Mexico the United Mexican States, is a country in the southern portion of North America. It is bordered to the north by the United States. Covering 2,000,000 square kilometres, the nation is the fifth largest country in the Americas by total area and the 13th largest independent state in the world. With an estimated population of over 120 million people, the country is the eleventh most populous state and the most populous Spanish-speaking state in the world, while being the second most populous nation in Latin America after Brazil. Mexico is a federation comprising 31 states and Mexico City, a special federal entity, the capital city and its most populous city. Other metropolises in the state include Guadalajara, Puebla, Tijuana and León. Pre-Columbian Mexico dates to about 8000 BC and is identified as one of five cradles of civilization and was home to many advanced Mesoamerican civilizations such as the Olmec, Teotihuacan, Zapotec and Aztec before first contact with Europeans. In 1521, the Spanish Empire conquered and colonized the territory from its politically powerful base in Mexico-Tenochtitlan, administered as the viceroyalty of New Spain.
Three centuries the territory became a nation state following its recognition in 1821 after the Mexican War of Independence. The post-independence period was tumultuous, characterized by economic inequality and many contrasting political changes; the Mexican–American War led to a territorial cession of the extant northern territories to the United States. The Pastry War, the Franco-Mexican War, a civil war, two empires, the Porfiriato occurred in the 19th century; the Porfiriato was ended by the start of the Mexican Revolution in 1910, which culminated with the promulgation of the 1917 Constitution and the emergence of the country's current political system as a federal, democratic republic. Mexico has the 11th largest by purchasing power parity; the Mexican economy is linked to those of its 1994 North American Free Trade Agreement partners the United States. In 1994, Mexico became the first Latin American member of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, it is classified as an upper-middle income country by the World Bank and a newly industrialized country by several analysts.
The country is considered both a regional power and a middle power, is identified as an emerging global power. Due to its rich culture and history, Mexico ranks first in the Americas and seventh in the world for number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites. Mexico is an ecologically megadiverse country, ranking fourth in the world for its biodiversity. Mexico receives a huge number of tourists every year: in 2018, it was the sixth most-visited country in the world, with 39 million international arrivals. Mexico is a member of the United Nations, the World Trade Organization, the G8+5, the G20, the Uniting for Consensus group of the UN, the Pacific Alliance trade bloc. Mēxihco is the Nahuatl term for the heartland of the Aztec Empire, namely the Valley of Mexico and surrounding territories, with its people being known as the Mexica, it is believed to be a toponym for the valley which became the primary ethnonym for the Aztec Triple Alliance as a result, although it could have been the other way around.
In the colonial era, back when Mexico was called New Spain this territory became the Intendency of Mexico and after New Spain achieved independence from the Spanish Empire it came to be known as the State of Mexico with the new country being named after its capital: the City of Mexico, which itself was founded in 1524 on top of the ancient Mexica capital of Mexico-Tenochtitlan. Traditionally, the name Tenochtitlan was thought to come from Nahuatl tetl and nōchtli and is thought to mean "Among the prickly pears rocks". However, one attestation in the late 16th-century manuscript known as "the Bancroft dialogues" suggests the second vowel was short, so that the true etymology remains uncertain; the suffix -co is the Nahuatl locative, making the word a place name. Beyond that, the etymology is uncertain, it has been suggested that it is derived from Mextli or Mēxihtli, a secret name for the god of war and patron of the Mexica, Huitzilopochtli, in which case Mēxihco means "place where Huitzilopochtli lives".
Another hypothesis suggests that Mēxihco derives from a portmanteau of the Nahuatl words for "moon" and navel. This meaning might refer to Tenochtitlan's position in the middle of Lake Texcoco; the system of interconnected lakes, of which Texcoco formed the center, had the form of a rabbit, which the Mesoamericans pareidolically associated with the moon rabbit. Still another hypothesis suggests that the word is derived from Mēctli, the name of the goddess of maguey; the name of the city-state was transliterated to Spanish as México with the phonetic value of the letter x in Medieval Spanish, which represented the voiceless postalveolar fricative. This sound, as well as the voiced postalveolar fricative, represented by a j, evolved into a voiceless velar fricative during the 16th century; this led to the use of the variant Méjico in many publications in Spanish, most notably in Spain, whereas in Mexico and most other Spanish–speaking countries, México was the preferred spelling. In recent years, the Real Academia Española, which regulates the Spanish l
Frank H. Buck
Frank Henry Buck was an American heir and politician. He served as U. S. Representative from California from 1933 to 1942. Frank Buck was born on a ranch near Vacaville, California on September 23, 1887, his grandfather, Leonard W. Buck, was the founder of the Buck Company, a fruit-growing company, elected to the California State Senate in 1895, he attended the public schools. He was a member of the Theta Delta Chi fraternity, graduated from the University of California at Berkeley in 1908 and from the law department of Harvard University in 1911, he commenced practice in San Francisco, California. He was involved in business ventures including fruit growing, oil refining, lumber thanks to his inheritance. In 1900, together with Burton E. Green, Charles A. Canfield, Max Whittier, William F. Herrin, Henry E. Huntington, William G. Kerckhoff, W. S. Porter and Frank H. Balch, known as the Amalgated Oil Company, he purchased Rancho Rodeo de las Aguas from Henry Hammel and Andrew H. Denker and renamed it Morocco Junction.
