Jules Joseph Lefebvre
Jules Joseph Lefebvre was a French figure painter and theorist. Lefebvre was born in Tournan-en-Brie, Seine-et-Marne, on 14 March 1836 and he entered the École nationale supérieure des Beaux-Arts in 1852 and was a pupil of Léon Cogniet. He won the prestigious Prix de Rome in 1861, between 1855 and 1898, he exhibited 72 portraits in the Paris Salon. In 1891, he became a member of the French Académie des Beaux-Arts and he was professor at the Académie Julian in Paris. Lefebvre is chiefly important as an excellent and sympathetic teacher who numbered many Americans among his 1500 or more pupils, who became an American Impressionist painter. Another pupil was the miniaturist Alice Beckington, many of his paintings are single figures of beautiful women. Among his best portraits were those of M. L. Reynaud, Lefebvre died in Paris on 24 February 1911. org 42 images by Jules Joseph Lefebvre Art Renewal Centre – Lefebvre Gallery Paintingiant art--Jules Joseph Lefebvre
Dedham /ˈdɛdəm/ is a town in and the county seat of Norfolk County, United States. The population was 24,729 at the 2010 census and it is located on Bostons southwest border. On the northwest it is bordered by Needham, on the southwest by Westwood, the town was first settled in 1635. Settled in 1635 by people from Roxbury and Watertown, Dedham was incorporated in 1636 and it became the county seat of Norfolk County when the county was formed from parts of Suffolk County on March 26,1793. When the Town was originally incorporated, the wanted to name it Contentment. The Massachusetts General Court overruled them and named the town after Dedham, Essex in England, the boundaries of the town at the time stretched to the Rhode Island border. At the first public meeting on August 15,1636, eighteen men signed the town covenant, in November 1798, David Brown led a group in Dedham protesting the federal government, they set up a liberty pole, as people had before the American Revolution. Brown was arrested in Andover but because he could not afford the $4,000 bail, Brown was tried in June 1799.
Although he wanted to plead guilty, Justice Samuel Chase urged him to name those who had helped him or subscribed to his writings in exchange for freedom, Brown refused, was fined $480, and sentenced to eighteen months in prison. It was the most severe sentence up to imposed under the Alien, Dedham is home to the Fairbanks House, the oldest surviving timber-frame house in the United States, scientifically dated to 1637. On January 1,1643, by vote, Dedham authorized the first taxpayer-funded public school. Its first schoolmaster, Rev. Ralph Wheelock, a Clare College graduate, was paid 20 pounds annually to instruct the youth of the community, descendants of these students would become presidents of Dartmouth College, Yale University and Harvard University. The first man-made canal in North America, Mother Brook, was created in Dedham in 1639 and it linked the Charles River to the Neponset River. Although both are slow-moving rivers, they are at different elevations, the difference in elevation made the canals current swift enough to power several local mills.
In 1818, though citizens were taxed for the support of ministers and other public teachers of religion, Dedham set a precedent toward the separation of church. Residents selected a different than that chosen by the church selectmen. The shift in power to the congregation led to the rise of the Congregational Churches, the local Endicott Estate burned to the ground in 1904 after the local volunteer fire department, responding to three separate fires burning simultaneously, reached the Endicott fire last. By the time arrived, only ashes remained
Etching is traditionally the process of using strong acid or mordant to cut into the unprotected parts of a metal surface to create a design in intaglio in the metal. In modern manufacturing, other chemicals may be used on other types of material, as a method of printmaking, it is, along with engraving, the most important technique for old master prints, and remains in wide use today. In a number of variants such as microfabrication etching and photochemical milling it is a crucial technique in much modern technology. In traditional pure etching, a plate is covered with a waxy ground which is resistant to acid. The artist scratches off the ground with an etching needle where he or she wants a line to appear in the finished piece. The échoppe, a tool with an oval section, is used for swelling lines. The plate is dipped in a bath of acid, technically called the mordant or etchant. The acid bites into the metal where it is exposed, leaving behind lines sunk into the plate, the remaining ground is cleaned off the plate.
