Wyndhams Theatre is a West End theatre, one of two opened by the actor/manager Charles Wyndham. Located on Charing Cross Road in the City of Westminster, it was designed c.1898 by W. G. R, the architect of six other London theatres between and 1916. It was designed to seat 759 patrons on three levels although refurbishment increased this to four, the theatre was Grade II* listed by English Heritage in September 1960. The first play performed there was a revival of T. W. Robertsons David Garrick, in 1910, Gerald du Maurier began an association with the theatre which lasted 15 years and to include the stage debut of the screen actress Tallulah Bankhead. Du Mauriers small daughter, often watched her fathers performance from the wings, thirty years she presented her own play, The Years Between, on the same stage. In April 1953 the theatre premiered Graham Greenes first play, The Living Room, in January 1954, a small-scale musical pastiche, Sandy Wilsons The Boy Friend, which had begun life at the much smaller Players Theatre, was moved to the Wyndham stage.
It ran for 2,078 performances, before transferring to Broadway. During the 60s and early 70s the theatre continued to provide a setting for such as Alec Guinness, Vanessa Redgrave. The blockbuster of the decade – Godspell – opened at Wyndhams in January 1972, the original cast included David Essex, Marti Webb and Jeremy Irons. Among more recent distinguished productions were the world premiere of The Ride Down Mt. Morgan by Arthur Miller, twenty-five years after making her debut there, Diana Rigg returned to play a hugely successful season as Medea. The critically acclaimed comedy, Art, by Yasmina Reza, began its run at Wyndhams in 1996 with Albert Finney, Tom Courtenay. It opened in October 1996, and transferred to the Whitehall Theatre in October 2001, madonna made her West End debut there in 2002, performing in a sell-out production of Up For Grabs. Since then, theatre patrons have seen Sienna Miller star alongside Helen McCrory, Reece Shearsmith, a large-scale replica of the facade of the theatre was constructed at the Universal Studios theme park in Orlando as part of the parks London themed area.
In May 2005, the theatre was taken over by Cameron Mackintoshs Delfont-Mackintosh Ltd. which began operations of the venue in September 2005. In October 2005 the theatre presented Tom Stoppards Heroes, a translation of the French play Le vent des peupliers by Gérald Sibleyras which starred Richard Griffiths and John Hurt. The following year the theatre hosted a new production of Joanna Murray-Smiths play Honour starring Diana Rigg, Martin Jarvis and Natascha McElhone, which ran between 7 February and 6 May 2006. Bill Kenwrights production of Somerset Maughams The Letter played through summer 2007, based on the life story of C. S. Lewis opened in October 2007, starring Charles Dance and Janie Dee, before another return of Alan Bennetts The History Boys from December 2007. The Donmar West End season included Derek Jacobi starring in Twelfth Night, Judi Dench in Yukio Mishimas Madame de Sade and Jude Law in Hamlet,150 ISBN 0-7136-5688-3 Wyndhams Theatre Website Delfont Mackintosh Theatres Theatre History and
Oxford Street is a major road in the City of Westminster in the West End of London, running from Marble Arch to Tottenham Court Road via Oxford Circus. It is Europes busiest shopping street, with half a million daily visitors. It is designated as part of the A40, a road between London and Fishguard, though it is not signed as such, and traffic is regularly restricted to buses. The road was originally a Roman road, part of the Via Trinobantina between Essex and Hampshire via London and it was known as Tyburn Road through the Middle Ages and was once notorious as a street where prisoners from Newgate Prison would be transported towards a public hanging. The first department stores in Britain opened on Oxford Street in the early 20th century, including Selfridges, John Lewis, unlike nearby shopping streets such as Bond Street, it has retained an element of downmarket street trading alongside more prestigious retail stores. The street suffered heavy bombing during World War II, and several longstanding stores including John Lewis were completely destroyed, the annual switching on of Christmas lights by a celebrity has been a popular event since 1959.