After drilling for oil and only finding water, they reorganized their business into the Rodeo Land and Water Company to develop a new residential town known as Beverly Hills, California. He became the leader of the newly founded California Grower's and Shipper's Protective League, a lobbying organization to protect the rights of fruit and vegetable growers. In 1933, he sold his grandfather's company, to the Pacific Fruit Exchange, he served as delegate to the Democratic National Conventions in 1928, 1936, 1940. In 1932, he was elected as a Democrat to the U. S. House of Representatives, he served in Congress from March 4, 1933 until his death in Washington, D. C. on September 17, 1942. He is credited with naming the Social Security program, he married Zayda Zabriskie in 1911 and they had four children, Frank Henry Buck III, Margaret Ann Buck, Christian Brevoort Zabriskie Buck and Edward Zabriskie Elvis Buck. After they divorced, he married Eva Mathilde Benson in 1926, they had two children, William Benson Buck and Carol Franz Buck.
He died on September 1942, while still in office. He was interred in Vacaville, California, his wife, Eva Benson Buck, founded the Frank H. Buck Scholarship, awarded each year to eight to 16 high school seniors, who have to live in his former congressional district, she was an active philanthropist until her death in 1990. List of United States Congress members who died in office This article incorporates public domain material from the Biographical Directory of the United States Congress website http://bioguide.congress.gov
Henry E. Huntington
Henry Edwards Huntington was an American railroad magnate and collector of art and rare books. Huntington settled in Los Angeles, where he owned the Pacific Electric Railway as well as substantial real estate interests. In addition to being a businessman and art collector, Huntington was a major booster for Los Angeles in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. In the city of San Marino, many places are named after him, including a school, a road and a library. Born in Oneonta, New York, Henry Huntington was the nephew of Collis P. Huntington, one of The Big Four, instrumental in creating the Central Pacific Railroad, one of the two railroads that built the transcontinental railway in 1869. Henry Huntington held several executive positions alongside his uncle with the Southern Pacific. After Collis Huntington's death, Henry Huntington assumed Collis Huntington's leadership role with Newport News Shipbuilding and Drydock Company in Virginia, married his widow Arabella Huntington, his divorce from his first wife Mary Alice Prentice, birth sister of his Uncle Collis' adopted daughter, in 1910 and marriage to Arabella in 1913 after Mary Alice's death shocked San Francisco society.
He had none with Arabella. Arabella's son Archer, from her prior marriage from which she was widowed, had earlier been adopted by Collis Huntington. In 1898, in friendly competition with his uncle's Southern Pacific, Huntington bought the narrow gauge city-oriented Los Angeles Railway, known as the'Yellow Car' system. In 1901, Huntington formed the sprawling interurban, standard gauge Pacific Electric Railway, known as the'Red Car' system, centered at 6th and Main Streets in Los Angeles. Huntington succeeded in this competition by providing passenger friendly streetcars on 24/7 schedules, which the railroads could not match; this was facilitated by the boom in Southern California land development, where housing was built in places such as Orange County's Huntington Beach, a Huntington-sponsored development, streetcars served passenger needs that the railroads had not considered. Connectivity to Downtown Los Angeles made such suburbs feasible. By 1910, the Huntington trolley systems spanned 1,300 miles of southern California.
