Charles-Fran├žois Lebrun

Charles-François Lebrun, 1st duc de Plaisance, was a French statesman who served as Third Consul of the French Republic and was created Arch-Treasurer and Prince of the Empire by Napoleon I. Born in Saint-Sauveur-Lendelin, after studies of philosophy at the Collège de Navarre, he started his career during the Ancien Régime, making his first appearance as a lawyer in Paris in 1762, he filled the posts of censeur du Roi and Inspector General of the Domains of the Crown. During the early 1760s, Lebrun became a disciple of Montesquieu and an admirer of the British Constitution, travelling through Southern Netherlands, the Dutch Republic, to the Kingdom of Great Britain, he became one of Chancellor René Nicolas de Maupéou's chief advisers, taking part in his struggle against the parlements and sharing his downfall in 1774. Lebrun devoted himself to literature, translating Torquato Tasso's Jerusalem Delivered and the Iliad, he retreated from public life to his property in Grillon, attempting to live a life as envisaged by the philosophe Jean-Jacques Rousseau.

During the cabinet of Jacques Necker, he was consulted on several occasions, but never appointed to high office. At the outbreak of the French Revolution in 1789, he foresaw its importance in his volume La voix du Citoyen, published the same year, predicted the course which events would take. In the Estates-General and in the National Constituent Assembly, where he sat as deputy for the Third Estate in the bailiwick of Dourdan, he professed Liberalism and proposed various financial laws, without affiliating to any particular faction. A partisan of constitutional monarchy after King Louis XVI's flight to Varennes, he became the target for the suspicions of the Jacobin Club. After the voting of the 1791 Constitution, he was ineligible for the Legislative Assembly, became instead president of the directory of Seine-et-Oise département. Lebrun retired from this position on 7 August 1792, again retired to Dourdan. Three days the storming of the Tuileries Palace signalled the move towards the establishment of the French Republic by the creation of the National Convention.

Lebrun further aroused the indignation of republicans when he accepted to represent Dourdan in the electoral college of Seine-et-Oise which nominated deputies to the Convention. A suspect during the Reign of Terror, he was twice arrested: the first time in September 1793, liberated after the intervention of Joseph Augustin Crassous. In 1795, Lebrun was elected as a deputy to the French Directory's Council of Ancients and, although a supporter of the House of Bourbon, he voted against prosecutions of Jacobins, showed himself in favour of national reconciliation. Lebrun was made Third Consul following Napoleon Bonaparte's 18 Brumaire coup in the Year VIII. In this capacity, he took an active part in Napoleon's reorganization of the national finances and in the administration of France's départements, he was made a member of the Académie des Inscriptions et Belles-Lettres in 1803, in 1804, he was appointed Arch-Treasurer of the French Empire. From 1805 to 1806, he was governor-general of Liguria, during which time he completed its annexation by France.

He opposed Napoleon's restoration of the noblesse and, in 1808, only reluctantly accepted the title of duc de Plaisance, a rare, but hereditary duché grand-fief, extinguished in 1926. From 1811 to 1813, he served as governor-general of a part of the annexed Netherlands, reorganizing its départements - Zuyderzée and Bouches-de-la-Meuse, he was assisted by Goswin de Stassart. Although to a certain extent opposed to the autocracy of the Emperor, he was not in favor of his deposition, although he accepted the fait accompli of the Bourbon Restoration in April 1814. Louis XVIII made him a Peer of France, but during the subsequent Hundred Days, he accepted from Napoleon the post of grand maître de l'Université; as a consequence, he was suspended from the House of Peers when the Bourbons returned again in 1815, but was recalled in 1819. He died five years in Sainte-Mesme; this article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Lebrun, Charles François". Encyclopædia Britannica.

16. Cambridge University Press. P. 352. Endnotes: Auguste-Armand de la Force, L'Architrésorier Lebrun M. Marie du Mesnil, Memoire sur le prince Le Brun, due de Plaisance ed. Anne-Charles Lebrun, rapports et choix d'écrits politiques de C. F. Lebrun

Mirzapur Upazila

Mirzapur is an upazila of Tangail District in the division of Dhaka, Bangladesh. Mirzapur is located at 24.1083°N 90.0917°E / 24.1083. It has 61479 households and a total area of 373.89 km². As of the 1991 Bangladesh census, Mirzapur has a population of 337,496. Males constitute 50.31% of the population, females 49.69%. The number of adults is 178312. Mirzapur has an average literacy rate of 32.9%, as compared to the national average of 32.4% literacy. The main business of the people is agriculture. Rice and jute are the main crops of this area. Other seasonal crops like mustard oil and potatoes are grown here; the rest of the people of the upazila have other occupations in fields including business, public service, private service. A number of NGOs have been working in this area and many local people are linked with the activities of these NGOs. In addition, people from this area receive a large amount of remittance from abroad. At least one member of each family goes abroad. For this reason the economical system is better in this upazila than in other areas.