The plate is inked all over, and the ink wiped off the surface, the plate is put through a high-pressure printing press together with a sheet of paper. The paper picks up the ink from the lines, making a print. The process can be repeated many times, typically several hundred impressions could be printed before the shows much sign of wear. The work on the plate can be added to by repeating the whole process, Etching has often been combined with other intaglio techniques such as engraving or aquatint. The process as applied to printmaking is believed to have been invented by Daniel Hopfer of Augsburg, Hopfer was a craftsman who decorated armour in this way, and applied the method to printmaking, using iron plates. Apart from his prints, there are two examples of his work on armour, a shield from 1536 now in the Real Armeria of Madrid. The switch to copper plates was made in Italy. On the other hand, the handling of the ground and acid need skill and experience, prior to 1100 AD, the New World Hohokam independently utilized the technique of acid etching in marine shell designs.
Jacques Callot from Nancy in Lorraine made important technical advances in etching technique and he developed the échoppe, a type of etching-needle with a slanting oval section at the end, which enabled etchers to create a swelling line, as engravers were able to do. Callot appears to have responsible for an improved, recipe for the etching ground
Freer Gallery of Art
The Freer Gallery of Art and the Arthur M. Sackler Gallery form the Smithsonian Institutions national museums of Asian art in the United States. The gallery is located on the side of the National Mall in Washington. The museum is open 364 days a year, and is administered by a staff with the Sackler Gallery. The galleries are among the most visited art museums in the world, the Freer houses over 26,000 objects spanning 6,000 years of history from the Neolithic to modern eras. In addition to Asian art, the Freer contains the famous Peacock Room by American artist James McNeill Whistler which serves as the centerpiece to the Freers American art collection. The museum offers tours to the public and presents a full schedule events for the public including films, symposia, performances. Over 11,000 objects from the Freer|Sackler collections are searchable and available online. The Freer was featured in the Google Art Project, which offers online viewers close-up views of selected items from the Freer, the gallery was founded by Detroit railroad-car manufacturer and self-taught connoisseur Charles Lang Freer.
He owned the largest collection of works by American artist James McNeill Whistler and became a patron, Whistler made it very clear to Freer that if he helped him to build the premier Whistler collection, that collection would have to be displayed in a city where tourists went. In 1908, Charles Moore, an aide to Michigan United States Senator, James McMillin. Moore became friends with Freer, who was director of the Michigan Car Company, travelers impressed by the beauty of the National Mall in Washington, D. C. can thank three Detroiters for their role in creating it. The mall was the brainchild of James McMillan, a Michigan United States senator, Charles Freer for his enormous donation to the Smithsonian, and Moore for carrying out the Washington mall concept. The Freer gift was accepted on behalf of the government by the Smithsonian Board of Regents in 1906, freer’s will, contained certain requirements that only objects from the permanent collection could be exhibited in the gallery, and that none of the art could be exhibited elsewhere.
Freer felt strongly that all of the museum’s holding should be accessible to scholars at all times. In addition, Freers bequest to the Smithsonian came with the proviso that he would execute full curatorial control over the collection until his death, the Smithsonian initially hesitated at the requirements but the intercession of President Theodore Roosevelt allowed for the project to proceed. The Freer Gallery possesses a letter from Roosevelt inviting Freer to visit him at the White House. Freer died before the art gallery was completed, construction of the gallery began in 1916 and was completed in 1921, after a delay due to World War I. On May 9,1923, the Freer Gallery of Art was opened to the public, designed by American architect and landscape planner Charles A. Platt, the Freer is an Italian Renaissance-style building inspired by Freers visits to palazzos in Italy
Grosse Pointe, Michigan
Grosse Pointe is a waterfront city adjacent to Detroit in Wayne County in the U. S. state of Michigan. The municipality covers just over one mile and had a population of 5,421 at the 2010 census. It is bordered on the west by Grosse Pointe Park, on the north by Detroit, on the east by Grosse Pointe Farms, Grosse Pointe is about eight miles east of downtown Detroit, accessible by Jefferson Avenue or several other cross streets. Grosse Pointe is one of five similarly named municipalities in northeastern Wayne County, together with The Park and The Farms, the City comprises part of the southern Pointes, which are older and more densely populated than the northern Pointes. Grosse Pointe, Grosse Pointe Farms, and Grosse Pointe Park make up the Grosse Pointe South High School district, Grosse Pointe was incorporated as a village in 1880, but at that time included what is now Grosse Pointe Farms. The community was divided along its present lines in 1893 over issues of allowing the sale of alcohol and it was incorporated as a city in 1934.