At its greatest extent, the system contained over 20 streetcar lines and 1,250 trolleys, most running through the core of Los Angeles and serving such nearby neighborhoods as the Crenshaw district, West Adams, Echo Park, Hancock Park, Exposition Park, Boyle Heights and Lincoln Heights. The system integrated the 1902 acquisition, the Mount Lowe Scenic Railway above Altadena, California in the San Gabriel Mountains. In 1905 Huntington, A. Kingsley Macomber, William R. Staats developed the Oak Knoll subdivision, located to the west of his San Marino estate in the oak-covered hilly terrain near Pasadena. In 1906, along with Frank Miller, owner of the Mission Inn, Charles M. Loring, formed the Huntington Park Association, with the intent to purchase Mount Rubidoux in Riverside, build a road to the summit, develop the hill as a park to benefit the city of Riverside; the road was completed in February 1907. The property was donated to the city of Riverside by the heirs of Frank Miller, today the hill is a 161-acre city park.
Huntington was a Life Member of the Sons of the Revolution in the State of California. Huntington retired from business in 1916. In 1927 Henry E. Huntington died in Philadelphia, he and Arabella are buried, with a large monument, in the Gardens of the Huntington Library in San Marino, California. The Huntington Hotel was named Hotel Wentworth when it opened on February 1, 1907. Financial problems and a disappointing first season forced it to close indefinitely. Henry Huntington purchased the Wentworth in 1911, it reopened in 1914, transformed into a winter resort. The 1920s were prosperous for the hotel, as Midwestern and Eastern entrepreneurs discovered California's warm winter climate; the hotel's reputation for fine service began with long-time general manager and owner Stephen W. Royce. By 1926, the hotel's success prompted Royce to open the property year-round; the "golden years" ended with the stock market crash and the Great Depression of the late 1920s and early 1930s. By the end of the 1930s the hotel was vibrant again.
When World War II began, all reservations were cancelled and the hotel was rented to the Army for $3,000 a month. Following the war, the Huntington's fortunes improved again. In 1954 Stephen Royce sold the hotel to the Sheraton Corporation, serving as general manager until his retirement in 1969; the hotel operated until 1985. The structure was built of un-reinforced concrete in 1906. After a two-and-a-half year major renovation, the hotel reopened in March 1991 as the Ritz Carlton Huntington Hotel and Spa; the hotel completed a $19 million renovation in January 2006. Huntington left a prominent legacy with the Huntington Library, Art Collections and Botanical Gardens on his former estate in San Marino near Pasadena. Other legacies in California include the cities of Huntington Beach and Huntington Park, as well as Huntington Lake. In greater Los Angeles are the Huntington Hospital in Pasadena, Henry E. Huntington Middle School in San Marino, the grand boulevard, Huntington Drive, running eastbound from downtown Los Angeles.
Its landscaped central parkway was the right-of-way for the Norther
Downtown Los Angeles
Downtown Los Angeles is the central business district of Los Angeles, California, as well as a diverse residential neighborhood of some 58,000 people. A 2013 study found, it is part of Central Los Angeles. A heritage of the city's founding in 1781, Downtown Los Angeles today is composed of different areas ranging from a fashion district to Skid Row, it is the hub for the city's urban rail transit system and the Metrolink commuter rail system for Southern California. Banks, department stores, movie palaces at one time drew residents and visitors into the area, but the district declined economically and suffered a downturn for decades until its recent renaissance starting in the early 2000s. Old buildings are being modified for new uses, skyscrapers have been built. Downtown Los Angeles is known for its government buildings, parks and other public places; the earliest known settlements in the area of what is now Downtown Los Angeles was by the Tongva, a Native American people. European settlement arrived after Father Juan Crespí, a Spanish missionary charged with exploring sites for Catholic missions in California, noted in 1769 that the region had "all the requisites for a large settlement".
On September 4, 1781, the city was founded by a group of settlers who trekked north from present-day Mexico. Land speculation increased in the 1880s, which saw the population of the city explode from 11,000 in 1880 to nearly 100,000 by 1896. Infrastructure enhancements and the laying of a street grid brought development south of the original settlement into what is today the Civic Center and Historic Core neighborhoods. By 1920, the city's private and municipal rail lines were the most far-flung and most comprehensive in the world in mileage besting that of New York City. By this time, a steady influx of residents and aggressive land developers had transformed the city into a large metropolitan area, with DTLA at its center. Rail lines connected four counties with over 1,100 miles of track. During the early part of the 20th century, banking institutions clustered around South Spring Street, forming the Spring Street Financial District. Sometimes referred to as the "Wall Street of the West," the district held corporate headquarters for financial institutions including Bank of America and Merchants Bank, the Crocker National Bank, California Bank & Trust, International Savings & Exchange Bank.