Nowadays people are changing their fortune by doing the works of agriculture. Mirzapur Upazila has 1 municipality, 14 unions, 207 mauzas/mahallas, 219 villages; the union parishads are: Ajgana Union Anaitara Union Bahuria Union Banail Union Banshtail Union Bhaora Union Bhatgram Union Fatehpur Union Gorai Union Jamurki Union Latifpur Union Mohera Union Tarafpur Union Uarsi Union MP: Md. Akabbar Hossain, from Awami League DC: Fazlur Rahman Farukh Upazila Chairman: Mir Enayet Hossain, from Awami League Vice Chairman: Azharul Islam Azahar, from Awami League Woman Vice Chairman: Ms. Salma Salam from Awami League Upazila Nirbahi Officer: Md. Mahmudul HassanThere are some political leaders such as Fazlur Rahman Farukh, Eng. Mridha Nazrul Islam, Sadek Ahmed Khan, Syed Majibar Rahman Peshuary, Mir Sharif mahmud, Abdur Razzak bsc, Kayem Uddin Sharker, Engg. Md. Harun Orrashid. Apart from Jamurki Union, Awamileague has a strong base in every other unions; some organizations of Mirzapur are listed below. Kumudini Hospital was established in 1944 by the philanthropist Ranada Prasad Shaha.

Starting from 20 beds it now has 750 beds with its own full-fledged diagnostic facilities. Apart from indoor and outdoor facilities it has a village outreach program, it has provided treatment to 36,023 patients in indoor services and 2, 36,442 patients in outdoor services in 2010. The hospital used to provide complete free service. However, from 1993 the Trust started a Patient's Participation Program for which the patients are to pay just for their medication; the outdoor patients have to buy a card worth of taka 10.00 only, valid for six months and within this time the patients can utilize all sorts of outdoor facilities with this card. In case of emergency there is a separate arrangement as well; the hospital has its own diagnostic laboratory with all necessary general diagnostic facilities. In addition to diagnostic services this laboratory has, on a rather limited scale and training facilities, it has separate units in medicine, gynae & obs, eye, ENT, pediatrics and dentistry. The hospital has further plans to establish a modern cardiac centre, a modern ICU, a modern nephrology centre, an udgradation centre and a modern trauma centre in the near future.

The hospital units contribute directly to the hands-on teaching of the medical students. Bharateswari Homes is a boarding school for girls located in Mirzapur upazila, Tangail District, Bangladesh; the school was established in 1945 by philanthropist Ranadaprasad Saha. He established the institution for girls' education and named it after his grandmother Bharateswari Devi. Bharateswari Homes is the first residential development in the region; the school introduced higher secondary education in 1962. However, the HSC section closed in 1973, it started again in 1983. In 2013 the school had about 60 teachers. Apart from regular studies, students at the school take active part in cultural activities in physical training; the school is nationally renowned for the unique physical training offered to its students. Each year a Bhatateswari Homes party is invited by the government to perform in the celebrations of national days and national festivals in Dhaka; the school provides education and training in computer literacy and runs an English Language Club, a Science Club, a Debating Club and a unit of the BISWa SAHITYa KENDRA.

In 1997, Bharateswari Homes formed Girls-in-Scout, the largest children's organisation of the country. Mirzapur is the birthplace of the founder of Kumudini Kallayan Trust. Masdai is one of the villages of Mirzapur Upazila, under Warshi Union, it is the birthplace of famous actor and director. Aminur Rahman Laskar, former Chief Engineer of Roads & Highway. Mizanur Rahman Khan, Chief Engineer of Bangladesh Polly Bidduth Unnayan Board, Shamsul Huda Khan, Managing Director of National Bank Limited, Taherul Islam Khan, former Regional Adviser, United Nations Development Program, Solaiman Khan, Deputy Secretary of Health Ministry. Masdai village is famous for football games and has presented some quality football players in the Dhaka first division league. There are high school in the village. Masdai village is a village for education, art culture and professional people in country and abroad. Actor Shaheen Khan and singer Mamun Zahid Khan are from this village. There is an ideal union in Mirzapur named "Bashtail".