According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has an area of 2.25 square miles. The water is part of Lake St. Clair, the street layout of Grosse Pointe is basically a grid inside of its Cadieux and Fisher Road boundaries. Inside this small rectangle, most blocks contain rows of homes built between 1910 and 1950, on parcels 50 feet wide on average. Some streets offer large backyards, such as Washington and Lakeland, in some areas homes are configured in a traditionally urban, close-together fashion, while other nearby blocks may offer yards up to 150 feet wide. Home sizes and styles vary widely, from 1,500 to 12,000 square feet, most of the largest homes are within a few blocks of the lakefront, there are several blocks of mansions south of Kercheval Avenue. Predominant architecture includes the neo-Georgian, Tudor revival, Dutch Colonial, some Victorian homes and traditional bungalow homes can be found, mostly just north and south of the Village retail district. Some blocks, generally just south of the Village, have townhouses, there are retail and low-rise office buildings along Kercheval Avenue in the Village district, on Fisher Road near Grosse Pointe South High School, and along Mack Avenue bordering Detroit.
As of the census of 2010, there were 5,421 people,2,236 households, the population density was 5,114.2 inhabitants per square mile. There were 2,446 housing units at a density of 2,307.5 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 93. 2% White,3. 3% African American,0. 1% Native American,1. 6% Asian,0. 1% Pacific Islander,0. 2% from other races, and 1. 5% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1. 8% of the population,30. 2% of all households were made up of individuals and 14% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.42 and the family size was 3.06
Exposition Universelle (1900)
The style that was universally present in the Exposition was Art Nouveau. The staging of the first International Exhibition in 1855 was motivated by a desire to re-establish pride, the succession of exhibitions followed the same theme, the regeneration of nationality after war. Eight years before the launch of the 1900 Paris Exposition Universelle, countries from around the world were invited by France to showcase their achievements and lifestyles, the Exposition Universelle was a uniting and learning experience. It presented the opportunity for foreigners to realize the similarities between nations as well as their unique differences, new cultures were experienced and an overall better understanding of the values each country had to offer was gained. The learning atmosphere aided in attempts to increase cultural tolerance, deemed necessary after a period of war, the early announcement and the massively positive response disenchanted the interest that had been circling around the first German International Exposition.
It is suspected that the Exposition Universelle did not do as well financially as expected because the public did not have the funds to participate in the fair. The 1900 Paris Exposition Universelle was so expensive to organize and run that the cost per visitor ended up being about six hundred more than the price of admission. The exhibition lost a total of 82,000 francs after six months in operation. Many Parisians had invested money in shares sold to raise money for the event, with a much larger expected turnout the exhibit sites had gone up in value. Continuing to pay rent for the sites became increasingly hard for concessionaires as they were receiving fewer customers than anticipated, the concessionaires went on strike, which ultimately resulted in the closure of a large part of the exposition. To resolve the matter, the concessionaires were given a refund of the rent they had paid. The financial consequences of the 1900 Exposition Universelle were devastating for many Parisians, the Exposition Universelle was where talking films and escalators were first publicized, and where Campbells Soup was awarded a gold medal.