The Los Angeles Stock Exchange was located on the corridor from 1929 until 1986 before moving into a new building across the Harbor Freeway. Commercial growth brought with it hotel construction—during this time period several grand hotels, the Alexandria, the Rosslyn, the Biltmore, were erected — and the need for venues to entertain the growing population of Los Angeles. Broadway became the nightlife and entertainment district of the city, with over a dozen theater and movie palaces built before 1932. Department stores opened flagship stores downtown, including The Broadway, Hamburger & Sons, May Company, JW Robinson's, Bullock's, serving a wealthy residential population in the Bunker Hill neighborhood. Numerous specialty stores flourished including those in the jewelry business which gave rise to the Downtown Jewelry District. Among these early jewelers included the Laykin Diamond Company and Harry Winston & Co. both of which found their beginnings in the Hotel Alexandria at Fifth and Spring streets.
The Los Angeles Union Passenger Terminal opened in May 1939, unifying passenger service among various local and long-distance passenger trains. It was built on a grand scale and would be one of the "last of the great railway stations" built in the United States. Following World War II, the development of the Los Angeles freeway network, increased automobile ownership led to decreased investment downtown. Many corporate headquarters dispersed to new suburbs or fell to mergers and acquisitions; the once-wealthy Bunker Hill neighborhood became a haven for low-income renters, its stately Victorian mansions turned into flophouses. From about 1930 onward, numerous old and historic buildings in the plaza area were demolished to make way for street-level parking lots, the high demand for parking making this more profitable than any other option that might have allowed preservation; the drastic reduction in the number of residents in the area further reduced the viability of streetfront businesses that would be able to attract pedestrians.
For most Angelenos, downtown became a drive-out destination. In an effort to combat blight and lure businesses back downtown, the city's Community Redevelopment Agency undertook the Bunker Hill Redevelopment Project in 1955, a massive clearance project that leveled homes and cleared land for future commercial skyscraper development; this period saw the clearing and upzoning of the entire neighborhood, as well as the shuttering of the Angels Flight funicular railway in 1969. Angels Flight resumed operation in 1996 for a period of five years, shutting down once again after a fatal accident in 2001. On March 15, 2010, the railway once again opened for passenger service following extensive upgrades to brake and safety systems. With Class A office space becoming available on Bunker Hill, many of DTLA's remaining financial corporations moved to the newer buildings, leaving the former Spring Street Financial District devoid of tenants above ground floor. Following the corporate headquarters' moving six blocks west, the large department stores on Broadway shuttered, culminating in the 1980s.
However, the Broadway theaters saw much use as Spanish-language movie houses during this time, beginning with the conve
Rancho Rodeo de las Aguas
Rancho Rodeo de las Aguas was a 4,539-acre land grant in present day Beverly Hills, Los Angeles County, California given to María Rita Quinteros Valdez de Villa in 1838. Rancho Rodeo de las Aguas, is named for the streams that emptied into the area from out of the canyons of the Santa Monica Mountains above it, the Cañada de las Aguas Frias and Cañada de los Encinos. Maria Rita Valdez was a granddaughter of Luis Quintero one of the original settlers of Los Angeles. Maria was married to Vicente Fernando Villa. With the cession of California to the United States following the Mexican–American War, the 1848 Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo provided that the land grants would be honored; as required by the Land Act of 1851, a claim for Rancho Rodeo de las Aguas was filed with the Public Land Commission in 1852, the grant was patented to Maria Rita Valdez at 4,449 acres in 1871. The rancho was sold in 1854 to Major Henry Hancock. Hancock sold his share to William Workman. In 1868 Edward Preuss, purchased over 3,600 acres for the development of a city to be known as the "Town of Santa Maria".
Lots were platted of about five acres each. The land next passed into the hands of Henry Hammel and Andrew H. Denker, owners of the United States Hotel at Main and Market Streets in Los Angeles, became "one vast field of lima beans", supplying the culinary needs of the owners' Hotel; the bean fields survived until 1900 when the land was sold to Burton E. Green of the Amalgamated Oil Company for oil development. After drilling many unproductive wells, they reorganized as the Rodeo Land and Water Company in 1906. Ranchos of Los Angeles County, California Rodeo Drive I think Mariá Rita Quinteros Valdez de Villa was painted by Ignacio Maria Barreda 18 century Exterior view of an adobe on the Hammel and Denker ranch Rancho Rodeo de Las Aguas in Beverly Hills, 1920
Antonio "Tony" Moreno was a Spanish-born American actor and film director of the silent film era and through the 1950s. Born in Madrid, Moreno emigrated to the United States at the age of fourteen and settled in Massachusetts, where he completed his education. Although he claimed to have attended Williston Seminary in Easthampton, the Archives of the school, now the Williston Northampton School, have no record of his having done so, he became a stage actor in regional theater productions. In 1912 he moved to Hollywood, California and he was signed to Biograph Studios and began his career in bit parts and as a movie extra, his film debut was in Iola's Promise. In 1914 Moreno began co-starring in a series of successful serials at Vitagraph opposite popular silent film actress Norma Talmadge; these appearances helped to increase Moreno's popularity with the nation's nascent filmgoers, by 1915 he was a regarded matinee idol, appearing opposite such successful actors as Tyrone Power, Sr. Gloria Swanson, Blanche Sweet, Pola Negri, Dorothy Gish.
