click links in text for more info
SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Charles Cros

Charles Cros or Émile-Hortensius-Charles Cros was a French poet and inventor. He was born in Fabrezan, France, 35 km to the East of Carcassonne. Cros was a well-regarded poet and humorous writer; as an inventor, he was interested in the fields of transmitting graphics by telegraph and making photographs in color, but he is best known for being the first person to conceive a method for reproducing recorded sound, an invention he named the Paleophone. Charles Cros died in Paris at the age of 45. In 1860 Cros began studies in medicine, but he soon abandoned them for a life of literary and scientific pursuits. In 1869 he published a theory of color photography in which he proposed that a single scene could be photographed through glass filters colored green and orange; the three negatives obtained through those filters could be developed to produce positive impressions that contained varying amounts of red and blue. The three positive impressions, when superimposed on one another would recompose the original colors of the photographed scene.

Cros's proposals, which anticipated the subtractive method of modern photography, were similar to more influential ideas advanced about the same time by Louis Ducos du Hauron. The same day, May 7, 1869, Charles Cros and Louis Ducos du Hauron presented their method of creating color photographs to the French Society of Photography, they had not been in communication beforehand and each knew nothing about the other's research. Cros ended up conceding the invention to Ducos Du Hauron, despite having deposited a sealed paper at the French Academy of Sciences on December 2, 1867. Ducos du Hauron had patented his ideas on November 28, 1868 a full year but claimed to have written an unpublished paper on the subject in 1862. Cros is most famous as the man who but not quite, invented the phonograph; as far as is known, no one before him had thought of a practical way to reproduce sound from a recording of airborne sound waves. He gave the Greek name'Paleophone' to his invention. On April 30, 1877 he submitted a sealed envelope containing a letter to the Academy of Sciences in Paris explaining his proposed method.

The letter stated in French, "Un index léger est solidaire du centre de figure d'une membrane vibrante. The English translation is one close to this: "A lightweight armature is fixed to the center of the face of a vibrating membrane; this surface is integral with a disc driven by a double movement of rotation and linear progression. The system is reversible: when the tip follows the furrow the membrane restores the original acoustic signal; the letter was read in public on December 3 following. In his letter, after having shown that his method consisted of detecting an oscillation of a membrane and using the tracing to reproduce the oscillation with respect to its duration and intensity, Cros added that a cylindrical form for the receiving apparatus seemed to him to be the most practical, as it allowed for the graphic inscription of the vibrations by means of a fine-threaded screw. An article on the Paleophone was published in "la semaine du Clergé" on October 10, 1877, written by l'Abbé Leblanc.

Cros proposed metal for both engraving tool attached to the diaphragm and receiving material for durability. Before Cros had a chance to follow up on this idea or attempt to construct a working model, Thomas Alva Edison introduced his first working phonograph in the US. Edison used a cylinder covered in tinfoil for his first phonograph, patenting this method for reproducing sound on January 15, 1878. Edison and Cros did not know of each other's work in advance. Cros was convinced that pinpoints of light observed on Mars and Venus high clouds illuminated by the sun, were the lights of large cities on those planets, he spent years petitioning the French government to build a giant mirror that could be used to communicate with the Martians and Venusians by burning giant lines on the deserts of those planets. He was never convinced that the Martians were not a proven fact, nor that the mirror he wanted was technically impossible to build. In the early 1870s Cros had published with Mallarmé, Villiers and Verlaine in the short-lived weekly Renaissance littéraire et artistique, edited by Emile Blémont.

His poem The Kippered Herring inspired Ernest Coquelin to create what he called monologues, short theatrical pieces whose format was copied by numerous imitators. The piece, translated as The Salt Herring, was illustrated by Edward Gorey. Solution générale du problème de la photographie des couleurs Le Coffret de santal Plainte Le Fleuve La Vision du Grand Canal des Deux Mers Le Collier de griffes Charles Cros: Collected Monologues Translated by Doug Skinner Upside-Down Stories Translated by Doug Skinner L'Académie Charles Cros, the French equivalent of the US Recording Academy, is named in his honor. Cros was a member of the group known as the hydropathes which existed around the period 1878–1881. Charles Cros, played by Christopher Chaplin, appears in the film Total Eclipse, about the lives of Paul Verlaine and Arthur Rimbaud. Cros is seen for a few seconds at the Le Chat Noir in Paris, a café which opened in 1881 and had become the home for the avant-garde art scene o