At the exposition Rudolf Diesel exhibited his engine, running on peanut oil. Brief films of excerpts from opera and ballet were apparently the first films exhibited publicly with projection of both image and recorded sound, the exposition featured many panoramic paintings and extensions of the panorama technique, such as the Cinéorama and Trans-Siberian Railway Panorama. The centrepiece of the Palais de lOptique was the 1. 25-metre-diameter Great Exposition Refractor and this telescope was the largest refracting telescope at that time. The optical tube assembly was 60 meters long and 1.5 meters in diameter, light from the sky was sent into the tube by a movable 2-meter mirror. Partly organized by Booker Washington and W. E. B, du Bois, this exhibition aimed at showing African Americans positive contributions to American society. Many of the buildings constructed for the Exposition Universelle were demolished after the conclusion of the exposition, many of the buildings were built on a framework of wood, and covered with staff, which was formed into columns, walls, etc
Connecticut College is a private liberal arts college located in New London, Connecticut. It is a residential, four-year undergraduate institution, with nearly all of its approximately 1,900 students living on campus. Students choose courses from 41 majors, including an interdisciplinary, self-designed major, forbes ranked Connecticut College 81st in its 2016 overall list, 45th in the Northeast, 68th among private colleges, and 39th among liberal arts schools. Forbes ranked Connecticut College 58th in Grateful Grads, U. S. News & World Report ranked the school 45th among the top liberal arts colleges in 2014. The college competes athletically in the New England Small College Athletic Conference, the college was chartered in 1911 in response to Wesleyan Universitys decision to stop admitting women. Elizabeth C. Wright and other Wesleyan alumnae convinced others to found this new college, to that end, the institution was founded as the Connecticut College for Women. Financial assistance from the city of New London, its residents, the land upon which the college sits was a dairy farm owned by Charles P.
Alexander of Waterford. He died in 1904 and his wife Harriet Alexander died in 1911, according to an October 12,1935 article in the Hartford Daily Times, marking the Colleges 20th anniversary, On September 27,1915 the college opened its doors to students. The entering class was made up of 99 freshmen students, candidates for degrees, and 52 special students, a fine faculty of 23 members had been engaged and a library of 6,000 volumes had been gathered together. It was a start for this new undertaking. The College became co-educational in 1969, President Charles E. Shain cited in his announcement speech that recent evidence showed that women were becoming uninterested in attending womens colleges. Admission to the college is considered selective by U. S. News & World Report. In the 2016 college rankings of U. S. News & World Report and these figures represent a significant decline in the colleges traditional ranking within the top 25 liberal arts colleges in the country in the 1990s and early 2000s.
Starting with the class of 2020, students at Connecticut College will be encouraged to follow a new general education curriculum called Connections. Connecticut College has a history of research work and students are encouraged to make conference presentations. Graduating seniors are awarded prestigious fellowships and grants such as the U. S. Connecticut College has been recognized as a top producer of Fulbright awardees, producing, in 2012, the College had 179 full-time professors in Academic Year 2013-14, 92% hold a doctorate or equivalent. The student-faculty ratio is about 9 to 1, the main campus has three residential areas
New York City
The City of New York, often called New York City or simply New York, is the most populous city in the United States. With an estimated 2015 population of 8,550,405 distributed over an area of about 302.6 square miles. Located at the tip of the state of New York. Home to the headquarters of the United Nations, New York is an important center for international diplomacy and has described as the cultural and financial capital of the world. Situated on one of the worlds largest natural harbors, New York City consists of five boroughs, the five boroughs – Brooklyn, Manhattan, The Bronx, and Staten Island – were consolidated into a single city in 1898. In 2013, the MSA produced a gross metropolitan product of nearly US$1.39 trillion, in 2012, the CSA generated a GMP of over US$1.55 trillion. NYCs MSA and CSA GDP are higher than all but 11 and 12 countries, New York City traces its origin to its 1624 founding in Lower Manhattan as a trading post by colonists of the Dutch Republic and was named New Amsterdam in 1626.
