a former AFC pilot. Many of the AAC's members were from the AFC and would go on to join the RAAF. Although part of the Australian Army, for most of its existence the AAC was overseen by a board of senior officers that included members of the Royal Australian Navy. Following the disbandment of the AFC, the AAC was a stop-gap measure intended to remain in place until the formation of a permanent and independent Australian air force; the corps' primary purpose was to maintain assets of the Central Flying School at Point Cook, but several pioneering activities took place under its auspices: AAC personnel set an Australian altitude record that stood for a decade, made the first non-stop flight between Sydney and Melbourne, undertook the country's initial steps in the field of aviation medicine.

The AAC operated fighters and training aircraft, including some of the first examples of Britain's Imperial Gift to arrive in Australia. As well as personnel, the RAAF inherited Point Cook and most of its initial equipment from the AAC. In December 1919, the remnants of the wartime Australian Flying Corps were disbanded, replaced on 1 January 1920 by the Australian Air Corps, which was, like the AFC, part of the Australian Army. Australia's senior airman, Lieutenant Colonel Richard Williams, was overseas, Major William Anderson was appointed commander of the AAC, a position that put him in charge of the Central Flying School at Point Cook, Victoria; as Anderson was on sick leave at the time of the appointment, Major Rolf Brown temporarily assumed command. CFS remained the AAC's sole unit, Point Cook its only air base; the AAC was an interim organisation intended to exist until the establishment of a permanent Australian air service. The decision to create such a service had been made in January 1919, amid competing proposals by the Army and the Royal Australian Navy for separate forces under their respective jurisdictions.

Budgetary constraints and arguments over administration and control led to ongoing delays in the formation of an independent air force. By direction of the Chief of the General Staff, Major General Gordon Legge, in November 1919, the AAC's prime purpose was to ensure existing aviation assets were maintained; the Chief of the Naval Staff, Rear Admiral Sir Percy Grant, objected to the AAC's being under Army control, argued that an air board should be formed to oversee the AAC and the proposed Australian air force. A temporary air board first met on 29 January 1920, the Army being represented by Williams and Brigadier General Thomas Blamey, the Navy by Captain Wilfred Nunn and Lieutenant Colonel Stanley Goble, a former member of Britain's Royal Naval Air Service seconded to the Navy Office. Williams was given responsibility for administering the AAC on behalf of the board. A permanent Air Board overseen by an Air Council was formed on 9 November 1920. Most members of the AAC were former AFC personnel.

In August 1919, several senior AFC pilots, including Lieutenant Colonel Oswald Watt, Major Anderson, Captain Roy Phillipps, were appointed to serve on a committee examining applications for the AAC. Some of the staffing decisions were controversial. At least three officers at the CFS, including the commanding officer, were not offered appointments in the new service. Roy King, the AFC's second highest-scoring fighter ace after Harry Cobby, refused an appointment in the AAC because it had not yet offered a commission to Victoria Cross recipient Frank McNamara. In a letter dated 30 January 1920, King wrote, "I feel I must forfeit my place in favor of this good and gallant officer". Other former AFC members who took up appointments in the AAC included Captains Adrian Cole, Henry Wrigley, Frank Lukis, Lawrence Wackett. Captain Hippolyte "Kanga" De La Rue, an Australian who flew with the RNAS during the war, was granted a commission in the AAC because a specialist seaplane pilot was required for naval cooperation work.

The corps' initial establishment was nine officers—commanding officer, workshop commander, test pilot, four other pilots, medical officer—and seventy other ranks. In March 1920, to cope with the imminent arrival of new aircraft and other equipment, approval was given to increase this complement by a further seven officers and thirty-six other ranks; the following month the establishment was increased by fifty-four to make a total of 160 other ranks. An advertising campaign was employed to garner applicants. According to The Age, applicants needed to be aged between eighteen and forty-five, returned soldiers were preferred; as the AAC was an interim formation, no unique uniform was designed for its members. Within three weeks of the AAC being raised, a directive came down from CFS that the organisation's former AFC staff should wear out their existing uniforms, that any personnel requiring new uniforms should acquire "AIF pattern, as worn by the AFC"; the AAC suffered two fatalities. On 23 September 1920, two Airco DH.9A bombers delivered from Britain undertook a search for the schooner Amelia J. which had disappeared on a voyage from Newcastle to Ho


