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Charitable organization

A charitable organization or charity is a non-profit organization whose primary objectives are philanthropy and social well-being. The legal definition of a charitable organization varies between countries and in some instances regions of the country; the regulation, the tax treatment, the way in which charity law affects charitable organizations vary. Charitable organizations may not use any of its funds to profit individual entities. Financial figures are indicators to assess the financial sustainability of a charity to charity evaluators; this information can impact a charity's reputation with donors and societies, thus the charity's financial gains. Charitable organizations depend on donations from businesses; such donations to charitable organizations represent a major form of corporate philanthropy. In order to meet the exempt organizational test requirements, it has to be organized and operated. In order to receive and pass the exemption test, charitable organization must follow the public interest and all exempt income should be for the public interest.

For example, in many countries of the Commonwealth, charitable organizations must demonstrate that they provide a public benefit. Until the mid-18th century, charity was distributed through religious structures and bequests from the rich. Both Christianity and Islam incorporated significant charitable elements from their beginnings and dāna has a long tradition in Hinduism, Jainism and Sikhism. Charities provided education, health and prisons. Almshouses were established throughout Europe in the Early Middle Ages to provide a place of residence for poor and distressed people. In the Enlightenment era charitable and philanthropic activity among voluntary associations and rich benefactors became a widespread cultural practice. Societies, gentleman's clubs, mutual associations began to flourish in England, the upper-classes adopted a philanthropic attitude toward the disadvantaged. In England this new social activism was channeled into the establishment of charitable organizations; this emerging upper-class fashion for benevolence resulted in the incorporation of the first charitable organizations.

Captain Thomas Coram, appalled by the number of abandoned children living on the streets of London, set up the Foundling Hospital in 1741 to look after these unwanted orphans in Lamb's Conduit Fields, Bloomsbury. This, the first such charity in the world, served as the precedent for incorporated associational charities in general. Jonas Hanway, another notable philanthropist of the Enlightenment era, established The Marine Society in 1756 as the first seafarer's charity, in a bid to aid the recruitment of men to the navy. By 1763 the Society had recruited over 10,000 men. Hanway was instrumental in establishing the Magdalen Hospital to rehabilitate prostitutes; these organizations were run as voluntary associations. They raised public awareness of their activities through the emerging popular press and were held in high social regard - some charities received state recognition in the form of the royal charter. Charities began to adopt campaigning roles, where they would champion a cause and lobby the government for legislative change.

This included organized campaigns against the ill treatment of animals and children and the campaign that succeeded at the turn of the 19th century in ending the slave trade throughout the British Empire and within its considerable sphere of influence. The Enlightenment saw growing philosophical debate between those who championed state intervention and those who believed that private charities should provide welfare; the Reverend Thomas Malthus, the political economist, criticized poor relief for paupers on economic and moral grounds and proposed leaving charity to the private sector. His views became influential and informed the Victorian laissez-faire attitude toward state intervention for the poor. During the 19th century a profusion of charitable organizations emerged to alleviate the awful conditions of the working class in the slums; the Labourer's Friend Society, chaired by Lord Shaftesbury in the United Kingdom in 1830, aimed to improve working-class conditions. It promoted, for example, the allotment of land to labourers for "cottage husbandry" that became the allotment movement.

In 1844 it became the first Model Dwellings Company - one of a group of organizations that sought to improve the housing conditions of the working classes by building new homes for them, at the same time receiving a competitive rate of return on any investment. This was one of the first housing associations, a philanthropic endeavour that flourished in the second half of the nineteenth century brought about by the growth of the middle class. Associations included the Peabody Trust and the Guinness Trust; the principle of philanthropic intention with capitalist return was given the label "five per cent philanthropy". There was strong growth in municipal charities; the Brougham Commission led on to the Municipal Corporations Act 1835, which reorganized multiple local

Erick Neres da Cruz

Erick Neres da Cruz is a Brazilian professional footballer, who plays for Olhanense as a midfielder. Born in Ilha Solteira, São Paulo, Erick played one season with Ituano Futebol Clube for one season before signing for G. D. Estoril Praia of the Segunda Liga in Portugal. While with Estoril, Erick played in 48 leagues matches while scoring 1 goal. During the 2011–12 season Erick helped Estoril to promotion to the Primeira Liga. After the season ended Erick signed for Portimonense who played in the Segunda Liga. During his only season with the club Erick scored 2 goals in 25 games as he helped the club to a sixth-place finish. On 5 July 2013 it was announced; the club declined the option on Erick after the season. On 17 March 2015 it was announced that Erick had signed with Harrisburg City Islanders of United Soccer League; as of 5 July 2013 Segunda Liga Champion: 2011–12

Battle of Summit Springs

The Battle of Summit Springs, on July 11, 1869, was an armed conflict between elements of the United States Army under the command of Colonel Eugene A. Carr and a group of Cheyenne Dog Soldiers led by Tall Bull, killed during the engagement; the US forces were assigned to retaliate for a series of raids in north-central Kansas by Chief Tall Bull's Dog Soldiers band of the Cheyenne. The battle happened south of Sterling, Colorado in Washington County near the Logan/Washington county line. After Pawnee Scouts under Major Frank North led his command to Tall Bull's village, Colonel Carr, a veteran campaigner known as "The Black-Bearded Cossack", deployed his forces so that they hit the unsuspecting camp from three sides at once, he had 244 men of the 5th United States Regiment of 50 Pawnee Scouts. Captain Luther North of the Pawnee Scout Battalion related this incident in the book Man of the Plains: About a half mile from and off to one side from our line, a Cheyenne boy was herding horses, he was about fifteen years old and we were close to him before he saw us.