The city and its surroundings came under English control in 1664 and were renamed New York after King Charles II of England granted the lands to his brother, New York served as the capital of the United States from 1785 until 1790. It has been the countrys largest city since 1790, the Statue of Liberty greeted millions of immigrants as they came to the Americas by ship in the late 19th and early 20th centuries and is a symbol of the United States and its democracy. In the 21st century, New York has emerged as a node of creativity and entrepreneurship, social tolerance. Several sources have ranked New York the most photographed city in the world, the names of many of the citys bridges, tapered skyscrapers, and parks are known around the world. Manhattans real estate market is among the most expensive in the world, Manhattans Chinatown incorporates the highest concentration of Chinese people in the Western Hemisphere, with multiple signature Chinatowns developing across the city. Providing continuous 24/7 service, the New York City Subway is one of the most extensive metro systems worldwide, with 472 stations in operation.
Over 120 colleges and universities are located in New York City, including Columbia University, New York University, and Rockefeller University, during the Wisconsinan glaciation, the New York City region was situated at the edge of a large ice sheet over 1,000 feet in depth. The ice sheet scraped away large amounts of soil, leaving the bedrock that serves as the foundation for much of New York City today. Later on, movement of the ice sheet would contribute to the separation of what are now Long Island and Staten Island. The first documented visit by a European was in 1524 by Giovanni da Verrazzano, a Florentine explorer in the service of the French crown and he claimed the area for France and named it Nouvelle Angoulême. Heavy ice kept him from further exploration, and he returned to Spain in August and he proceeded to sail up what the Dutch would name the North River, named first by Hudson as the Mauritius after Maurice, Prince of Orange
Phillips Academy Andover is a co-educational university-preparatory school for boarding and day students in grades 9–12, along with a post-graduate year. The school is located in Andover, United States,25 miles north of Boston, Phillips Academy has 1,122 students, and is a selective school, accepting 13% of applicants. It is part of the Ten Schools Admissions Organization as well as the G20 Schools Group, originally a boarding school for boys, it turned coeducational in 1973, the year in which it merged with its neighbor girls school Abbot Academy. Phillips Academys endowment stood around $800 million in June 2011, the fourth-highest of any American secondary school. On November 14,2012, John G. Palfrey, Jr. Henry N. Ess III Professor of Law and Vice Dean for Library and Information Resources at Harvard Law School, was named the 15th Head of School. Phillips Academy admitted only boys until the school coeducational in 1973, the year of Phillips Academys merger with Abbot Academy. Abbot Academy, founded in 1828, was the first incorporated school for girls in New England, then-headmaster Theodore Sizer oversaw the merger.
Andover traditionally educated its students for Yale, just as Phillips Exeter Academy educated its students for Harvard, the Phillipian was first published on July 28,1857, and has been published regularly since 1878. It retains financial and editorial independence from Phillips Academy, having completed a $500,000 endowment drive in 2014, students comprise the editorial board and make all decisions for the paper, consulting with two faculty advisors at their own discretion. The Philomathean Society is the oldest high school debate society in the nation, Phillips Academy runs a five-week summer session for approximately 600 students entering grades 8 through 12. The two schools maintain a rivalry. The football teams have met every year since 1878, making it the oldest high school rivalry in the country. In 1882, the first high school teams were formed at Phillips Academy, Phillips Exeter Academy. Several figures from the period are associated with the school. George Washington spoke at the school in its first year, John Hancock signed the schools articles of incorporation.