However, the combination of a popular retail area and a main thoroughfare for London buses and taxis has caused significant problems with traffic congestion, safety. Various traffic management schemes have proposed by Transport for London, including a ban on private vehicles during daytime hours on weekdays and Saturdays. Oxford Street runs for approximately 1.2 miles, the eastward continuation is New Oxford Street, and Holborn. The road is entirely within the City of Westminster and it is within the London Congestion Charging Zone. Numerous bus routes run along Oxford Street, including 10,25,55,73,98,390 and Night Buses N8, N55, N73, N98 and N207. Oxford Street follows the route of a Roman road, the Via Trinobantina, between the 12th century and 1782, it was variously known as Tyburn Road, Uxbridge Road, Worcester Road and Oxford Road. Despite being a major coaching route, there were several obstacles along it, a turnpike trust was established in the 1730s to improve upkeep of the road. It became notorious as the route taken by prisoners on their journey from Newgate Prison to the gallows at Tyburn near Marble Arch.
Spectators drunkenly jeered at prisoners as they carted along the road, by about 1729, the road had become known as Oxford Street. The street began to be redeveloped in the 18th century after many of the fields were purchased by the Earl of Oxford. In 1739, local gardener Thomas Huddle began to build property on the north side, John Rocques Map of London, published in 1746, shows urban buildings as far as North Audley Street, but only intermittent rural property thereafter. Buildings began to be erected on the corner of Oxford Street, further development along the street occurred between 1763 and 1793
Northumberland Avenue is a street in the City of Westminster, Central London, running from Trafalgar Square in the west to the Thames Embankment in the east. The road was built on the site of Northumberland House, the London home of the Percy family, when built, the street was designed for luxury accommodation, including the seven-storey Grand Hotel, the Victoria and the Metropole. The Playhouse Theatre opened in 1882 and become a significant venue in London, the street has been commemorated in the Sherlock Holmes novels including The Hound of the Baskervilles, and is a square on the British Monopoly board. The street is around 0.2 miles long and part of the A400 and it runs from Trafalgar Square eastwards towards the Thames Embankment. At the eastern end are the Whitehall Gardens and the Golden Jubilee Bridges over the River Thames, the nearest bus route is London Bus Route 91 and the nearest tube stations are Charing Cross and Embankment. The area which is now occupied by Northumberland Avenue was originally called Hartshorn Lane and it was formed around 1491 after the Abbott of Westminster granted land to the grocer, Thomas Walker, including an inn known as the Christopher and stables.
The land was sold to Humfrey Cooke in 1516, to John Russell in 1531, in 1546, it was sold back to Henry VIII. The estate became the property of Algernon Percy, 10th Earl of Northumberland when he married Howards great-great niece, Lady Elizabeth, in 1642, in turn, the street was named Northumberland Street. The house was damaged in the Wilkes election riots of 1768, by the 18th century, Northumberland Street was primarily used as a thoroughfare between markets in the West End of London and the wharfs along the Thames. In 1720, historian John Strype wrote that Northumberland Street was much clogged and pestered with Carts repairing to the Wharfs, in June 1874, the whole of Northumberland House was purchased by the Metropolitan Board of Works and demolished to form Northumberland Avenue, which would accommodate hotels. Contemporary planning permissions forbade hotels to be taller than the width of the road they were on, part of the parallel Northumberland Street was demolished in order to make way for the avenues eastern end.