Stratopedarches

Stratopedarchēs, sometimes Anglicized as Stratopedarch, was a Greek term used with regard to high-ranking military commanders from the 1st century BC on, becoming a proper office in the 10th-century Byzantine Empire. It continued to be employed as a designation, a proper title, of commanders-in-chief until the 13th century, when the title of megas stratopedarchēs or Grand Stratopedarch appeared; this title was awarded to senior commanders and officials, while the ordinary stratopedarchai were henceforth low-ranking military officials. The term first appears in the late 1st century BC in the Hellenistic Near East, its origin is unclear, but it is used as a translation, in some inscriptions, for the contemporary Roman legionary post of praefectus castrorum. Josephus uses the term to refer to the quartermaster-general of all camps, while Dionysius of Halicarnassus used it to refer to the role of a primus pilus in a legion that had lost its commander, it occurs in the Bible, where it has been interpreted as referring to the praetorian prefect, the commander of the camp and garrison of the Praetorian Guard in Rome, or the subordinate officials praefectus peregrinorum and princeps castrorum.

From the 1st century AD, it was used in a broader sense as a literary term to refer to generals, i.e. as a synonym of the older title stratēgos. Thus in the 4th century, the bishop and historian Eusebius writes of the "stratopedarchēs, whom the Romans call dux". In the early 5th century, Ardabur was called "stratopedarchēs of both forces" by Olympiodorus of Thebes, while the acts of the Council of Chalcedon refer to Zeno, "patrikios and stratopedarchēs of both forces of the East"; this is an obvious translation of the Latin term magister utriusque militiae as the contemporary historian Eunapius records that the stratopedarchēs was "the greatest of offices". Other Greek-language authors translate Ardabur's title more with stratēlatēs or stratēgos; the German historian Albert Vogt suggested that the stratopedarchai were military intendants, responsible for army supplies and managing the fortified assembly bases, the mitata. However, as the Byzantinist Rodolphe Guilland commented, references to a stratopedarchēs are rare before the 10th century, always seem to be a different way of referring—often anachronistically—to a magister militum, or a thematic stratēgos.

Such references exist to emperor Jovian, a general before his rise to the throne, by Theophanes the Confessor. 650, by Theophanes. A prōtospatharios Constantine, whose seal mentions him as a stratopedarchēs, can not be further identified. In the middle Byzantine period, the term stratopedon came to signify more the army on campaign, rather than the camp itself; the term acquired a technical meaning in 967, when Emperor Nikephoros II Phokas named the eunuch Peter as stratopedarchēs before sending him with an army to Cilicia. The Escorial Taktikon, written a few years shows the existence of two stratopedarchai, one of the East and one of the West; this arrangement parallels that of the two domestikoi tōn scholōn, a fact that led Nicolas Oikonomides to suggest that the post was created as a substitute of the latter office, barred to eunuchs. During the 11th and 12th centuries, this precise arrangement is no longer in evidence; the title megas stratopedarchēs was instituted c. 1255 by the Emperor Theodore II Laskaris for his chief minister and confidante, George Mouzalon.

Theodore II states in a decree that he "established the dignity anew", but no other holder of the office is known before that time. The mid-14th century Book of Offices of pseudo-Kodinos places the megas stratopedarchēs as the ninth-most senior official of the state below the Emperor, ranking between the prōtostratōr and the megas primmikērios. Kodinos reports that he was "supervisor of the provisioning of the army, food and all necessities". In reality, during the Palaiologan period the stratopedarchēs was most an honorific court title, did not entail an active military command. Like many other titles in the Palaiologan period, the post could be held by two people simultaneously. According to Pseudo-Kodinos, the ceremonial costume of the megas stratopedarchēs was identical to the offices superior to it: a rich silk kabbadion tunic, a golden-red skiadion hat decorated with embroideries in the klapōton style, without veil, or a domed skaranikon hat, again in red and gold and decorated with golden wire, with a portrait of the emperor standing in front, another of him enthroned in the rear.