The great seal of the school was designed by Paul Revere, the Andover Theological Seminary was independent from Phillips Academy but shared the same board of directors. In 1908, the seminary departed Phillips Academy, leaving behind its key buildings, academic building Pearson Hall, small portions of Andovers campus were laid out by Frederick Law Olmsted, designer of Central Park and himself a graduate of the school. Reveres design of the seal incorporated bees, a beehive
Dennis Miller Bunker
Dennis Miller Bunker was an American painter and innovator of American Impressionism. His mature works include both brightly colored paintings and dark, finely drawn portraits and figures. One of the major American painters of the late 19th century, Bunker was born in New York City to Matthew Bunker, the secretary-treasurer of the Union Ferry Company, and his wife, Mary Anne Eytinge Bunker. In 1876 he enrolled at the Art Students League of New York, by 1880 he was participating in the annual exhibitions of the National Academy, the American Watercolor Society, and the Brooklyn Art Association. In 1881 Bunker exhibited a watercolor at the Boston Art Club and he subsequently exhibited both oil paintings and watercolors at the Club in 1882 and 1883. In 1886, the American printmaker Louis Prang exhibited two of Bunkers works from his own collection at the Club, in 1882 Bunker left New York to study at the École nationale supérieure des Beaux-Arts in Paris, most notably with Jean-Léon Gérôme. The following year the three artists summered and painted in Brittany, by years end Bunker had returned to New York City.
In 1885 Bunker was elected to the Society of American Artists and he lived and taught in the art school building. Concurrently Bunker was given his first solo exhibition, at Noyes, despite these successes, Bunker was homesick for France, and wrote of feeling supremely ridiculous in this atmosphere of wealth and respectability. In that year he met Isabella Stewart Gardner, who would prove to be a valuable friend, Bunker painted portraits during the winter of 1887, and spent the summer in Newburyport, Massachusetts with artist friends, including Henry Oliver Walker. In November he met John Singer Sargent in Boston, during the latters first working trip to America, in 1888 Bunker undertook a number of portrait commissions of important Bostonians, including members of the Gardner family, Samuel Endicott Peabody, and J. Montgomery Sears. Bunker spent the summer in England, where he joined Sargent and his family in Calcot, painting during the day, during the spring of 1889 Bunker resigned from the Cowles Art School.
At a reception he met Eleanor Hardy, whom he would marry the following year, in the summer Bunker stayed at a boarding house in Medfield and enjoyed his most productive season of painting. In the fall he returned to New York, writing daily to Hardy in Boston, in 1890 Bunker first exhibited his impressionist landscapes at the St. Botolph Club in Boston. He received an offer to teach at the Metropolitan Museum of Art, in June he visited the art colony at Cornish, New Hampshire, and in July returned to paint further at Medfield. On October 2 Bunker married Eleanor Hardy in Boston, the couple moved to New York. Returning to Boston to celebrate Christmas with the Hardy family, Bunker fell ill, on December 28 he died of heart failure, probably caused by cerebro-spinal meningitis. He was Buried at Milton Cemetery, Milton, MA and his tombstone was designed by his friends Stanford White, see here and other friends organized a memorial exhibition at the St. Botolph Club, held in 1891
Lake Forest, Illinois
Lake Forest is a city located in Lake County, United States. As of the 2010 census it had a population of 19,375, the city is along the shore of Lake Michigan, and is a part of the Chicago metropolitan area and the North Shore. Lake Forest was founded around Lake Forest College and was out as a town in 1857 as a stop for travelers making their way south to Chicago. The Lake Forest City Hall, designed by Charles Sumner Frost, was completed in 1898 and originally housed the department, the Lake Forest Library. Lake Forest is located in the North Shore area of Chicago, according to the 2010 census, Lake Forest has a total area of 17.246 square miles, of which 17.18 square miles is land and 0.066 square miles is water. The Potawatomi inhabited Lake County before money and violence pushed them away in 1836, landscape architects Frederick Law Olmsted and Jens Jensen designed projects in Lake Forest. Market Square, designed by Howard Van Doren Shaw, was completed in 1916 as a center for Lake Forest.