Moreno was typecast in his earliest films as the "Latin Lover", as were other actors of the era with Latin roots, such as Ramón Novarro and Rudolph Valentino. These roles predate Valentino's famous breakthrough as a "Latin Lover" in the 1921 film The Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse. By the early 1920s Moreno joined film mogul Jesse Lasky's Famous Players and became one of the company's highest paid performers. In 1926 Moreno starred opposite Swedish acting legend Greta Garbo in The Temptress and the following year followed up with a starring role in the enormous box-office hit Clara Bow vehicle It. In 1923 Moreno married American heiress Daisy Canfield Danziger, moving to an estate known as Crestmount, now known as the Canfield-Moreno Estate; the union lasted 10 years and ended shortly before Canfield Danziger was killed in an automobile accident on February 23, 1933. With the advent of talkies in the late 1920s and early 1930s, Moreno's career began to falter, in part because of his heavy Spanish accent.
While still acting in English language films, Moreno began taking parts in Mexican films. During the early 1930s, Moreno directed several well-received Mexican films, among them is the 1932 drama Santa, hailed by film critics as one of the best Mexican films of the era. By the mid-1930s, Antonio Moreno began rebuilding his faltering Hollywood career by taking notable roles as a character actor. By the mid-1940s and throughout the 1950s, Moreno appeared in a number of well received roles, most notably, his 1954 role in the classic horror film Creature from the Black Lagoon and his 1955 role as Emilio Figueroa in film director John Ford's influential western epic The Searchers opposite John Wayne and Natalie Wood. Moreno retired from film in the late 1950s and died of heart failure in Beverly Hills, California, in 1967, his film career spanned more than four decades. In 1994, the Mexican magazine Somos published their list of "The 100 best movies of the cinema of Mexico" in its 100th edition and named the 1931 Moreno directed Santa its 67th choice.
For his contribution to the motion picture industry, Antonio Moreno was given a star on the legendary Hollywood Walk of Fame at 6651 Hollywood Blvd. Hollywood, United States. Bibliography"Antonio Moreno," The Clearfield Progress, August 26, 1920, page 15. "Antonio Moreno, Silent-Film Star," The New York Times, February 16, 1967. Bodeen, Dewitt. "Antonio Moreno," Films in Review, June–July, 1967. Menefee, David W; the First Male Stars: Men of the Silent Era. Albany: Bear Manor Media, 2007. "Public Pleased by Vitagraph’s Move to Return Antonio Moreno to Feature Films," The Moving Picture World. New York: Chalmers Publishing Company. December 25, 1920. Virginia, Violet. "Antonio Moreno of the Vitagraph Players," Motion Picture Magazine, December 1914. Pages 103-105. Antonio Moreno on IMDb Antonio Moreno at Silents Are Golden Some contemporary articles and interviews with Antonio Moreno Photographs and literature "Antonio Moreno". Find a Grave. Retrieved September 2, 2010
Mexican Eagle Petroleum Company
Compañía Mexicana de Petróleo El Águila SA, called in English the Mexican Eagle Oil Company or Mexican Eagle Petroleum Corporation, was a Mexican oil company in the 20th century. Sir Weetman Pearson, Bart. Founded the company in 1909 to develop his investments in the Mexican oil fields. Pearson's interests in Mexico had begun in 1889 when he won a contract from the government of Porfirio Díaz for his civil engineering company, S. Pearson and Sons Ltd, to build the Gran Canal in Mexico City; this was followed by contracts in 1895 to build a harbour at Veracruz and in 1896 to build the Tehuantepec Railway. Pearson diversified into mining, landholding and electrical utilities around Veracruz, he and the engineer F. S. Pearson founded the Mexico Power and Light Company, which provided Mexico City's first public electricity supply. Pearson's businesses and government contracts put him in a favourable position with members of the Díaz dictatorship. Oil production in Mexico was begun in 1901 by Henry Clay Pierce.