The street was open by 1876, the hotels were popular for American visitors as they were near to the West End, government buildings on Whitehall and all the mainline stations. By the 1930s, accommodation on Park Lane and Piccadilly was more popular, the seven floor Grand Hotel at No.8 became a retail headquarters. It is now a venue for corporations including Marks & Spencer. The venue is the first in Europe to install amBX lighting, other buildings include the Nigerian High Commission at No.9 and a London School of Economics halls of residence. The Playhouse Theatre on Northumberland Avenue was built by Sefton Parry, george Alexander produced his first play here. In 1905, the theatre was destroyed after part of Charing Cross Station fell on it, alec Guinness first performed on stage at the theatre. It was used for BBC broadcasts from 1951 to 1975, broadcasting radio comedies such as The Goon Show, the Grand Hotel was built between 1882 and 1887
Book trade in the United Kingdom
Book retailers such as the Borders Group have failed to adjust to these changes, thus there has been a steep decline in the number of operating traditional and independent bookshops. However, still heavily influential on the trade globally, British publishers such as Penguin Books and Pearson remain dominant players within the industry and continue to publish titles gloablly. By the early 15th century the majority of those engaged in these activities were situated in London, by the 20th century, as literacy became increasingly universal within society and disposable income increased, publishers were faced with new opportunities. Technology has extensively affected developments within the publishing industry, bookshops have begun to decline over the years, with just over 73 closures in 2013 alone, the UK lost 7% of its remaining Independent book stores. The number of independent book shops has now fell below 1,000 whilst even bigger booksellers such as Borders went into liquidation, in 2013 the publishing contributed to the UK creative economy with 231,000 jobs that had an almost equal split between men and women.
From 2014, brick and mortar shops have been performing better, seeing a light at the end of the Recession period and it is not a question of either physical or digital winning out, but rather of the sector coalescing around a balanced marketplace where all formats have place. While publishing has been efficient and effective in its adaptation, the driver of the evolution is of course the reader. What the 21st-century consumer desires above all is choice, as long as publishers can give readers the option of paper or screen, the market will - and is - taking care of itself. The ebook is no more a challenge to the lifespan of paper than television is to the theatre, bookselling List of bookstore chains#United Kingdom
From Piccadilly Circus to Cambridge Circus it is in the City of Westminster, and from Cambridge Circus to New Oxford Street it is in the London Borough of Camden. Charles Booths Poverty Map shows the neighbourhood makeup shortly after Shaftesbury Avenue opened, at the intersection of Shaftesbury Avenue and Charing Cross Road there is the large Palace Theatre. Finally, the end of the road has another large theatre. The former Saville Theatre is on Shaftesbury Avenue, this became a cinema in 1970, first known as ABC1 and ABC2, another cinema, the Soho Curzon, is located about halfway along the street. Shaftesbury Avenue is a boundary of Londons Chinatown, the number of Chinese businesses on the street has been on the increase. Cat Stevens was born in Shaftesbury Avenue, Shaftesbury Avenue was a film location for, and is mentioned in, Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows – Part 1. The street is mentioned in the Dire Straits song Wild West End, the Momus song Shaftesbury Avenue, a Shaftesbury Avenue road sign is seen on the wall in Edd Chinas workshop in early episodes of Wheeler Dealers.
In the film 28 Days Later the protagonist Jim, a courier, was riding a package from Farringdon to Shaftesbury Avenue. The consequent accident was the cause of his coma, from which he awoke 28 days later. The 2015 graphic novel trilogy Suffrajitsu, Mrs. Pankhursts Amazons includes several scenes set in Shaftesbury Avenue, in particular at the Bartitsu Club, which was historically based at no.67
Anna Maria Louisa Italiano, known professionally as Anne Bancroft, was an American actress associated with the method acting school, having studied under Lee Strasberg. Respected for her acting prowess and versatility, Bancroft was acknowledged for her work in film and she won one Academy Award, three BAFTA Awards, two Golden Globes, two Tony Awards and two Emmy Awards, and several other awards and nominations. She won both an Oscar for her work in the film, and a Tony for the role in the play. On Broadway in 1965, she played a medieval nun obsessed with a priest in John Whitings play The Devils and she was perhaps best known as the seductress, Mrs. Robinson, in The Graduate, a role that she stated had come to overshadow her other work. Bancroft received several other Oscar nominations and continued in lead roles until the late 1980s, in 1987, she starred with Anthony Hopkins in 84 Charing Cross Road. In the 1990s she returned to supporting roles in films, and she received Emmy and Screen Actors Guild Award nominations, for The Roman Spring of Mrs.