Only his staff of office differed, with all the knobs except the topmost in silver, golden engraved knots. Pseudo-Kodinos further reports the existence of four subordinate stratopedarchai, occupying the 65th to 68th rank in the imperial hierarchy respectively; these were: The stratopedarchēs of the monokaballoi. Kodinos explains th

Ray Meyer

Raymond Joseph Meyer was an American men's collegiate basketball coach from Chicago, Illinois. He was well known for coaching at DePaul University from 1942 to 1984. Meyer coached DePaul to 21 post-season appearances. In total, Meyer recorded 37 winning seasons and twelve 20-win seasons, including seven straight from 1978 to 1984. Two Meyer-coached teams reached the Final Four, in 1945, Meyer led DePaul past Bowling Green to capture the National Invitation Tournament, the school's only post-season title. Meyer coached a College All-Star team that played a coast-to-coast series against the Harlem Globetrotters for 11 years. One of his best players was George Mikan, a game-changing player and basketball's first great "big man". Meyer recruited Mikan from Archbishop Quigley Preparatory Seminary, a school Meyer had himself earlier attended. Other top players coached by Meyer include former NBA players Terry Cummings. During Meyer's tenure the basketball rivalry between DePaul and Loyola reached an high level.

Meyer's great-great nephew, Mike Starkman, played basketball for Loyola as a walk-on. Meyer was a much-beloved figure in Chicago, is a member of the Naismith Memorial Basketball Hall of Fame, he was succeeded as DePaul coach by his son, who led the team for several more seasons, but less than had his father. Meyer ran a summer basketball camp near Three Lakes in northern Wisconsin for many years. Chicagoland Sports Hall of Fame List of college men's basketball coaches with 600 wins List of NCAA Division I Men's Final Four appearances by coach Ray Meyer at the Naismith Memorial Basketball Hall of Fame

Charles Vyvyan

Major General Charles Gerard Courtenay Vyvyan, is a retired British Army officer and the current Gentleman Usher of the Scarlet Rod. Educated at Winchester College and Balliol College, Vyvyan was commissioned into the Royal Green Jackets in 1967. After a two-year secondment to the Sultan of Oman's Land Forces in the mid-1970s, he became commanding officer of 1st Battalion Royal Green Jackets in 1984, Commander 3rd Infantry Brigade in 1988 and Deputy Chief of Staff at Headquarters UK Land Forces in 1994, he went on to be Head of the British Defence Staff and Defence Attaché in Washington, D. C. in 1997 before retiring in 2000. Vyvyan became Gentleman Usher of the Scarlet Rod in 2006

StreetStrider

StreetStrider is the brand name for a mobile elliptical trainer. The StreetStrider consists of a T-shaped lower frame to which two front wheels and a rear wheel containing a drive assembly are attached, an upright frame to which two reciprocating arm levers are attached. Two elongated foot platforms on either side of the lower frame are attached to cranks as part of the drive assembly, which, as with bicycle drivetrain systems includes a hub, a rotating axle, an internal hub gear system translating the axle rotation to the hub; the StreetStrider drive assembly is either chainless direct drive, depending on model. The lower end of each arm lever is attached to the front end of each foot platform, which, by connection in the rear to the rotating crank arm and in the front to the pivoting arm lever, moves in an elliptical path; the device includes a leaning mechanism for steering, as well as brakes and multiple gearing. It was developed by David W. Kraus; the StreetStrider duplicates the motion of a stationary elliptical trainer in a mobile device.

The rider achieves a full-body weight-bearing low-impact high-cardiovascular workout while moving outdoors. With a branded trainer stand, adult StreetStrider models can be fashioned into stationary elliptical trainers, enabling indoor use during inclement weather; the StreetStrider can be used for physical fitness, weight loss, physical therapy, human-powered transport, outdoor adventure. ElliptiGO

Islamic Liberation Front of Patani

The Islamic Liberation Front of Patani, until 1986 known as the National Liberation Front of Patani is a militant Islamic separatist movement based in northern Malaysia and with a history of operations in the South Thailand insurgency. The group was formed in 1959 by Tengku Abdul Jalal, aka Adul na Saiburi, is reputed to be one of the first armed insurgent outfits in the Pattani area; the group had its base in Southern Thailand. The BNPP was active in the 1970s and 1980s, it renamed itself to "Islamic Front for the Liberation of Pattani" in 1986. After a period of dormancy, it was revived in 2002; the renewed group has reduced its nationalistic emphasis and expanded its hard-line Islamic politico-religious goals. The political wing of the group participates in Malaysian state-level politics. South Thailand insurgency List of paramilitary groups