He was followed by a rival, Edward L. Doheny, in the same year. Pearson's land surveys in the vicinities of Pedregal and San Cristóbal for the route of the Tehuantepec Railway had reported oil seepage from the ground, so in April 1901 he ordered his manager in Mexico to secure prospecting options on "...all land for miles around". Pearson built a refinery and port facilities to handle the oil in 1905–06, but his company didn't make a major oil strike until 1908. In the same year one of Pearson's oil strikes caught fire and burned out of control for eight weeks, destroying the entire oil field. In 1909 Pearson founded the Compañía Mexicana de Petróleo El Aguila SA in Mexico to take over S. Pearson and Sons' oil interests; this followed Pearson's creation of Whitehall Securities Corporation Ltd. in the UK in 1908 to manage all of S. Pearson and Sons' investments outside the oil industry. Pearson's prospecting continued without success until 27 December 1910, when a well on the Gulf of Mexico coast between Veracruz and Tampico struck oil that flowed at a rate of 100,000 barrels per day.
This single well turned the fortunes of Pearson's oil business. Within a few years he was one of the other being Doheny. Other oil companies from the USA and Europe had entered the Mexican oil industry but Doheny and Pearson's companies remained pre-eminent until after the First World War. In 1911 the Mexican revolution overthrew the Díaz dictatorship that had favoured Pearson, ending the civil engineering contracts for which he had first become involved in Mexico. However, Pearson had exclusive rights to prospect for oil in several Mexican states and by 1914 the company 1,500,000 acres of prospecting rights, 175 miles of pipeline, two refineries and storage for seven million barrels of oil. By June 1913 Mexican Eagle was the largest company in the Pearson group, with net assets valued at £6.8 million. However, in December 1918 Pearson claimed in a letter to the UK Chancellor of the Exchequer, David Lloyd George, that Mexican Eagle was worth £8 million. Mexican Eagle was the largest contributor to the Pearson group's valuation in 1913 of £17 million, which made it the seventh largest business in the UK and among the 30 largest businesses in the World.
By 1919 the Pearson group was worth £29.6 million, of which in June of that year Mexican Eagle made up £13.4 million. To what extent this represents a growth in value must be considered against the degree of inflation that took place in the First World War. However, in 1919 the Pearson group's share value was £79.1 million, of which Mexican Eagle made up £62.6 million. This made Mexican Eagle the equal of Burmah Oil and far bigger than the Anglo-Persian Oil Company or Shell Transport and Trading. In 1911 Pearson declined an offer from the Texas Oil Company offered to buy his oil interests. In 1912 and 1913 he declined buyout bids from Royal Dutch Shell. and in 1913 and 1916 he declined bids from Standard Oil of New Jersey. By 1916 Pearson was keen to sell, but the UK Government persuaded him for strategic reasons not to do so. Pearson asked the UK Government to buy 50% of his oil interests, but it responded in 1917 by imposing restrictions that prevented him from transferring ownership as long as the war continued.
The Constitution of Mexico adopted in 1917 nationalised oil deposits. In October 1918, a month before the Armistice, Calouste Gulbenkian started negotiations with Pearson for Royal Dutch Shell to buy Mexican Eagle. On April 2, 1919 the Royal Dutch Petroleum Company and the "Shell" Transport and Trading Company jointly bought Mexican Eagle for US$75 million. Mexican Eagle was the dominant firm in the Mexican petroleum industry until March 18, 1938, when the government of Lázaro Cárdenas nationalized it, along with all other foreign-owned oil interests, to create Petróleos Mexicanos. El Aguila formally dissolved itself on May 24, 1963. Pearson started to acquire steam tankers to carry the oil. Armstrong Whitworth on the River Tyne launched SS San Cristobal in 1906 and Swan Hunter on Tyneside, launched SS San Antonio in 1909. Pearson bought SS James Brand, built by Armstrong Whitworth in 1893, renamed her San Bernardo. In 1912 Pearson founded the Eagle Oil Transport Company in the UK to take over his ships and carry Mexican Eagle's products and the Anglo-Mexican Petroleum Company in the UK to sell Mexican Eagle's products outside Mexico.
Eagle Oil Transport ordered 20 modern steam tankers at a cost of £3 million. Eagle Oil Transport lost a number of ships to enemy action in the First World War