Stone, as well as an Emmy nomination for 2001s Haven. Bancroft was born Anna Maria Louisa Italiano in the Bronx, New York, Bancrofts parents were both children of Italian immigrants. In an interview, she stated her family was originally from Muro Lucano and she was raised in the Belmont neighborhood of the Bronx, moving to 1580 Zerega Ave. and graduated from Christopher Columbus High School in 1948. She attended HB Studio, the American Academy of Dramatic Arts, the Actors Studio, after appearing in a number of live television dramas under the name Anne Marno, she was told to change her surname for her film debut in Dont Bother to Knock. In 1958, Bancroft made her Broadway debut as lovelorn, Bronx-accented Gittel Mosca opposite Henry Fonda in William Gibsons two-character play Two for the Seesaw, for Gittel, she won the Tony Award for Best Performance by a Featured Actress in a Play. She took the role to Hollywood, and won the Academy Award for Best Actress. She had returned to Broadway to star in Mother Courage and Her Children, so Joan Crawford accepted Bancrofts Oscar on her behalf, Bancroft is one of the few actors to have won an Academy Award and a Tony Award for the same role.
Bancroft co-starred as a medieval nun obsessed with a priest in the 1965 Broadway production of John Whitings play The Devils, produced by Alexander H. Cohen and directed by Michael Cacoyannis, it ran for 63 performances. Bancroft received a second Academy Award nomination in 1965 for her performance in The Pumpkin Eater and her best-known role during this period was Mrs. Robinson in The Graduate, for which she received a third Academy Award nomination. In the film, she played a married woman who seduces a family friend. In the movie, Hoffmans character dates and falls in love with her daughter, Bancroft was ambivalent about her appearance in The Graduate, she stated in several interviews that the role overshadowed all of her other work. Despite her character becoming an archetype of the older woman role, a CBS television special, the Women in the Life of a Man, won Bancroft an Emmy Award for her singing and acting. Bancroft is one of few entertainers to win an Oscar, an Emmy
Borough Market is a wholesale and retail food market in Southwark, Central London, England. It is one of the largest and oldest food markets in London, in 2014, it celebrated its 1, 000th birthday. The retail market operates on Wednesdays and Thursdays from 10am to 5pm, Fridays from 10am to 6pm, the wholesale market operates on all weekday mornings from 2 a. m. to 8 a. m. It was first mentioned in 1276, although the market itself claims to have existed since 1014, the City of London received a royal charter from Edward VI in 1550 to control all markets in Southwark, which was confirmed by Charles II in 1671. However, the market caused traffic congestion that, in 1754. The Act allowed for the parishioners to set up another market on a new site. During the 19th century, it one of Londons most important food markets due to its strategic position near the riverside wharves of the Pool of London. The present buildings were designed in 1851, with additions in the 1860s, work to date includes the re-erection in 2004 of the South Portico from the Floral Hall, previously at Covent Garden, which was dismantled when the Royal Opera House was reconstructed in the 1990s.
The original Convent Garden building was listed and the portico was Grade II listed in 2008. The present-day market mainly sells speciality foods to the general public, however, in the 20th century, it was essentially a wholesale market, selling produce in quantity to greengrocers. It was the supplier, along with Covent Garden, of fruits. Amongst the notable businesses trading in the market were Vitacress, Lee Brothers, Manny Sugarman, Eddy Robbins, Verde, AW Bourne and Elsey, JO Sims, the main importer for South African citrus fruit, were located in the market. Stallholders come to trade at the market from different parts of the UK, amongst the produce on sale are fresh fruit and vegetables, meat and freshly baked bread and pastries. There is a variety of street food on sale for lunchtime visitors who flock to the market. The market is a charitable trust administered by a board of volunteer trustees, small traders are supported to meet these standards. Borough Market has become a place to buy food.