The secluded style of Lake Forest was no accident, country clubs became important centers of social activity in Lake Forests early years, and the Onwentsia Club was, in the words of one writer, the premiere social and sporting club in the Midwest. After-dinner entertainment included a minstrel show, one of Lake Forests most notable features is its virgin prairies and other nature preserves. In 1967, a group of 12 long-time residents of Lake Forest formed a conservation organization. In the next 38 years, the managed to acquire over 700 acres within the city limits. Preserved in perpetuity are wetlands, original pre-1830 prairie, the Ragdale Foundation, an artists community and residence, is located in Lake Forest. Formerly Howard Van Doren Shaws summer retreat and built in 1897, in 1992, Lake Forest gained national attention when it attempted to ban the sale of offensive music to anyone under the age of 18. City council members used existing ordinances against obscenity—defined in the codes as morbid interest in nudity, mayor Charles Clarke stated, If they sell an obscene tape to somebody underage, we will prosecute.
The person who came up most frequently in discussions of obscene content was Ice-T, Lake Forest has been named a Tree City USA by the National Arbor Day Foundation in recognition of its commitment to community forest. As of 2006, Lake Forest had received this honor for 26 years. The actor Mr. T notably angered the town by cutting more than 100 oak trees on his estate. Commercial development in Lake Forest is focused in three areas, two of which have railway stations
The Salon, or rarely Paris Salon, beginning in 1667 was the official art exhibition of the Académie des Beaux-Arts in Paris. Between 1748 and 1890 it was arguably the greatest annual or biennial art event in the Western world, at the 1761 Salon, thirty-three painters, nine sculptors, and eleven engravers contributed. From 1881 onward, it has been managed by the Société des Artistes Français, in 1667, the royally sanctioned French institution of art patronage, the Académie royale de peinture et de sculpture, held its first semi-public art exhibit at the Salon Carré. The Salons original focus was the display of the work of recent graduates of the École des Beaux-Arts, exhibition at the Salon de Paris was essential for any artist to achieve success in France for at least the next 200 years. Exhibition in the Salon marked a sign of royal favor, in 1725, the Salon was held in the Palace of the Louvre, when it became known as Salon or Salon de Paris. In 1737, the exhibitions, held from 18 August 1737 to 5 September 1737 at the Grand Salon of the Louvre and they were held, at first and biennially, in odd-numbered years.
They would start on the feast day of St. Louis, once made regular and public, the Salons status was never seriously in doubt. In 1748 a jury of awarded artists was introduced, from this time forward, the influence of the Salon was undisputed. The Salon exhibited paintings floor-to-ceiling and on every inch of space. The jostling of artwork became the subject of other paintings. Printed catalogues of the Salons are primary documents for art historians, critical descriptions of the exhibitions published in the gazettes mark the beginning of the modern occupation of art critic. The French revolution opened the exhibition to foreign artists, the vernissage of opening night was a grand social occasion, and a crush that gave subject matter to newspaper caricaturists like Honoré Daumier. Charles Baudelaire, Denis Diderot and others wrote reviews of the Salons, the 1848 revolution liberalized the Salon. The amount of refused works was greatly reduced, the increasingly conservative and academic juries were not receptive to the Impressionist painters, whose works were usually rejected, or poorly placed if accepted.
The Salon opposed the Impressionists shift away from traditional painting styles, in 1863 the Salon jury turned away an unusually high number of the submitted paintings. An uproar resulted, particularly from regular exhibitors who had been rejected, in order to prove that the Salons were democratic, Napoleon III instituted the Salon des Refusés, containing a selection of the works that the Salon had rejected that year. It opened on 17 May 1863, marking the birth of the avant-garde, the Impressionists held their own independent exhibitions in 1874,1876,1877,1879,1880,1881,1882 and 1886. In 1881, the government withdrew official sponsorship from the annual Salon, in December 1890, the leader of the Société des Artistes Français, William-Adolphe Bouguereau, propagated the idea that Salon should be an exhibition of young, not-yet awarded, artists