He jumped on his horse and gathered up his herd and drove them into the village ahead of our men, who were shooting at him. He was mounted on a good horse and could have gotten away if he had left his herd, but he took them all in ahead of him at the edge of the village he turned and joined a band of warriors that were trying to hold us back, while the women and children were getting away, there he died like a warrior. No braver man existed than that 15 year old boy. Major Frank North saw an Indian rise from take aim at him, he killed the man, who turned out to be Chief Tall Bull. Meanwhile, the Pawnee surrounded 20 Cheyenne warriors. Armed only with bows and arrows, the Cheyenne kept their attackers at bay until their arrows ran out, whereupon the Pawnees moved in and killed them all. According to the anthropologist George Bird Grinnell, in addition to Tall Bull and the twenty men in the ravine, nine other people were killed by members of the Pawnee Scout Battalion: two warriors. Grinnell noted only four victims who were not attributed to the Pawnee Scout Battalion: the wife, mother-in-law and two young children of a man named Red Cherries.

Grinnell and Donald J. Berthrong identified 23 warriors, one fifteen-year-old boy, five women and two children killed by members of the Pawnee Scout Battalion, two women and two children whose killers are not specified; this gives a total of 35 people killed. It appears that, although the 5th Cavalrymen had the greater number of participants, the Pawnees were more successful in the killing. One Cheyenne escaped on Tall Bull's distinctive white horse, he was shot off it by Scout William Cody in a skirmish the next day, leading Cody to believe that he had killed Tall Bull. In his biography of Luther North, Grinnell footnoted this event, saying: William Cody claimed he had killed Tall Bull and Cody's protagonists have stated that Luther North's account of the shooting was an invention. However, while Frank was a partner with Cody in the cattle business, he related the story of the shooting in detail as Luther recollected it. Carr claimed that 52 Indians had been killed. Seventeen women and children mules.

One white woman captive, Susanna Alderdice, was killed and another, Maria Weichell, was wounded. List of battles fought in Colorado Berthrong, Donald J.. The Southern Cheyennes. Norman, OK: University of Oklahoma Press. Grinnell, George Bird; the Fighting Cheyennes. Norman, OK: University of Oklahoma Press. Michno, Gregory F.. Encyclopedia of Indian Wars: Western Battles and Skirmishes, 1850-1890. Missoula, MT: Mountain Press Publishing Company. ISBN 0-87842-468-7. North, Luther. Man of the Plains: Recollections of Luther North. Pioneer Heritage Series Vol. VI. Norman, OK: University of Oklahoma Press. Summit Springs Battlefield

MC Shy D

Peter Jones, professionally known by his stage name MC Shy D, is an American rapper and producer from the Bronx, New York. He was signed with Luke Skyywalker Records and released two albums, Got to Be Tough and Comin' Correct in 88, through the label from 1987 to 1988, he released his third album, Don't Sweat Me, in 1990 via On Top Records and Benz Records, his fourth album, The Comeback, in 1993 via Wrap Records. In 1996, Jones released his fifth studio album, featuring DJ Smurf under Benz Records, his sixth and recent album, Against The Odds, was released in 1999 with Charlotte'Tha Rhythum' Crooms via Benz Records. He is a cousin of Afrika Bambaataa. Studio albums

Miles Robbins

Miles Guthrie Tomalin Robbins is an American musician and actor. Miles Guthrie Tomalin Robbins was born on May 1992 in New York City, he studied documentary film and music production at Brown University for three years but left before graduation. He is the son of the actors Tim Robbins and Susan Sarandon, his half-sister is the actress Eva Amurri, his older brother is the director Jack Henry Robbins. While he has publicly worn dresses, Robbins identifies as heterosexual. Robbins has worked as a disc jockey. In his current psychedelic pop band called the'Pow Pow Family Band', Robbins performed as a character called Millie, a "disgruntled housewife" with an affinity for dresses and red lipstick. In The X-Files, Robbins played the teenage son of Dana Scully and Fox Mulder. Robbins had small roles in My Friend Dahmer, Mozart in the Jungle, as Dee Dee Ramone in The Get Down. In the Kay Cannon directed Blockers, Robbins played Connor known as'The Chef', the prom date of Geraldine Viswanathan who played the daughter of John Cena.

Robbins appeared in a sequel to the 1978 film of the same name. He has upcoming roles in a film adaptation of Taipei by Tao Lin, the Chris Morris production The Day Shall Come, filmed in the Dominican Republic with Anna Kendrick. Miles Robbins on IMDb

Emmet McDermott

Sir Emmet McDermott KBE was an Australian dentist and Lord Mayor of Sydney between 1969 and 1972. Emmet McDermott was born in the sixth of ten children. Educated at St Ignatius' College and the University of Sydney where he graduated in dentistry, he earned a doctorate of dentistry from Northwestern University in Chicago. McDermott was Consultant Dental Surgeon at the Royal Prince Alfred Hospital from 1942 and worked at the Sydney Dental Hospital, he was the President of the Australian Dental Association from 1960 to 1961 and became a Fellow of the International College of Dentists and the Royal Australasian College of Dental Surgeons. Joining the Civic Reform Association, he was elected to the Council of the City of Sydney in 1962, becoming Lord Mayor in 1969; as Lord Mayor, he was instrumental in the preservation of the historic Queen Victoria Building and the conversion of Martin Place into a pedestrian mall. In the 1972 New Year Honours he was made a Knight Commander of the Order of the British Empire in the civil division.

Sir Emmet McDermott died in 2002 age 90. He is survived by his son and daughter from his first marriage, his second wife