It has been promoted by British television chefs and has used as a film set. Notable films with scenes filmed in the streets around the market include, Bridget Joness Diary, Lock and Two Smoking Barrels and Harry Potter and it appeared in the Savage Garden music video for Hold Me
Piccadilly Circus is a road junction and public space of Londons West End in the City of Westminster, built in 1819 to connect Regent Street with Piccadilly. In this context, a circus, from the Latin word meaning circle, is an open space at a street junction. Piccadilly now links directly to the theatres on Shaftesbury Avenue, as well as the Haymarket, Coventry Street, the Circus is close to major shopping and entertainment areas in the West End. Its status as a traffic junction has made Piccadilly Circus a busy meeting place. It is surrounded by several buildings, including the London Pavilion and Criterion Theatre. Directly underneath the plaza is Piccadilly Circus tube station, part of the London Underground system, the street was known as Portugal Street in 1692 in honour of Catherine of Braganza, the queen consort of King Charles II of England but was known as Piccadilly by 1743. Piccadilly Circus was created in 1819, at the junction with Regent Street, around 1858 it was briefly known as Regents Circus.
The circus lost its form in 1886 with the construction of Shaftesbury Avenue. The junction has been a busy traffic interchange since construction, as it lies at the centre of Theatreland and handles exit traffic from Piccadilly. The Piccadilly Circus tube station was opened 10 March 1906, on the Bakerloo line, in 1928, the station was extensively rebuilt to handle an increase in traffic. The junctions first electric advertisements appeared in 1910, from 1923, traffic lights were first installed on 3 August 1926. During World War II many servicemens clubs in the West End served American soldiers based in Britain, at the start of the 1960s, it was determined that the Circus needed to be redeveloped to allow for greater traffic flow. This concept was kept throughout the rest of the 1960s. A final scheme in 1972 proposed three octagonal towers to replace the Trocadero, the Criterion and the Monico buildings. The plans were rejected by Sir Keith Joseph and Ernest Marples, the key reason given was that Holfords scheme only allowed for a 20% increase in traffic.
Piccadilly Circus has since escaped major redevelopment, apart from extensive ground-level pedestrianisation around its side in the 1980s. The Shaftesbury Memorial Fountain in Piccadilly Circus was erected in 1893 to commemorate the works of Anthony Ashley Cooper. During the Second World War, the statue atop the Shaftesbury Memorial Fountain was removed and was replaced by advertising hoardings, Piccadilly Circus is surrounded by several major tourist attractions, including the Shaftesbury Memorial, Criterion Theatre, London Pavilion and several major retail stores
New York City
The City of New York, often called New York City or simply New York, is the most populous city in the United States. With an estimated 2015 population of 8,550,405 distributed over an area of about 302.6 square miles. Located at the tip of the state of New York. Home to the headquarters of the United Nations, New York is an important center for international diplomacy and has described as the cultural and financial capital of the world. Situated on one of the worlds largest natural harbors, New York City consists of five boroughs, the five boroughs – Brooklyn, Manhattan, The Bronx, and Staten Island – were consolidated into a single city in 1898. In 2013, the MSA produced a gross metropolitan product of nearly US$1.39 trillion, in 2012, the CSA generated a GMP of over US$1.55 trillion. NYCs MSA and CSA GDP are higher than all but 11 and 12 countries, New York City traces its origin to its 1624 founding in Lower Manhattan as a trading post by colonists of the Dutch Republic and was named New Amsterdam in 1626.
The city and its surroundings came under English control in 1664 and were renamed New York after King Charles II of England granted the lands to his brother, New York served as the capital of the United States from 1785 until 1790. It has been the countrys largest city since 1790, the Statue of Liberty greeted millions of immigrants as they came to the Americas by ship in the late 19th and early 20th centuries and is a symbol of the United States and its democracy. In the 21st century, New York has emerged as a node of creativity and entrepreneurship, social tolerance. Several sources have ranked New York the most photographed city in the world, the names of many of the citys bridges, tapered skyscrapers, and parks are known around the world. Manhattans real estate market is among the most expensive in the world, Manhattans Chinatown incorporates the highest concentration of Chinese people in the Western Hemisphere, with multiple signature Chinatowns developing across the city. Providing continuous 24/7 service, the New York City Subway is one of the most extensive metro systems worldwide, with 472 stations in operation.