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History of AC power plugs and sockets

Plugs and sockets for portable appliances started becoming available in the 1880s. A proliferation of types developed to address the issues of convenience and protection from electric shock. Today there are 20 types in common use around the world, many obsolete socket types are still found in older buildings; when electricity was first introduced into houses in the 1880s, it was used for lighting. One common approach for other appliances was to connect to light bulb sockets using lampholder plugs. However, in Britain, there were recognisable two pin plugs and wall sockets appearing on the market as early as 1885; as electricity became a common method of operating labour-saving appliances, a safe means of connection to the electric system other than using a light socket was needed. Thomas Tayler Smith of London, England received British patent 4162 in 1882 for an "Electric-Circuit Connection" to "enable the electric conductors conveying the current to one or more lamps, or along a flexible cord, to be and safely brought into connection with the line or main wires".

Smith subsequently received US patent 311,616 for the same device in 1885. According to British Author John Mellanby there were British patents for plug and sockets granted to T. T. Smith in 1883 and W. B. Sayers & G. Hookham in 1884. Mellanby writes that there were two-pin designs by 1885, one of which appears in the General Electric Company Ltd. catalogue of 1889. Gustav Binswanger, a German immigrant who founded the General Electric Company Ltd, obtained a patent in 1895 for a plug and socket using a concentric contact system. Several early American electrical plug and socket arrangements were invented by Harvey Hubbell. On 26 February 1903 he filed two patent applications featuring 2-pin plugs and adaptors for using his plugs with existing designs of lamp sockets and wall receptacles. Hubbell's first plug design had two round pins which differed from those in use in Europe in that the tips of the pins had annular detents similar to those of present-day jack plugs to positively retain a plug in its socket.

In one patent, US 774,250 a plug was used with a socket. In the other patent US 776,326 the same type of plug was used with various three-way adaptors that could be connected to lampholders or "a receptacle of any ordinary type". Figures 2 and 4 of this patent show an adaptor plugged into what appears to be a "Chapman" receptacle. Hubbell evidently soon found the round pin design unsatisfactory as a subsequent patent US 774,251 filed on May 27, 1904 shows lampholder adaptors similar to those of his first patent for use with plugs having coplanar flat pins. Hubbell's catalogue of 1906 includes various three-way adaptors similar to those shown in the US 776,326 patent, but modified for use with the coplanar flat pin plugs; the Chapman receptacle must have been in general use at the time, as it was the only type of non-lampholder receptacle for which adaptors were supplied. The 1906 catalogue says of the Chapman adaptor: "The device avoids fastening the cords together as is necessary with the ordinary Chapman plug when used for more than one purpose."

This suggests that Hubbell's original invention was prompted by his observation of the problem that arose with the use of this sort of receptacle and plug. Wall sockets were developed to supplement those that screwed into lampholders. In 1912 Hubbell rotated his tandem pins by 90 degrees to arrive at the parallel flat pin configuration still used today. A feature common to all of Hubbell's patented designs is the provision of detents to retain a plug in its socket; this would have been a desirable feature in the days before wall receptacles became widespread and, for many consumers, the only source of electricity was an electric light socket. Despite Hubbel's objections, other manufacturers adopted the Hubbell pattern and by 1915 the use of Hubbell's configuration was widespread. In 1919 Hubbell unsuccessfully attempted to get an injunction to prevent other manufacturers from making receptacles and plugs to the dimensions used by Hubbell; the report of the court proceedings includes a comprehensive review of the development of the art in the US prior to 1919, based on evidence presented to the Court.

Separable plugs had been available for more than a decade prior to Hubbell's 1904 design. The earliest presented to the court was the "Weston", another type following in 1897. Plugs per se with parallel flat pins, such as the "Fort Wayne" design were in common use by 1886, flush receptacles, such as the "Bryant Electrical Company" design, by 1902. Hubbell had introduced its own parallel flat pin configuration in 1912. In 1915 there were...from 15 to 20 different types of blades and from 15 to 30 different types of receptacles. The line of each was not interchangeable with competing lines..... The existence of both "tandem" and parallel pin configurations had led to the introduction in 1914 of some receptacles having both configurations of slots and others having "T" slots. By 1915, Hubbell had sold about 13 million receptacles and plug bases/caps with tandem slots/pins, about 1.25 million with parallel slots/pins, most of which were still in active use, meaning that Hubbell's configurations were by far the most used.

Following the lead set by the lamp manufacturers in standardising lamp bases, a conference of the plug and receptacle manufacturers, including