Berolle is municipality in the Swiss canton of Vaud, located in the district of Morges. Berolle is first mentioned in 1235 as Birula. In 1453 it was mentioned as Birolaz. Berolle has an area, as of 2009, of 9.6 square kilometers. Of this area, 3.41 km2 or 35.5% is used for agricultural purposes, while 5.9 km2 or 61.5% is forested. Of the rest of the land, 0.25 km2 or 2.6% is settled and 0.03 km2 or 0.3% is unproductive land. Of the built up area and buildings made up 0.9% and transportation infrastructure made up 1.1%. Out of the forested land, 58.6% of the total land area is forested and 2.8% is covered with orchards or small clusters of trees. Of the agricultural land, 24.3% is used for growing crops and 2.6% is pastures and 8.5% is used for alpine pastures. The municipality was part of the Aubonne District until it was dissolved on 31 August 2006, Berolle became part of the new district of Morges; the municipality is located at the foot of the Jura Mountains. It consists of the haufendorf village of Berolle and there hamlets.

The blazon of the municipal coat of arms is Gules, in a heart. Berolle has a population of 305; as of 2008, 8.9% of the population are resident foreign nationals. Over the last 10 years the population has changed at a rate of 40.4%. It has changed at a rate of 9.9 % due to births and deaths. Most of the population speaks French, with German being second most Italian being third. Of the population in the municipality 69 or about 32.5% were born in Berolle and lived there in 2000. There were 84 or 39.6% who were born in the same canton, while 31 or 14.6% were born somewhere else in Switzerland, 24 or 11.3% were born outside of Switzerland. In 2008 there was 1 live birth to Swiss citizens and 1 birth to non-Swiss citizens, in same time span there was 1 death of a Swiss citizen. Ignoring immigration and emigration, the population of Swiss citizens remained the same while the foreign population increased by 1; the total Swiss population change in 2008 was a decrease of 2 and the non-Swiss population increased by 2 people.

This represents a population growth rate of 0.0%. The age distribution, as of 2009, in Berolle is. Of the adult population, 28 people or 9.8 % of the population are between 29 years old. 47 people or 16.5% are between 30 and 39, 44 people or 15.4% are between 40 and 49, 31 people or 10.9% are between 50 and 59. The senior population distribution is 23 people or 8.1% of the population are between 60 and 69 years old, 11 people or 3.9% are between 70 and 79, there are 4 people or 1.4% who are between 80 and 89. As of 2000, there were 97 people who never married in the municipality. There were 7 individuals who are divorced; as of 2000, there were 69 private households in the municipality, an average of 3.0 persons per household. There were 9 households that consist of 14 households with five or more people. Out of a total of 71 households that answered this question, 12.7% were households made up of just one person and there were 2 adults who lived with their parents. Of the rest of the households, there are 23 married couples without children, 29 married couples with children There were 4 single parents with a child or children.

There were 2 households that were made up of unrelated people and 2 households that were made up of some sort of institution or another collective housing. In 2000 there were 34 single family homes out of a total of 62 inhabited buildings. There were 8 multi-family buildings, along with 17 multi-purpose buildings that were used for housing and 3 other use buildings that had some housing. Of the single family homes 18 were built before 1919, while 6 were built between 1990 and 2000; the most multi-family homes were built before 1919 and the next most were built between 1919 and 1945. In 2000 there were 79 apartments in the municipality; the most common apartment size was 4 rooms of which there were 26. There were 38 apartments with five or more rooms. Of these apartments, a total of 65 apartments were permanently occupied, while 9 apartments were seasonally occupied and 5 apartments were empty; as of 2009, the construction rate of new housing units was 0 new units per 1000 residents. The vacancy rate for the municipality, in 2010, was 0%.

The historical population is given in the following chart: In the 2007 federal election the most popular party was the SVP which received 31.13% of the vote. The next three most popular parties were the Green Party and the LPS Party. In the federal election, a total of 71 votes were cast, the voter turnout was 41.8%. As of 2010, Berolle had an unemployment rate of 3%; as of 2008, there were 24 people employed in the primary economic sector and about 9 businesses involved in this sector. 14 people were employed in the secondary sector and there were 6 businesses in this sector. 19 people were employed with 7 businesses in this sector. There were 113 residents of the municipality who were employed in some capacity, of which females made up 46.0% of the workforce. In 2008 the total number of full-time equivalent jo