Over 120 colleges and universities are located in New York City, including Columbia University, New York University, and Rockefeller University, during the Wisconsinan glaciation, the New York City region was situated at the edge of a large ice sheet over 1,000 feet in depth. The ice sheet scraped away large amounts of soil, leaving the bedrock that serves as the foundation for much of New York City today. Later on, movement of the ice sheet would contribute to the separation of what are now Long Island and Staten Island. The first documented visit by a European was in 1524 by Giovanni da Verrazzano, a Florentine explorer in the service of the French crown and he claimed the area for France and named it Nouvelle Angoulême. Heavy ice kept him from further exploration, and he returned to Spain in August and he proceeded to sail up what the Dutch would name the North River, named first by Hudson as the Mauritius after Maurice, Prince of Orange
Bookselling is the commercial trading of books, the retail and distribution end of the publishing process. People who engage in bookselling are called booksellers, bookwomen, or bookmen, the founding of libraries in 300 BC stimulated the energies of the Athenian booksellers. In Rome, toward the end of the republic, it became the fashion to have a library, and Roman booksellers carried on a flourishing trade. The spread of Christianity naturally created a demand for copies of the Gospels, other sacred books. The modern system of bookselling dates from soon after the introduction of printing, in the course of the 16th and 17th centuries the Low Countries for a time became the chief centre of the bookselling world. Modern book selling has changed dramatically with the advent of the Internet, with major websites such as Amazon, eBay, and other big book distributors offering affiliate programs, book sales have now, more than ever, been put in the hands of the small business owner. Bookstores may be part of a chain, or local independent bookstores.
Stores can range in size offering from several hundred to several hundred thousands of titles and they may be brick-and-mortar stores or internet only stores or a combination of both. Sizes for the larger bookstores exceed half a million titles, bookstores often sell other printed matter besides books, such as newspapers and maps, additional product lines may vary enormously, particularly among independent bookstores. Another common type of bookstore is the used bookstore or second-hand bookshop which buys and sells used, a range of titles are available in used bookstores, including in print and out of print books. Book collectors tend to frequent used book stores, large online bookstores offer used books for sale, too. In the book of Jeremiah the prophet is represented as dictating to Baruch the scribe and these scribes were the earliest booksellers, and supplied copies as they were demanded. Aristotle possessed an extensive library, and Plato is recorded to have paid the large sum of one hundred minae for three small treatises of Philolaus the Pythagorean.
When the Alexandrian library was founded about 300 BC, various expedients were used for the purpose of procuring books, in Rome, toward the end of the republic, it became the fashion to have a library as part of the household furniture. Roman booksellers carried on a flourishing trade and their shops were chiefly in the Argiletum, and in the Vicus Sandalarius. On the door, or on the posts, was a list of the books on sale, and Martial. In the time of Augustus the great booksellers were the Sosii, according to Justinian, a law was passed granting to the scribes the ownership of the material written, this may be the beginnings of the modern law of copyright. All references had to be certified by the local mayor, if the application was accepted, the bookseller would have to swear an oath of loyalty to the régime
Harry Potter is a series of fantasy novels written by British author J. K. Rowling. The novels chronicle the life of a wizard, Harry Potter. Since the release of the first novel, Harry Potter and the Philosophers Stone, on 26 June 1997, the series has now been translated into multiple languages including French, Spanish and Swedish to name a few. They have attracted a wide audience as well as younger readers. The series has had its share of criticism, including concern about the dark tone as the series progressed, as well as the often gruesome. As of May 2013, the books have more than 500 million copies worldwide, making them the best-selling book series in history. The series was published in English by two major publishers, Bloomsbury in the United Kingdom and Scholastic Press in the United States. The original seven books were adapted into a film series by Warner Bros. Pictures, which has become the second highest-grossing film series of all time as of August 2015, in 2016, the total value of the Harry Potter franchise was estimated at $25 billion, making Harry Potter one of the highest-grossing media franchises of all time.
A series of genres, including fantasy, coming of age and the British school story. According to Rowling, the theme is death. Other major themes in the series include prejudice, Rowling updates the series with new information and insight, and a pentalogy of spin-off films premiering in November 2016, among many other developments. Most recently, themed attractions, collectively known as The Wizarding World of Harry Potter, have built at several Universal Parks & Resorts amusement parks around the world. The wizarding world exists parallel to the Muggle world, albeit hidden and his magical ability is inborn and children with such abilities are invited to attend exclusive magic schools that teach the necessary skills to succeed in the wizarding world. Harry becomes a student at Hogwarts School of Witchcraft and Wizardry, each novel chronicles one year in Harrys life during the period from 1991 to 1998. The books contain many flashbacks, which are experienced by Harry viewing the memories of other characters in a device called a Pensieve.
The environment Rowling created is intimately connected to reality, the full background to this event and Harry Potters past is revealed gradually through the series. After the introductory chapter, the book leaps forward to a time shortly before Harry Potters eleventh birthday, Harrys first contact with the wizarding world is through a half-giant, Rubeus Hagrid, Keeper of Keys and Grounds at Hogwarts
Bloomsbury is an area of the London Borough of Camden, between Euston Road and Holborn. It was developed by the Russell family in the 17th and 18th centuries into a residential area. It is notable for its garden squares, literary connections, and numerous cultural, Bloomsbury Square was laid out in 1660 by Thomas Wriothesley, 4th Earl of Southampton. Much of the district was planned and built by James Burton and it is home to the University of Law and New College of the Humanities. London Contemporary Dance School and the Royal Academy of Dramatic Art and are located in the area. Bloomsbury is in the constituency of Holborn and St Pancras. The western half of the district comprises Bloomsbury ward, which three councillors to Camden Borough Council. The earliest record of what would become Bloomsbury is in the 1086 Domesday Book, but it is not until 1201 that the name Bloomsbury is first noted, when William de Blemond, a Norman landowner, acquired the land. The name Bloomsbury is a development from Blemondisberi – the bury, or manor, at the end of the 14th century, Edward III acquired Blemonds manor, and passed it on to the Carthusian monks of the London Charterhouse, who kept the area mostly rural.
In the 16th century with the Dissolution of the Monasteries, Henry VIII took the back into the possession of the Crown and granted it to Thomas Wriothesley. In the early 1660s, the Earl of Southampton constructed what eventually became Bloomsbury Square, the Yorkshire Grey public house on the corner of Grays Inn Road and Theobalds Road dates from 1676. The area was laid out mainly in the 18th century, largely by landowners such as Wriothesley Russell, 3rd Duke of Bedford, who built Bloomsbury Market, William de Blemond in the 13th century, a Norman, was the first landowner. Edward III acquired Blemonds manor, and passed it on to the Carthusian monks who governed it until Henry VIII granted it to the Earl of Southampton, the Russell family became landowners in the 18th century. The area lay within the parishes of St Giles in the Fields and St Georges, Bloomsbury and it is now controlled by the London Borough of Camden and part of the district is contained within the Bloomsbury ward. The district is situated in the constituency of Holborn and St Pancras.
Bloomsbury merges gradually with Holborn in the south, with St Pancras and Kings Cross in the north-east, the road runs from Euston and Somers Town in the north to Holborn in the south. East of Southampton Row/Woburn Place are the Grade II listed Brunswick Centre, a residential and shopping centre, the area west of Southampton Row/Woburn Place is notable for its concentration of academic establishments and formal squares. Bloomsbury contains some of Londons finest parks and buildings, and is known for its formal squares